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ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

PRESIDENT AND TREASURER 

TO THE 

TRUSTEES 

WITH ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTS 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

JUNE 30, I923 



NEW YORK 
I924 




a?- 



CONTENTS 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF COL UMBIA 
UNIVERSITY TO THE TRUSTEES 

PAGE 

Introduction i 

The Year 1922-1923 1 

The University and Public Service 3 

Degree of Doctor of Law 5 

Protection of Scholarship 10 

Work in Social Science 13 

Problems of Rural Life 15 

Building Program 17 

Baker Field 19 

University Finance 20 

Deaths of University Officers 25 

Tabular Statements 26 

The Site 27 

Teaching Staff 28 

Student Enrollment 28 

Resident Students 29 

Degrees Conferred 30 

REPORTS TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 

The Dean of Columbia College 31 

The Dean of the Faculty of Law 43 

The Dean of the Faculty of Medicine ., . 60 



IV CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Director of the Institute of Cancer Research . . 108 
The Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science . . . .114 
The Dean of the Faculties of Political Science, Philoso- 
phy and Pure Science 127 

The Director of the School of Architecture 135 

The Director of the School of Journalism 142 

The Dean of Barnard College 148 

The Dean of Teachers College 157 

The Director of the School of Education 164 

The Director of the School of Practical Arts . . . .169 

The Dean of the College of Pharmacy . 174 

The Director of the Summer Session 178 

The Director of University Extension 185 

The Director of the School of Business 198 

The Director of the School of Dental and Oral Surgery 206 

The Director of University Admissions 209 

The University Medical Officer 219 

The Secretary 226 



Appendices to Report of Secretary: 

1. Statistics Regarding the Teaching and Ad- 
ministrative Staff 233 

2. Report of the Appointments Office .... 252 

3. The Scope and Functions of the Columbia 
University Appointments Office 260 

4. Report of the Director of Earl Hall . . .289 



CONTENTS V 

PAGE 

5. Report of the Chairman of the Board of 

Student Representatives 293 

The Registrar 302 

The Acting Librarian 357 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER TO THE 

TRUSTEES 375 

Financial Reports of Affiliated Institutions 

Barnard College 507 

Teachers College 5 l 7 

College of Pharmacy 523 

Vanderbilt Clinic and Sloane Hospital for Women . . 527 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

PRESIDENT OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

To the Trustees: 

The Annual Report prescribed by the Statutes of the 
University is submitted herewith, together with the re- 
ports of the chief administrative officers. The statements 
of fact and the several recommendations contained in these 
reports are earnestly commended to the attention of the 
Trustees and their appropriate committees, and also to 
that wider public which it is the constant purpose of Co- 
lumbia University to serve. 

Columbia University is its own most severe critic. It 
has resisted the vice, or the virtue, of complacency, and 
constantly examines and re-examines its own 
organization and activities with a view to their lg22 i^g23 
betterment. During the past year no part of 
the University has escaped this searching of the spirit. 
The Faculty of Columbia College has been studying how 
best to establish and introduce a course introductory to 
the study of the natural and experimental sciences to 
parallel the course introductory to the study of con- 
temporary civilization established four years ago. The 
Faculty of Applied Science has had under earnest con- 
sideration the question of the adequacy and wisdom of its 
present program of study and of the existing high standard 
required for admission to its rolls. The Faculty of Medi- 
cine has been strengthening both its laboratory and its 
clinical teaching, and, like the Faculty of Applied Science, 
has under consideration the whole question of its program 
in order to determine how far the Medical School program 



2 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

of to-day is satisfactory when measured by the demands of 
the practising physician and surgeon. The Faculty 
of Law has carried to successful completion its plans for 
the organization of advanced instruction and research in 
the field of public and private law, in connection with 
which the degree of doctor of law (Doctor Juris) has now 
been authorized. The non-professional graduate Facul- 
ties of Political Science, Philosophy and Pure Science 
have cooperated in the creation of a representative joint 
Committee on Graduate Instruction, which, under the 
chairmanship of the Dean, will deal with many matters 
which have heretofore absorbed the attention of those 
faculties as a whole, thereby releasing their members 
from direct participation in some of that necessary aca- 
demic business which so often absorbs time and effort that 
might better be given to research and publication. The 
professional work in Architecture, in Business, and in 
Journalism has not stood still, and the many-sided 
undertakings of University Extension and the Summer 
Session have been both widened and deepened. The 
spirit of helpful cooperation and of loyal devotion to a 
common cause which permeates and animates the whole 
University is ground for deep gratification. Younger 
scholars are coming forward in considerable number 
some day to take the place of those who are growing old 
in the service. The leaders of this group are already 
men of influence and great usefulness not only in their 
several departments and faculties, but in the University 
as a whole. 

The contributions to knowledge published during the 
year by the University's scholars make a list far too long 
to reproduce here. They touch every conceivable field of 
knowledge, and not a few of them record research of 
much more than usual novelty and distinction. The Uni- 
versity Press is wholly unable, for financial reasons, to 





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PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 3 

place before the world of scholars the published results of 
each year's completed work, and for that reason very 
many of these are not recorded as the product of the 
University at all. 

On every side there are signs of progress and of earnest 
desire to improve the University's teaching, to strengthen 
its equipment and to open out new and still more inviting 
opportunities for advanced scholars and those who are 
to be schooled in the art of independent inquiry. So long 
as this is true the University is not drugged with self- 
content, but is alive, active and vigorous. 

From its earliest years Columbia University has been 
intimately associated with the public service and it has 
found no contradiction between such 
service and continued University rela- The ^Zy^ and 

•n • 1 „..„. Public Service 

tionship and duty. President William 
Samuel Johnson served as United States Senator from 
Connecticut at a time when Columbia College and the 
meeting place of the Congress were not far apart on Man- 
hattan Island. Professor Mitchill of the Department of 
Chemistry was chosen a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives and gave effective service in that capacity. To- 
day this tradition is continued, and examples of it multiply 
as the University grows in size and complexity. Professor 
John Bassett Moore of the Faculty of Political Science is 
at the moment a member of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice sitting at The Hague. Professor John 
Dyneley Prince of the Faculty of Philosophy is Minister 
of the United States in Denmark. Professor Edwin R. A. 
Seligman of the Faculty of Political Science has just 
returned from rendering expert service as a member of a 
Commission appointed by the League of Nations. Pro- 
fessor Thomas I. Parkinson of the Faculty of Law has 
recently served as legislative draftsman to the committees 
of the United States Senate, by appointment of the Vice 



4 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

President, in pursuance of the act of Congress approved 
February 28, 1919. The present draftsmen of both Houses 
of Congress and their assistants are all former members 
of the staff of the Legislative Drafting Research Bureau 
of Columbia University. Professor Harry M. Ayres of 
the Faculty of Columbia College is a member of the 
Legislature of the State of Connecticut. Professor Paul 
Monroe, Director of the International Institute of Teach- 
ers College, has just now completed an official inspection 
of the public schools of the Republics of Poland and of 
Czechoslovakia on the invitation of the Ministers of 
Education in those countries. Professor James F. Kemp 
of the Faculty of Pure Science has for some time past 
been Consulting Geologist to the Board of Water Supply 
of the City of New York. Professor Charles P. Berkey 
of the Faculty of Pure Science is Consulting Geologist to 
the North Jersey District Water Supply Commission. 
Professor May B. Van Arsdale of the Faculty of Practical 
Arts is a member of the New York State Council of 
Farms and Markets. Professor Robert Murray Haig 
of the Faculty of the School of Business has recently 
acted as Adviser to the Taxation Board of the Province 
of British Columbia, to the Minister of Municipalities of 
the Province of Saskatchewan, and to the Provincial 
Treasurer of the Province of Alberta. He has also acted 
as Counsel to the Special Revenue Commission of the 
State of New Mexico. Mr. Archibald H. Stockder of the 
Faculty of the School of Business has recently served as 
Special Investigator for the Survey Committee of State 
Affairs created by act of Legislature of the State of Colo- 
rado. Professor George D. Strayer of the Faculty of 
Education is directing school surveys in various parts of 
the United States, particularly Augusta, Georgia and 
Springfield, Massachusetts. Professor Howard Lee Mc- 
Bain of the Faculty of Political Science was member and 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 5 

secretary of the New York City Charter Commission 
which recently submitted its report to the Legislature. 
Professor Charles E. Lucke of the Faculty of Applied 
Science is Consulting Engineer of the New York State 
Transit Commission. Professor J. E. Zanetti of the 
Faculty of Applied Science is a member of the Committee 
appointed by the League of Nations to investigate chem- 
ical warfare. Professor Charles Lane Poor of the Faculty 
of Pure Science is President of the incorporated Village of 
Dering Harbor, N. Y. Professor Leo H. Baekeland of the 
Faculty of Applied Science is a member of the United 
States Naval Consulting Board. Professor William Camp- 
bell of the Faculty of Applied Science is Advisory Metal- 
lurgist of the United States Navy. 

Instances of this kind of effective and highly expert 
public service on the part of academic officers might be 
multiplied almost indefinitely, but those that have been 
cited suffice to illustrate the close relationship which exists 
between the Columbia University of to-day and the public 
service, both local, state, national and international. Such 
service is as much a part of the University's duty as are 
any other of its more usual and conventional functions. 
As the interpenetration grows of public administration by 
university knowledge and university experience, the 
public interest will be notably advanced. 

During the year there was brought to satisfactory con- 
clusion the discussion of a matter of University policy 
which has, in one form or another, been Degree of 

under consideration for more than forty Doctor of Law 
years. When the Faculty of Political Science was estab- 
lished in 1880 Professor Burgess had in mind the develop- 
ment of research and the training of scholars and teachers 
in the field of private law as well as in that of public law, 
and he suggested that side by side with the degree of doc- 
tor of philosophy the degree of doctor of law should be 



6 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

instituted to reward the satisfactory performance of ad- 
vanced students in that field. Objection was raised both 
by representatives of the Faculty of Law and by other 
University bodies and the suggestion remained unacted 
upon. Several times in the intervening years this proposal 
has been renewed in various forms, and once or twice has 
seemed on the point of adoption by the University Coun- 
cil and by the Trustees. Each time, however, fatal objec- 
tion was encountered, and it was not until a year or two 
ago that the project secured sufficiently widespread sup- 
port to make its acceptance likely. After the older and 
more familiar objections to instituting this degree had 
been cleared away, there remained one which had large 
influence both in the University Council and with the 
Trustees. It was urged that if the degree of doctor of law 
should now be instituted no logical objection could be in- 
terposed to the later establishment of the degree of doctor 
in architecture, in business, in education, in engineering, in 
journalism, or in any other field which the University 
might cultivate, and such extension and diversification of 
the degree of doctor were held to be objectionable both in 
principle and in practical working. When the subject 
was considered from this point of view, a solution was 
found in the decision that, before the degree of doctor of 
law was established, it be determined and declared to be 
the definite policy of Columbia University to confine the 
degree of doctor, when given in course to reward the com- 
pletion of advanced instruction and research, to the four 
traditional academic groups and the four historic uni- 
versity faculties of law, medicine, theology and phi- 
losophy. This declaration was formally made by the 
Trustees upon the recommendation of their Committee on 
Education on March 5, 1923 (See Minutes of the Trustees, 
1922-23, p. 313), and on May 7, 1923, the degree of doctor 
of law (Doctor Juris) was established by the Trustees in 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 7 

accordance with the plan recommended by the University 
Council. 

It was very strongly felt that no support should be given 
by Columbia University to the movement going on 
throughout the United States to multiply degrees, includ- 
ing advanced degrees of every sort and kind. For a gener- 
ation past there has been a general breaking up in the field 
of higher education in the United States. New subjects of 
study are constantly introduced and their introduction is 
not infrequently accompanied by the suggestion that new 
and specific academic degrees be instituted to accompany 
them. The result has been to create the impression that 
higher degrees were not of particular distinction, and that 
they might be obtained without any marked scholarly 
achievement by patience and the payment of a designated 
fee. Columbia University has now taken a definite posi- 
tion in reference to this tendency and has planted itself 
upon historic ground which cannot be successfully at- 
tacked. The four historic university groups or faculties 
are those of law, medicine, theology and philosophy. 
In the early history of universities the degree of doctor 
was conferred in each of these fields and in these alone. 
In the field of law, while the degree of doctor is widely 
given in Europe as a degree in course, both in Great Bri- 
tain and in the United States it has long been used chiefly 
as an honorary distinction. In the field of medicine the 
degree of doctor has most unfortunately been assimilated 
to and confused with that of bachelor, and is everywhere in 
the United States given on the completion of an under- 
graduate professional course in medicine and surgery. 
In the field of theology the degree of doctor has become, 
except on the continent of Europe, almost exclusively an 
honorary degree, but as Columbia University maintains no 
faculty of theology that fact is for us a matter of indif- 
ference. In the field of philosophy, which represents the 



8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

seven liberal arts as taught in the old universities, the de- 
gree of doctor of philosophy is maintained and grows 
stronger and of more consequence every year as the ac- 
cepted designation of those who have successfully pursued 
advanced instruction and research in any part of this 
large and indefinite field. It is to be borne in mind that all 
the newer subjects of university study are in reality 
developments and subdivisions of the original seven lib- 
eral arts and, therefore, fall readily within the historic 
field of the Faculty of Philosophy. The degree of doctor of 
philosophy, therefore, is the appropriate degree for award 
to those who have qualified themselves for it by advanced 
work and research, either in the older group of philosophi- 
cal subjects, such as philosophy, letters and science, or in 
the newer groups, such as engineering, education, journal- 
ism and business. 

Columbia University has long since become a complex 
institution of many-sided interests. Graduate students 
are coming to Morningside Heights from all parts of the 
world, and in time there is certain to be pressure to follow 
the unwise paths that have been taken elsewhere and to 
subdivide the degree of doctor of philosophy into a half 
dozen or even a dozen highly specialized designations. It 
was the belief that it would be good judgment, and that it 
would add to the prestige and leadership of the Univer- 
sity, to take a definite stand on this subject before the de- 
gree of doctor of law was authorized. It was these consid- 
erations which led to the action taken by the Trustees on 
March 5, 1923. 

The Statutes of the University have now been amended 
to provide for the institution of the degree of doctor of 
law (Doctor Juris), to be conferred upon the completion 
of advanced work and research in the field of public and 
private law, on substantially the same terms and condi- 
tions as the degree of doctor of philosophy is now awarded 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 9 

to mark the completion of advanced work and research in 
other fields of knowledge. With a view to making certain 
that there should be no weakening or division of author- 
ity over the standards to be observed in awarding the de- 
grees of doctor of philosophy and doctor of law, a plan 
of administration was agreed upon by the Faculties of 
Political Science, Philosophy, Pure Science and Law, and 
approved by the University Council, by which a single rep- 
resentative committee, with membership drawn from each 
of the four faculties named, will, under authority of the 
University Council, have direct supervision of the work of 
the candidates for the degrees of doctor of philosophy 
and doctor of law. 

It is a matter for congratulation that a satisfactory con- 
clusion of a long and earnest discussion has now been 
reached. At no time has there been any difference of opin- 
ion as to the desirability, indeed the necessity, of stimu- 
lating advanced work and research in the field of public 
and private law. The only questions at issue have been 
those relating to the protection of the University's stand- 
ards and ideals, and to the maintenance of those sound 
policies of organization and administration which have 
given the University its reputation for scholarship and its 
world-wide influence. Now that the question of the 
degree has been settled, it remains for the Faculties 
of Law and Political Science and for the University 
Council to use every effort to stimulate advanced in- 
struction and research in the field of public and private 
law. 

The recent literature of the law, whether judicial or 
academic, offers abundant evidence that new conceptions 
of legal process and legal determination are being de- 
veloped in response to the rapidly changing political, eco- 
nomic and social conditions of modern life. The historical 
scholarship and power of interpretation of Maitland and 



10 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the philosophical grasp and subtlety of Duguit, offer at 
once inspiration and example. The thoroughly grounded 
lawyer of the next generation must have a 'much firmer 
hold on economic law and economic fact than has seemed 
necessary in the past. He will have to be familiar not only 
with the decisions of the courts but with the recorded ex- 
periences of the economic and social life of modern peo- 
ples. In a hundred ways the ambitious student is beck- 
oned to new fields of inquiry and investigation. It will be 
the task of the Faculties of Law and Political Science to see 
to it that the new opportunity which has been created be 
made use of to the full. 

In a commercial sense it is true that the higher and finer 
scholarship does not pay. When measured by the standard 

of intellectual and spiritual values, on the 
S^r^h" otner nan d, f ew things bring richer reward 

than scholarship. Its possession is a constant 
source of joy and satisfaction, and the power which invisi- 
bly flows from it is of untold benefit to all men. It is a 
chief function of a university to seek out scholarship, to 
advance scholarship, to reward scholarship. Two strong 
obstacles in reaching these ends are the pressure for imme- 
diate practical results and mediocrity. It is hard to say 
which of the two injures scholarship more. Pressure for 
immediate practical results brings in its train intellectual 
slovenliness, superficiality, haste and appalling waste. 
It is contemptuous of scholarship with its calmness, its 
self-possession, its thoroughness and its patience. In sim- 
ilar fashion mediocrity wars upon scholarship. It mistakes 
footnotes for learning, lack of imagination for logic and 
security for consequence. The scholar works always in an 
intellectual space of not less than three dimensions, while 
both the seeker for immediate practical results and medi- 
ocrity work constantly in flat-land. It is debatable, and 
often debated, to what extent the present day student is 



president's annual REPORT II 

interested in scholarship. He is certainly curious for in- 
formation, and by reason of his defective training is often 
surprised by the obvious and astonished at the well known. 
A ruling theory of education which, like the boll weevil in 
the cotton plant, has attacked the elementary and secon- 
dary schools at their most sensitive point, and has in large 
part destroyed, for the time being, their intellectual and 
moral productiveness, must bear a heavy share of responsi- 
bility for these conditions. The clatter and clamor of our 
contemporary life and the unwillingness or inability of 
any considerable number of men really to think on any 
subject, are of course reflected to a greater or less extent in 
academic classrooms and laboratories. Henry George's 
familiar story of the child who was surprised to find that 
her father's garden was part of that surface of the earth 
of which she was studying in her geography class, is paral- 
leled by the daily experience of thousands who are unable 
to see any relation between what they themselves are do- 
ing at the moment and the larger and more lasting move- 
ments in the opinion and social organization of mankind. 
He only can be a philosopher who, whatever his school, can 
view himself and his surroundings, as Spinoza's phrase has 
it, sub specit aeternitatis. 

Columbia University has long made and is daily making 
a strong effort on behalf of scholarship. It aims to give its 
scholars both instruments and opportunity with which to 
work, and it never ceases to endeavor to add to the number 
of its productive scholars by drawing upon every possible 
source of supply. It is trying still more completely to set 
free its scholars for scholarship by disciplining the ad- 
vanced or graduate student in self-direction and self-help, 
and by lessening his demands upon the older scholars for 
constant lectures and personal instruction. The Ameri- 
can graduate student has for the most part been assisted 
to form the very bad habit of regarding himself as in the 



12 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

same relation to his university teacher that the school boy 
bears to his school master. For this attitude of intellectual 
timidity, planlessness and dependence it is desirable to 
substitute as quickly as may be an attitude of self-reli- 
ance, self-control and independent scholarly endeavor. 
Lectures to graduate students may well be reduced to a 
minimum, and for them be substituted seminars, discus- 
sions, personal conversations and criticism of individual 
work. It is by means such as these that the younger gener- 
ation of scholars is to be recruited and sent on its way in 
glad confidence that there are new facts and new truths to 
be discovered and tested, and that it will be a life's satis- 
faction to take part in the discovery and the testing. 
Mathematics, physics and chemistry, with their new and 
astounding revelations of the power of mind to pursue the 
constituents of matter into the hidden recesses of the infin- 
itesimal where energy is found to continue to manifest it- 
self with incredible velocity, should prove a stimulus to 
human imagination quite equal to poetry, letters and the 
fine arts. It may be that the period through which we have 
been passing is but a little understood preliminary to a new 
and tremendous outburst of intellectual, aesthetic and 
moral achievement. The twentieth century awaits the 
awakening call of a great spiritual leader such as the thir- 
teenth century had in St. Dominic and St. Francis. The 
modern world began with a Renaissance that represents in 
many fields the high water mark of human conquest. 
May it not be possible that a second Renaissance, wholly 
different in form and in content but equally beneficent in 
its results, is in the making? 

It is certainly true that the world is not standing still. 
Its present state of ferment indicates change of some sort, 
perhaps violent change. It must, therefore, be on the point 
of going either forward or backward. Professor John Bur- 
net in his thought-provoking Romanes lecture on Ignor- 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 13 

ance remarks that Dark Ages have generally followed after 
periods when knowledge of a sort was more widely dis- 
tributed than ever. He adds that so far as we can see the 
decay has always set in at the top, and thinks it not re- 
markable that some who are skilled in reading the signs of 
the times should just now feel uneasy. It would appear to 
be logically possible to conceive the present active changes 
as backward moving instead of as forward moving; but 
when mankind as a whole comes to that point of view one 
would not wish to be responsible for the results not alone to 
our civilization but to our lives. The notion of a Renais- 
sance, or at least the hope of a Renaissance, is more com- 
forting and more comfortable. 

When in 1894 the first chair of sociology was established 
in the Faculty of Political Science and Professor Giddings 
was appointed thereto, it was quite usual to 

, • • . 1 , -i ■ 1,1 Work in Social 

hear inquiry as to what sociology might be, s . nc 

and as to how its field of interest could be 
differentiated from those of history and of economics. In 
the intervening years, not only sociology but the group of 
social sciences which cluster about it or radiate from it, 
have established themselves as dealing with a field of 
major human interest which has proved increasingly at- 
tractive to large numbers of college and university stu- 
dents. When this beginning was made, the type of organi- 
zation and activity represented by the Faculty of Polit- 
ical Science gave, and could give, fairly complete expres- 
sion to the interest in the social sciences. This type of or- 
ganization and activity is, however, no longer adequate 
and it is far from complete. There have come into exist- 
ence bureaus of economic, industrial, and municipal re- 
search, legislative drafting bureaus, schools for instruc- 
tion in practical social work and in carrying on the various 
undertakings that are suggested by the names charity 
organization and organized philanthropy. As a result, 



14 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

there is now a many-sided activity in these fields, dealing 
partly with problems of research and partly with problems 
of instruction, which has brought clearly into view a new 
and definite problem which Columbia University should 
undertake to solve without delay. A university whose 
home is in a great city may do this with an effectiveness 
which is denied to like institutions less fortunately situ- 
ated. 

Questions of this character have been informally con- 
sidered in the University for some years past, and the time 
has now come when they should be faced and answered by 
the formulation of a constructive policy which the Uni- 
versity is prepared to adopt and to follow to its logical 
conclusion. It is true that such a policy might, and almost 
certainly would, involve a considerable addition to the 
annual budget; but the number of persons interested in 
undertakings of this kind is very large and it cannot be 
doubted that new support will give to the University the 
necessary means to go forward with a well-thought-out 
and well-planned enterprise. At the present time, various 
University agencies touch this field of interest in one way 
or another. The Faculty of Political Science, the School of 
Business, the School of Medicine, and Teachers College, 
are actively interested in these problems in some one of 
their many forms. There are existing organizations, such 
as the Bureau of Municipal Research and the New York 
School for Social Work, that might well be strengthened 
and developed through some wise policy of institutional 
cooperation. It is out of such materials as these that the 
new policy is to be built. It should deal both with research 
and with instruction. On the side of research, the Univer- 
sity should aim to develop a single compact group, under 
one administrative oversight and control, to plan and 
execute researches in current economic, legislative, munic- 
ipal, political and social problems, and to put their serv- 



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president's annual report 15 

ices at the disposal of private and public groups, as well as 
agencies of government, when desired. On the side of in- 
struction, the various University agencies interested in 
these matters should be called upon to unify and co- 
ordinate their several programs of work with a view both 
to the theoretical and the practical sides of the subject. 
Between all these agencies there should be effective co- 
operation and no duplication of time and effort. 

These are forward steps which may well be taken in the 
immediate future. 

Closely associated with the foregoing topic, and indeed 
intimately related to it, are the problems of rural life. In 
almost every nation these problems are pre- 
senting themselves in new and urgent forms. „ , T s ., 

rm " 1 .«■ r 1 • , , Rural Life 

1 he drift of population to city centers and the 
distaste of the younger generation for rural life and the 
work of the farm, are rapidly bringing about conditions 
which will gravely affect not only the economic basis of 
modern life, but also social and educational interests and 
ideals. Since men must live, agriculture cannot be dis- 
placed as the basic industry. Therefore the land, in the 
largest sense of the word, challenges modern scholarship 
and modern human interest in a score of ways. A genera- 
tion ago, Henry George saw this and pressed it upon pub- 
lic attention with marked eloquence and vehemence. His 
proposed solution for the problems growing out of the land 
is not one which either economists or public opinion have 
been disposed to accept. The fact remains, however, that 
some solution for the problems of the land and its rela- 
tionship to human life should and must be found. 

It is within the province, and certainly within the field 
of interest, of Columbia University to attack this prob- 
lem with all its resources. A first step might well be to 
establish and maintain a research institute or other organ- 
ization for investigation, instruction, and the spread of 



16 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

public information concerning the fundamental problems 
of the land not only in this country but in other countries 
as well. The various agricultural colleges and the govern- 
ment departments of agriculture in the nation and in the 
several States are all busily at work upon small parts of 
this great field. What is needed is an Institute to inte- 
grate, to correlate, and to guide this vast undertaking, with 
a view to establishing and interpreting the facts for the 
information of public opinion and for the guidance of gov- 
ernments. One must be blind indeed not to see that there 
is an agrarian movement which is world-wide. Often this 
movement takes on a political form, and by so doing not 
infrequently injures the very interest which it aims to 
promote. It is obvious that the modern democratic state 
must find a way to keep the needful proportion of the pop- 
ulation upon the land, to maintain the quality of the rural 
population in comparison with other groups, and to pro- 
vide that population with the resources and satisfactions of 
modern civilization. The farmers themselves, the schools, 
the libraries, the churches, the various agencies for public 
health and hygiene, are all greatly concerned about the 
changes that are taking place in rural life, about the eco- 
nomic situation of the farmer, and about his comparative 
isolation from many of those interesting and satisfying 
contacts which the city dweller finds on every hand. 
Here, surely, is an immense field of inquiry into which Co- 
lumbia University should enter. Its company of investiga- 
tors and teachers contains many whose work has to do 
with some aspects of these problems. A first task would be 
to bring these various individuals into cooperation and 
mutual understanding. A second task would be to multi- 
ply the opportunities of agencies for research in this field 
and to put at the head of such an Institute the most cap- 
able and experienced scholar anywhere to be found. By so 
doing, Columbia University would once more indicate its 



president's annual report 17 

appreciation of the public need and its anxious endeavor to 
assist in meeting it. 

The building program as outlined in earlier Reports has 
been carried steadily forward during the year. Conditions 
in the building trades have not been such as to 
permit complete freedom of action, and funds Pr "' ^ 
have not been available for all of the buildings 
that are so urgently needed. The Faculty House on East 
Field was ready for occupancy on May 1. It is a beautiful 
and commodious addition to the University's provision 
for its officers of administration and instruction and al- 
ready gives great comfort and satisfaction to the hundreds 
who use it daily. The School of Business on the Quadran- 
gle at Broadway and 11 6th Street is going rapidly forward 
and will, if all goes well, be completed about Commence- 
ment Day next. In that case, it will be invaluable for the 
relief it will bring to the over-crowded and over-pressed 
work of the Summer Session. No building is more urgently 
needed than the Residence Hall for Women University 
Students which is being erected on East Field. Although 
unavoidable delays have been encountered, there is reason 
to hope that this building may be ready for use before the 
close of the year 1924. The demand for it is incessant and 
there is no reason to doubt that every room will be taken 
as soon as available. This building will also contain pro- 
vision for the Women's Faculty Club in close proximity to 
the Faculty House, and for the first time the women 
teachers of the University will then find themselves cared 
for as they would like to be. 

The next most pressing need is for the erection of the 
laboratory buildings for advanced instruction and re- 
search in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics 
that are to be placed on the Green, along the Broadway 
side north of Havemeyer Hall and along the 120th Street 
side south of Horace Mann School. Not a little of the work 



18 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in Applied Science and almost all new opportunity for re- 
search in the physical sciences await the completion of 
these buildings. At the moment, the only fund available 
for their construction is the Ellen C. Harris Fund, which 
will ultimately amount to some $800,000. At least twice 
as much more will be needed to meet the cost of construct- 
ing these three laboratory buildings. When they are 
erected, it will be possible to assign Fayerweather Hall to 
the Faculty of Political Science, thus giving more commo- 
dious quarters to that important part of the University's 
work and also setting free Kent Hall for the sole occupancy 
of the School of Law. 

The development of South Field, which the possession 
of Baker Field has now restored to its originally intended 
use, will include such additional residence halls for men as 
may be needed. There is already a waiting list of students 
wishing rooms long enough to fill completely another dor- 
mitory as large as Furnald Hall. 

Much thought has been given to plans for the proposed 
Students' Hall and estimates of cost have been obtained. 
These estimates proved to be so very large that it will be 
necessary to re-study the problem in all its aspects. While 
this is being done, the completion of University Hall and 
the transformation of the gymnasium therein contained 
into a University auditorium must also wait. 

Meanwhile the special and very exigent needs of Teach- 
ers College are being met by the erection of a new library 
building which will be ready before the close of the present 
academic year. It will be named in honor of Dean Rus- 
sell, in appreciation of his quarter century of distinguished 
service. 

The chief need of Barnard College is for an additional 
residence hall, for which plans are already made and work 
upon which will begin so soon as building conditions are 
satisfactory. 



president's annual report 19 

There is little reason to believe that building costs will 
be sensibly reduced for some time to come, if at all. It 
behooves the University, therefore, to go forward with its 
program of relieving emergencies and meeting needs as 
these arise, making sure in every case that full value is had 
for the amounts expended. The needed laboratory build- 
ings for chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics offer 
invitation to generous benefactors who understand and 
appreciate the significance of scientific teaching and re- 
search in modern life. 

The buildings of Columbia University are properly 
monumental in character. The noble design of McKim is 
itself a thing of great beauty and enduring distinction. It 
must be carried out with faithfulness, no matter if the cost 
be considerable, in accordance with the architect's fine 
ideals, for the influence of the University is as persuasive 
and as continuing by reason of its aesthetic charm and 
appeal as by reason of its intellectual guidance and stimu- 
lus. There are few things that American youth need more 
than association with the beautiful in art, in architecture, 
in letters and in character. 

The sale of the Williamsbridge Property, which had been 
acquired by the Association of the Alumni of Columbia 
College for development as an athletic field and . 

1.1 1 1 t> n /- Baker Field 

which was conveyed to the trustees in 1896, 
made funds available which might properly be used for the 
immediate development of Baker Field. The Committee 
on Buildings and Grounds caused studies to be made, and, 
upon a plan being adopted, the Superintendent of Build- 
ings and Grounds proceeded with the utmost energy to 
carry it out, with a view to having the field ready for its 
projected uses in the month of September, 1923. This was 
accomplished, and as a result the generous benefaction of 
Mr. Baker is already serving its admirable purposes. By 
the Spring of 1924 the development as now planned will be 



20 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

substantially completed. Both students and alumni are 
properly enthusiastic over what has been done, and there 
is every reason to believe that Baker Field will now be in 
constant use for outdoor exercise and athletic sports on the 
part of students generally, as well as for the more highly 
organized intercollegiate contests. 

After years of labor and after working out in fullest de- 
tail a budget system, the financial administration of the 
University has been put upon a sound basis, 
mversity There are no longer distressing annual deficits 

Finance . ° ° 

m Income and Expense account, and the need 
for temporary borrowing in anticipation of income has 
disappeared. This does not mean that the University's 
needs, even the imperative needs of each year, are met, 
but only that the University has formed the habit of 
denying itself those satisfactions, however important, for 
which it cannot pay. There are two ways of conducting 
the financial administration of a university. The one way 
is to contract to spend whatever sums seem desirable, 
wholly regardless of the relation that exists between these 
sums and the stated income from which they are to be 
met, and then to throw the institution upon the mercy and 
pity of the public in the hope of obtaining relief. This may 
be called the sentimental method of university administra- 
tion. It is hopelessly bad and misleading. It puts the in- 
stitution in a wrong light before both itself and the public. 
The other way is rigidly to confine the annual expendi- 
tures to the amount of the certain or probable income 
that will be at hand to meet them. This may be called 
the business method of university administration, and ex- 
perience proves that it is far more effective in attracting 
new sources of support than is the sentimental method 
with its annual deficit and its annual appeal for help. 
There are many things which Columbia University needs 
and many other things which it would be glad to do, but it 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 21 

denies itself the satisfaction of these needs and ambitions 
until it is put in funds with which to pay for them. The 
completion of the building program at Morningside 
Heights will require probably ten or twelve million dollars, 
but this sum is not at hand and the buildings wait. The 
various aepartments of natural and experimental science 
need important and costly additions to their equipment, 
but the funds for this purpose are not available. Not less 
than four or five scientific investigators and leaders of 
research of the first rank should be added to our staff in 
these same departments, but the University could not 
offer them a place in which to do their work if appointed. 
The University libraries and the University Press are 
checked in their usefulness and development through lack 
of resources, but until this lack is supplied no substantial 
progress can be made. Provision for the support of re- 
search and research workers should be quickly multiplied, 
but at the moment this is not possible. Despite all that 
has been done during the past five years, the salaries of 
many officers of instruction, particularly those in the lower 
grades, are far from adequate, but it would take more than 
two hundred thousand dollars a year to put them where 
they might well be. The young scholar who has turned 
aside from a gainful business or professional career to de- 
vote himself to the intellectual life and who marries and 
has a family of his own, is just now more severely handi- 
capped than any other class or type of university teacher. 
Were his present salary doubled he, if competent, would 
not be overpaid. Facts like these are to be kept in mind by 
those who observe that Columbia University is able to 
carry on its work and to keep out of debt. This is accom- 
plished not by satisfying the University's needs, but by 
restricting or denying them. The surplus each year, if 
such there be, is quickly absorbed in the expanding work 
of the following year. 



22 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



The report of the Treasurer (see pages 375-506) and the 
abstracts of the financial statements of Barnard College, 
Teachers College and the College of Pharmacy, make very 
interesting reading. From these it appears that the total 
resources of the corporations included in the educational 
system of Columbia University are now in excess of $92,- 
000,000, and that the work of each one of the four corpora- 
tions during the year ending June 30, 1923, was carried on 
without a deficit in Income and Expense account. The 
sum total of the appropriations for the current year made 
for the conduct of the work included in the educational 
system of Columbia University is $8,754,596.10. At least 
one-half of the states in the Union do not expend so much 
upon their manifold public activities. These facts serve to 
give some impression of the magnitude and many-sided- 
ness of the problems involved in the effective carrying for- 
ward of the operations of the University. 

The following table exhibits in summary fashion the 
resources of the University's educational system, gifts 
received during the past year, and the condition of In- 
come and Expense account for the year ending June 30, 
1923: 





Resources 
June 30, 1923 


Gifts 
1922-23 


Surplus 
1922-23 


Columbia University 
Barnard College . . . 
Teachers College . . . 
College of Pharmacy . . 


$72,779,731-86 

7,009,534-76 

11,951,608.17 

499,700.00 


$11,048,184.53 

21,753-55 

i,657.633-5i 

450.00 


$98,786.81 

3I.I95-64 
44,102.98 
17,897.32 




$92,240,574.79 


$12,728,021.59 


$191,982.75 



The enormous and probably unprecedented amount of 
gifts received during the year, nearly $13,000,000, is due 
to the fact that in that period many large gifts and be- 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 23 

quests heretofore announced were paid to the Treasurer. 
Chief among these were : 

Estate of Amos F. Eno, for general endowment $5,817,575.00 

j Mrs. Stephen V. Harkness, for Medical School endowment 1,300,000.00 

Edward S. Harkness, for Medical School site 1,180,000.00 

Edward S. Harkness, for Medical School endowment . . 1,002,384.75 

Estate of Ellen C. Harris, for science building 515,166.58 

Estate of Joseph R. DeLamar (additional) for Medical 

School endowment 325,000.00 

Estate of Cora M. Perkins (additional) for special endow- 
ment 231,524.06 

Estate of Robert B. Van Cortlandt (additional) for general 

endowment 169,844.98 

Estate of A. Barton Hepburn (additional) for ' general 

purposes 150,000.00 

Estate of A. Barton Hepburn, for special endowment . . 75,000.00 
Estate of Jonas M. Libbey, for special endowment . . . 29,497.75 
Estate of Catherine A. Ross, for special endowment . . 21,565.36 
East River Homes, for tuberculosis study and relief . . 20,870.24 
Mrs. Benjamin B. Lawrence, for Chapel memorial win- 
dows 20,000.00 

Estate of Victor Baier, for special endowment 19,950-67 

Borden's Condensed Milk Company, for research .... 15,000.00 

Estate of Mary E. Saunders, for special endowment . . 12,000.00 

Alumni Fund Committee, for special endowment .... 10,000.00 

Alumni Fund Committee, for general purposes 10,000.00 

Joseph P. Chamberlain, for legislative drafting research . 7,600.00 

Commonwealth Fund, for research 7,600.00 

Class of 1898, for Van Amringe prize medal 6,500.00 

Clarence H. Mackay, for surgical research 6,000.00 

H. A. Wheeler, for special endowment 6,000.00 

Estate of Henry Philip Goldschmidt, for special endow- 
ment 5,000.00 

George Wellwood Murray, for the Law School 5,000.00 

Mrs. Selma G. Smith and Mrs. Sencenbaugh, for fellowship 5,000.00 

Class of 1895 College and Science, for special endowment 4,854.11 

Herman A. Metz, for research 3,000.00 

A full list of the gifts and bequests received during the 
year will be found in the report of the Treasurer, pages 502 
to 506. 

It is not possible adequately to record the University's 
sense of obligation and gratitude to these princely bene- 



24 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

factors. They have each and all been attracted to the 
support of Columbia University by reason of its accom- 
plishment and its repute. They have certainly felt assured 
that their gifts and bequests would be administered in 
faithful observance of their expressed desires and prefer- 
ences and for the accomplishment of the highest ideals 
which a company of scholars can cherish and pursue. 

Among all these gifts none are more important than 
those made through the Alumni Fund. While the move- 
ment to establish this fund and to make participation in it 
general throughout the whole body of alumni is still in 
its infancy, the significance of the fund and its potential 
value are hard to over-estimate. So soon as the Trustees 
feel that they can depend with certainty year by year 
upon a substantial income from this source, they will be 
at liberty, in making the annual budget, to include pro- 
vision for much of educational importance that is now 
postponed. Moreover, through participation in this fund 
the great body of alumni will have a new bond with their 
Alma Mater and a new interest in her activities and her 
progress. Too much cannot be said in commendation of 
those who have, with great energy and determination, 
brought this fund into existence and who are carrying it 
forward so vigorously. 

It is a far cry from a record such as that of 1923 to the 
act passed by the General Assembly of New York in 1746 
"for raising the sum of £2250 by a Public Lottery for this 
Colony, & for the advancement of Learning & towards the 
Founding of a College within the same." So far have public 
opinion and public performance come in less than two 
centuries and, be it noted, by far the greater part of the 
change has come within the last half century or in even 
shorter time. Those who then struggled to find ways and 
means to make the most meager of beginnings of provision 
for the better education of the youth of the Province of 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 2$ 

New York could not in their wildest imaginings have fore- 
seen to what their efforts were to lead. Surely no one can 
mark the contrast or read the story of the intervening years 
without strengthened faith in the progress of mankind, 
and without profound gratitude for the close interweaving 
of the University of today with the life not only of the city, 
the state and the nation, but of the whole world. 

The following officers of the University have died since 
the publication of the last Annual Report: 

On December 13, 1922, Arthur W. Dow, Professor of Fine 
Arts in Teachers College, in his sixty-sixth year. 

On January 17, 1923, John H. Larkin, A.B., Deaths of 

M.D., Assistant Professor of Pathology, in his University 
fifty-fourth year. Officers 

On January 21, 1923, Edward K. Hayt, 
Assistant Registrar and Assistant Bursar, retired, in his 
seventieth year. 

On July 15, 1923, Stephen S. Colvin, Ph.D., Professor of 
Education in Teachers College, in his fifty-fifth year. 

On July 28, 1923, Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson, a Trustee 
of Teachers College since 1902, in her eighty-eighth year. 

On August 9, 1923, Miss Clara B. Spence, A.B., a Trustee 
of Barnard College since 1905, in her sixty-second year. 

On September 18, 1923, Harold F. Gates, A.M., Instructor 
in German in University Extension, in his twenty-ninth year. 

On October 29, 1923, Frederick A. Vanderburgh, Ph.D., 
Lecturer in Semitic Languages, in his seventy-eighth year. 



26 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



For the purpose of comparison with previous reports, 
there follows a summary of gifts and money received dur- 
ing the year by the several corporations included in the 
University. 



Purpose 


Columbia 
University 


Barnard 
College 


Teachers 
College 


College of 
Pharmacy 


Totals 


General 

Endowment 
Special 

Endowments 
Buildings and 


$8,631,281.89 

922,125.03 

1,218.488.30 

276,289.31 


$17,361.05 
605.OO 


$785.849-27 

20.00 

582,044.49 

289,719.75 


$450.00 


$9,434,493.21 

922,750.03 

1,800,532.79 


Immediate 
Use 


3.787.50 


570,246.56 


Total 


$11,048,184.53 


$21,753-55 


$1,657,633.51 


$450.00 


$12,728,021.59 



The following statement records the gifts made in 
money alone since 1890 to the several corporations in- 
cluded in the University: 

1890-1901 $5,459,902.82 

1901-1922 40,069,761.75 

1922-1923 12,728,021.59 

Total $58,257,686.16 

For record and for comparison with previous years, 

there follow the usual tabular statements as to the 

University site, teaching staff, student enroll- 

Tabular ment, and number of degrees conferred for 

Statements , . 

the academic year 1922-1923. 



PRESIDENTS ANNUAL REPORT 27 

THE SITE 





Square Feet 


Acres 


A. I. At Morningside Heights 

Green and Quadrangle .... 
South Field 


734,183 

359,341 

90,825 

1,809 

1,809 

1,809 

1,809 

29,000 


16.85 
8.25 


East Field 


2.08 


Columbia House 

Maison Francaise 

Residence of the Dean of the Col- 
lege 

Residence of the Chaplain . . . 
Claremont Avenue Property . . 


.041 
.041 

.041 
.041 
.679 


2. At Medical School 

[437 West 59th Street] 

3. At Baker Field 

[Broadway and 218th Street] 


1,220,585 
75,312 

1,143,885 


28.023 
1-73 

26.26 


B. Barnard College 

C. Teachers College 

1. At 120th Street 

2. At 509 West 121st Street .... 

3. At 106 Morningside Drive . . . 

4. At Speyer School 

[94 Lawrence Street] 

5. At Van Cortlandt Park .... 

6. At Lincoln School 

[425 West 123rd Street] . . . 


2,439,782 
177,466 

153,898 

17,750 

17,575 

4.917 

575.843 
47,500 


56.013 
4.07 

3-53 
•407 
•403 
.112 

1322 

1.09 


Total for Teachers College . 

[115 West 68th Street] 
E. School of Dental and Oral Surgery . 
[302-306 East 35th Street] 


817,483 
7,516 

l6,l62 


18.762 
.172 

•371 


Grand Total in New York City 
F. Camp Columbia, Morris, Conn. . . 


3,458,40p 


79-388 
585.3 


Total 




664.688 



28 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TEACHING STAFF 



Teaching Staff 


Columbia 
University 


Barnard 
College 


Teachers 
College l 


College of 
Pharmacy 


Total 2 


1922 


1923 


Professors (including 














Clinical Professors) 


223 


24 


32 


3 


219 


223 


Associate Professors 


82 


12 


15 


5 


76 


82 


Assistant Professors 














(including Assis- 














tant Clinical Pro- 
















I46 


18 


26 


5 


139 


146 




80 


5 


7 




88 


87 


Instructors (includ- 














ing Clinical In- 














structors) .... 


244 


18 


102 


10 


3 2 7 


356 




2 








2 


2 




78 


9 


33 


5 


104 


116 




109 


10 


47 




164 


156 


Clinical Assistants . 


46 








55 


46 


University Extension 














not included above 


352 








308 


352 


Summer Session not 














included above . 


176 








135 


176 


Total 


1,538 


96 


262 


28 


1,617 


1,742 


Administrative Offi- 














cers not enumer- 














ated above as 














teachers .... 


53 


9 


17 


11 


66 


7i 


Emeritusand Retired 
















28 




2 


2 


24 


28 


Total 


1,619 


105 


281 


4i 


1,707 


1,841 



» Excluding the Horace Mann, Speyer and Lincoln Schools. 
* Excluding duplicates. 



STUDENT ENROLLMENT 

The total enrollment of students at the Winter, Spring, 
and Summer Sessions, as compared with that for the year 
1921-1922, is shown in the following table: 



PRESIDENT S ANNUAL REPORT 



29 







Totals 


Gain 


Loss 


I. RESIDENT STUDENTS 










A. Winter and Spring Sessions 










Undergraduate Students: 










Columbia College 


2,054 






7 


Barnard College 


821 




87 




University Undergraduates . 


69 


2,944 


59 


21 


Total Undergraduates . . 






Graduate and Professional 










Students: 










Political Science, Philosophy 










and Pure Science .... 


1,872 




352 






65 






4 


Business 


355 






65 




19 




6 






142 






4 




683 






11 




400 




23 




Mines, Engineering and 












221 




15 






638 






46 


Teachers College: 












2,290 




314 






2,052 




99 




Unclassified University Stu- 












145 






100 


Total Graduate and Pro- 






fessional Students . . 




8,882 


579 




B. Summer Session (1922) includ- 










ing Undergraduate, Gradu- 










ate, Professional, and Un- 










classified Students .... 




12,567 


758 




C. University Extension 










Regular Courses (Net) . . 




93l8 


187 
1,583 




Gross Total Resident Students 


33,7H 




Less Double Registration . . 




3,092 


1,199 




Net Total Resident Students . . . 




30,619 




II. NON-RESIDENT STUDENTS 








University Extension 










Extramural Courses . . . 




3.244 


744 




Home Study Courses . . . 




831 


546 








i>372 


479 





30 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



DEGREES CONFERRED 



During the academic year 1922-1923, 2,847 degrees and 732 
certificates and diplomas were conferred, as follows: 



Columbia College: 




School of Business: 






• 348 


Bachelor of Science . . . 


114 


Bachelor of Science . . 


2 


Master of Science .... 


20 




35o 


Certificate in Secretarial 








8 


Barnard College: 






142 




• 157 


School of Dentistry: 






157 


Bachelor of Science . . . 


3 






Doctor of Dental Surgery . 


_4 


Faculty of Law: 






7 


Bachelor of Laws . . . 


• 157 


University Council: 






• _4 


Bachelor of Science . . . 


_? 




161 


University Extension: 


9 


Faculty of Medicine: 




Certificate in Secretarial 




Doctor of Medicine . . 


• 95 




33 


Bachelor of Science . . 


10 


Certificate in Optometry . 


26 




105 




59 



Faculty of Applied Science 
Engineer of Mines . . 
Metallurgical Engineer 
Civil Engineer . . 
Electrical Engineer 
Mechanical Engineer 
Chemical Engineer . 
Master of Science . 



School of Architecture: 

Bachelor of Architecture . 

Master of Science .... 

Certificate of Proficiency in 

Architecture 



School of Journalism : 
Bachelor of Literature . . 
Master of Science in Jour- 
nalism 

Certificate of Proficiency in 
Journalism 



4 
6 
I 
9 
3 
17 

31 
67 



11 



49 



52 



College of Pharmacy: 

Pharmaceutical Chemist . 7 
Bachelor of Science ... 2 

9 
Faculties of Political Sci- 
ence, Philosophy and 
Pure Science: 

Master of Arts 522 

Doctor of Philosophy . . 107 

629 

Faculties of Teachers College: 



Master of Arts . . 
Bachelor of Science 
Master of Science . 
Bachelor's Diploma 
Master's Diploma . 
Doctor's Diploma . 



677 
467 

14 
286 

37i 
_6 

1,821 

Total Degrees, Certificates 

and Diplomas granted . .3,579 
Number of individuals re- 
ceiving them 3, 122 

College of Pharmacy: 

Graduate in Pharmacy . . 236 
Honorary Degrees .... 8 



November 5, 1923 



Nicholas Murray Butler 

President 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

As Dean of Columbia College, I have the honor to present 
the following report for the year 1922-1923. 

The various enterprises mentioned in my report for last 
year as being under way, have developed in a normal manner. 

The assumption of the administration of Earl Hall by the 
University and the appointment of a Director of Earl Hall has 
resulted in several important readjustments. For many years 
the administration of the building and the direction of many 
activities, both religious and social, were under the nominal 
direction of the Y. M. C. A. It has seemed desirable at this 
time to separate sharply the responsibility for the social and 
the religious interests that center in this building. The former 
have been placed in the hands of the Director who also has 
charge of the assignment of students to the Residence Halls 
for men. This duty brings him into intimate contact with many 
students and has enabled him to establish personal relations 
with them which are certain to become stronger and more 
intimate as the years go on. His attention to the proper 
arrangement for and supervision of dances, parties and other 
social affairs both in Earl Hall and elsewhere has already 
resulted in a distinct elevation of the character and value of 
these events. 

Responsibility for all religious matters, whether centered 
around the chapel or not, is by Statute in the hands of the 
Chaplain of the University. With the withdrawal of the 
Y. M. C. A. as the agency responsible for the more social 
aspects of the religious activities, the Chaplain has appointed 



32 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

several students of the University to take charge of these 
various affairs. One man looks after the organization of vol- 
unteer groups to do community or settlement work; others 
establish connections between our students, particularly those 
in their first year of residence^ and churches of various denom- 
inations in the city; still others organize study groups, Sunday 
evening conferences, and other means for the expression of 
religious interests. 

In this connection it should be mentioned that recently 
there has been a marked improvement both in the number 
and in the quality of Columbia College students who are 
looking forward to the ministry as a profession. There is no 
doubt that the section on religion in the required Freshman 
course in Contemporary Civilization, the increased enrollment 
in the elective courses on the Bible, and the organization of a 
course on the "Study and Interpretation of Religion" given 
by Professors Hugh Black, McGiffert, Lyman and Coe, con- 
tribute to this result, by affording a stimulus to thought and 
discussion concerning religious matters as well as a solid basis 
for arriving at a stable attitude toward religious questions. 

For the past five years Columbia College has been a center of 
activity in the study and use of mental tests and the so-called 
"new" type of examinations in collegiate education. There is 
now a sufficient body of data bearing on the use of Mental 
Tests as a part of our new requirement for admission to war- 
rant the statement that this requirement affords the most 
accurate criterion of the capacity of students to do college work 
that we have ever employed. I will not at this time repeat 
the evidence for this conclusion which has been presented 
in my earlier reports, or supplement it by confirmatory 
data which have been gathered during the past year. Suffice it 
to say that no one familiar with the facts and competent to 
comprehend their meaning holds any other opinion. 

The Mental Test is a measure of intellectual qualities that 
make for college success. It is not a measure of industry, 
honesty, ambition or of other qualities of character which a 
student must needs possess if he is to make the most of his 
college opportunities. To these qualities the principal of the 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 33 

school from which each student comes is called upon to certify. 
Neither does this mental test indicate, except in the most 
general terms, the competence of the student in the specific 
subjects of study which he is to pursue. In fact, the usual en- 
trance examinations sometimes indicate more reliably than 
does the mental test the exact course in Mathematics, English 
or French for which the student ought to register in his Fresh- 
man Year. If the work of the High and Preparatory schools 
were given in all parts of the country with a sufficiently high de- 
gree of uniformity it would be possible on the basis of their 
preparatory record to assign Freshmen to classes with only 
slight inaccuracy. The fact is, however, that two years of 
French in one school is not at all comparable with a course of 
the same length in another, so that certification from the 
schools affords at best an uncertain index of competence to 
carry college work of the grade that would seem to be indicated. 
This uncertainty results in much shifting of students from sec- 
tion to section and course to course during the first four weeks 
of the Winter Session, to the serious disorganization of the 
work and embarrassment alike to student and teacher. 

This situation demands a remedy. A method of placement 
in college courses is called for which shall be, if possible, supe- 
rior to that afforded by the old entrance examinations. 

The needs of the situation can best be illustrated by the 
subject of English composition. Competence in the use of the 
English language implies acquaintance with a reasonably large 
vocabulary of words, ability to spell these words correctly, a 
knowledge of their proper construction in phrases and sen- 
tences, and facility in organizing them in a piece of sustained 
composition, either narrative, exposition, description or argu- 
ment. The easiest and worst way to treat the question of 
spelling is to fail the student who misspells a certain number of 
words in his examination. Though the student speak with the 
tongues of men and of angels and fails to spell six words cor- 
rectly his ability to command the language as a medium of 
expression counts as nothing. Shakespeare and Washington 
would alike fail in English under this system. This method, 
which has been in common use in many colleges, has encour- 



34 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

aged the humiliating practice on the part of many an honor- 
able but discerning student of taking an account of stock of 
the words that he knows he can spell even when under an emo- 
tional strain and of confining his literary efforts to that re- 
stricted vocabulary. A system that results in such a practice 
is almost, if not quite, immoral. 

It is proposed to meet this condition by asking each student 
who is admitted to college to take a placement examination, 
or set of examinations, in English which will follow the lines of 
cleavage indicated above. By means of a spelling test, a vocab- 
ulary test, a construction test, and a composition test it is an- 
ticipated that any weakness of the student will be discovered 
and isolated. In case he cannot spell but is otherwise compe- 
tent in the use of the language he will be admitted to the college 
course in English but required to take without credit a course 
in spelling in order to strengthen his weak spot. A similar pro- 
cedure will be followed in the case of failure in any one of the 
other aspects of composition. This plan seems more intelli- 
gent than the rejection of the student without either giving 
him a diagnosis of his trouble or affording any means suited to 
his infirmity for overcoming it. 

A careful study of the results of this examination will be 
made in the attempt to discover whether any particular type 
of failure possesses peculiar significance. For example, if it 
should turn out that a meager vocabulary of words only half 
understood uniformly accompanies a low mental test, poor 
work in College English and accomplishment of a low order all 
along the line, a result of great importance will have been 
attained. 

It is proposed to give these placement examinations experi- 
mentally in September, 1923, to study the results and their 
relation to the college accomplishment of the students, with 
the expectation of making similar examinations to be given in 
September, 1924, the basis for placement in sections for stu- 
dents entering college at that time. 

Placement examinations will be given in French, German, 
Mathematics and English in 1923. The importance and great 
promise of projects of the kind described above has led the 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 35 

Trustees to make the appointment of an Assistant Professor of 
Collegiate Educational Research, under whom, subject to the 
Dean and the Faculty, other studies will undoubtedly be car- 
ried forward. 

In addition to the problems centering in Earl Hall and the 
general question of Mental Tests and examinations the neces- 
sity for a Student Hall was prominently mentioned in my last 
report. Plans have been prepared and it is hoped that the 
building can actually be undertaken as soon as the economic 
situation warrants. 

Among the minor but significant events of the year has been 
a realignment of the student musical organizations. The old 
time college glee and mandolin club concert is a relic of 
the past. Since the voice is a medium of the highest order for 
musical expression, while the mandolin is capable of only the 
most restricted use for any serious purpose, a divorce proceed- 
ing between these two clubs seemed justified on the ground of 
incompatibility of temperament. The Professor of Choral 
Music will take an active part in training the Glee Club and it 
is anticipated that through the medium of the strengthened 
organization an element of richness and artistic worth will be 
added to the life of our students. If there is a demand for the 
continuation of the Mandolin Club in order that it may serve 
the purposes for which it is adapted, the two clubs may both 
exist independently. 

Under date of August 4, 1923, the Columbia units of the 
Reserve Officers Training Corps were withdrawn, by orders 
from the Department of War. This action was taken after 
careful study of the situation both by the University and the 
Department of War, and seemed to all who were familiar with 
the local conditions to be justified. 

During the existence of the R. O. T. C. at Columbia the 
units have been fortunate in the selection of the officers de- 
tailed to command them. For the past three years Major 
W. C. Foote has occupied this post to the complete satisfaction 
of everyone. His ability to coordinate the Army problems with 
educational affairs, his tact and patience, as well as his deter- 
mination to maintain high standards of accomplishment, won 



36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

for him the respect of all with whom he came in contact. 
In fact, his skill in bringing the Columbia units to a point of 
efficiency which seemed to promise their success as a part of 
our collegiate education was such as to render it very unlikely 
that anyone else could have carried forward his complex and 
delicate work from the point to which he had developed it. It 
is indeed unfortunate that the regulations of the Department of 
War necessitate his detail for foreign service at just this time, 
thus removing what seemed to be the only ground for expecta- 
tion of a development of the R. O. T. C. which would perform 
the service that either the University or the Army had a right 
to expect. 

One of the least satisfactory features of collegiate adminis- 
tration is the system of advisory relations between students 
and faculty. Wherever Deans are gathered together the 
adviser system is usually discussed with the concluding com- 
ment, provided the whole truth is told, that the system does 
not mean as much as it should either for student or teacher. 

For the past ten or twelve years each student of Columbia 
College with the exception of those who are looking forward to 
the professional schools, has nominated a member of the 
teaching staff as his adviser. The pre-professional groups have 
been assigned to the assistants to the Dean as their advisers. 
No one feels that (except in the case of certain of these profes- 
sional groups) the system has contributed all that it should to a 
wholesome and natural relation between students and teachers. 
During the present year the Committee on Instruction has 
made a study of conditions and has put into operation a modi- 
fied plan that seems to promise good results. 

The function of the faculty adviser of a student is two-fold. 
In the first place he is supposed to be familiar with the require- 
ments for the degree, and to see to it that the student plans his 
courses so that each of these requirements is satisfied at the 
proper time. As a matter of fact this supposition is rarely 
justified. Comparatively few of the staff are sufficiently famil- 
iar with the requirements for the degree to make them safe 
guides for their advisees. Many a student has been seriously 
embarrassed either by the failure to receive correct advice or 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 37 

by receiving positively erroneous directions from his adviser. 
In fact, the business of getting a degree in many cases is a very 
delicate matter involving a knowledge of certain twists and 
turns in the interpretation of the requirements that could 
scarcely be expected from a member of the staff who has not 
concerned himself with such matters. 

The second function of the adviser is to be the guide and 
friend of the student in all kinds of personal questions that 
may arise. Experience seems to show that no college teacher 
can be intelligently designated to take this place for an indi- 
vidual student. A man makes his own friends and goes to 
each of them for the counsel that they can individually give. 

It has therefore been decided to organize a Committee of 
technical experts on the requirements for the degree and to ask 
each student to obtain from a member of this committee the 
authorization of his program of studies. At the times when pro- 
grams are being made in September, January and April this 
Committee may be found in a room near the Registrar's Office 
and their authorization secured. The students who have been 
in residence more than one year are no longer assigned to a 
definite personal adviser, but are placed on their own responsi- 
bility to obtain advice from those whose advice they value. 
Each Freshman, however, is assigned specifically to his in- 
structor in Contemporary Civilization whom he meets five 
times a week and with whom he must needs be on rather inti- 
mate terms. This system, supplemented by the work of the 
Assistants to the Dean for the highly technical advice to the 
pre-professional students, has given results this year of such a 
satisfactory character that it will be given further trial. 

There is every indication that a new tendency is gathering 
force in those colleges, both for men and for women, where 
questions of education receive serious attention. In the 
days of Pascal and of Laplace it was possible for an individual 
to be a profound scholar in a wide field. The sciences of 
Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geology and 
Biology were not so highly developed that it was impossible 
for one man to know all that anyone knew about three or 



38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

four of them and to have a fair knowledge of the others. But 
the 1 8th and 19th centuries witnessed a wide extension in 
every field of knowledge so that it has become impossible to 
acquire thorough scholarship in several fields. Furthermore, 
these fields themselves have become so enlarged that a man is a 
Geometer, or Organic Chemist, or a Paleontologist rather 
than a Mathematician, a Chemist, or a Geologist. With this 
intensification of specialization it was inevitable that our 
entire system of higher education should feel the influence 
of the tendency. As the major departments in our colleges de- 
veloped, the main excuse for their existence was naturally as- 
sumed to be the breeding of specialists. The teachers them- 
selves were specialists, usually trained in the German mode, 
and any other object of collegiate education seemed to them 
entirely unworthy. To present a survey course which aimed to 
give a wide rather than a deep view of a large field of scholar- 
ship was felt to encourage shallow superficiality. 

One can see clearly enough that scholarship could not have 
progressed to the point that it has reached if the general con- 
sensus of scholars of the 19th century had not chosen depth at 
the expense of breadth. But to assume that such a program 
should dominate the administration and teaching of our col- 
leges at the present time neglects half of the problem, namely 
the human half. The man is not well educated who is merely a 
specialist in one narrow field. Such minds are certainly 
very useful and with human nature as it is we are not likely 
ever to be without a large number of persons of this type. But 
it is not the exclusive or the main function of the college to 
provide them. It may be that the production and employment 
of this type of scholar will become one of the functions of the 
industrial research laboratories and of the endowed Founda- 
tions, but not of the College. The College should perform a 
broader service. It should, to be sure, give her students a 
start in the various branches of scholarship, and that with such 
an impulse as to carry them as far as they may wish to go in the 
direction of specialization. But it should do much more. The 
College should show the place that each subject occupies in its 
relation to other domains. It should indicate the fruit that each 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 39 

field of intellectual endeavor has contributed to the progress of 
civilization. It should explain events, discoveries and ideas in 
terms not only of their origin but of their relations and values. 

One attitude toward scholarship may be illustrated by the 
diamond drill which penetrates the earth for thousands of feet, 
removing a core a few inches in diameter. If one knows what 
one is after, exactly where it is, and is able to aim accurately, 
one can accomplish wonders with the diamond drill. But the 
hole is small, it is very dark at the bottom and no one knows 
just what exists a few inches on either side of the drill. 

The other attitude resembles an excavation in loose earth or 
sand. One does not go as deep, but light and air are always 
present and the deeper one penetrates the more the surround- 
ing territory becomes affected, perhaps falling in around the 
edge, making a broader opening necessary. 

Columbia College is attempting in several directions to 
scrape off the loose earth before encouraging diamond drill 
operations. It must be confessed that this program runs coun- 
ter to the ambitions of certain of the more assertive of the 
younger generation of college students, who often wish to 
"write" before they have anything to write about, or to do "re- 
search" work before they know the difference between an im- 
portant and a trivial idea in their subject. But it is one of the 
duties of the College to indicate to her students the place that 
each individual may expect to occupy in the general cosmos. 

Several projects which are either in successful operation in 
Columbia College or which are under active consideration de- 
serve mention in this connection. In the first rank stand the 
course for Freshmen on Contemporary Civilization, and the 
Honors work for Juniors and Seniors. Nothing more need be 
said regarding the former than to state that the high promise 
that the course offered during the first year or two of its 
existence has been fulfilled and extended. Since its organiza- 
tion the advanced courses in Economics, History and Philoso- 
phy which naturally follow it have increased materially in 
attendance and in the quality of work that can be expected 
of the students. 

The Honors work is rapidly becoming stabilized. Over one 



40 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

hundred students are registered for the coming year and by 
the support that it has gained both from faculty and students, 
it bids fair to occupy the commanding place in our curriculum 
that was anticipated on its organization. The most important 
feature of the Honors work is its broadening influence. During 
the course of two years the students read and discuss in con- 
ference with several members of the faculty, selections from 
Homer, Euripides, St. Augustine, Darwin and fifty others of 
the world's great minds. It should be remarked that nearly a 
year is spent on the literature of Greece and Rome, thus bring- 
ing many students into contact with that literature who are 
unable to read the classical languages. It has been argued that 
no one can gain an adequate idea of Goethe's Faust, for 
example, from one reading in translation, followed by one 
evening of conversation about it. Of course this is true. But 
this particular exercise is not intended to give an idea that the 
scholar would regard as satisfactory. It is not work for the 
diamond drill, but for the steam shovel. 

Each Honors student is required to select a field of major 
interest for intensive study in addition to the general reading. 
In this part of the work students who have the capacity for de- 
tailed studies and are prepared to undertake them are encour- 
aged to do so. 

During the entire year studies preparatory to making an 
outline and syllabus of a course on the History of Science have 
gone forward. An exhaustive brief was submitted to a confer- 
ence of representatives of the scientific departments and the 
cordial support of the project was assured from every direc- 
tion. The course will be offered in 1923-1924 for the first time. 

The Department of Economics has authorized a study of 
the method of teaching the elements of that subject. An active 
committee has been organized, and the coming year will be 
devoted to the preparation of a manuscript which will ap- 
proach the subject from the point of view of the actual opera- 
tion and functioning of the economic life of the community. 
During the past few years the teaching of elementary econom- 
ics has been gradually drawing away from the deductive 
method. But a major operation seems to be necessary in order 



COLUMBIA COLLEGE 41 

to effect a complete separation. The work of preparing an out- 
line and text for the use of students is one of great delicacy and 
difficulty. The College is fortunate in securing the active co- 
operation of members of the Faculties of Law and Political 
Science in the study of this problem. 

The time is not far off when the study of the Arts should be 
approached in the serious and liberal manner that the subject 
deserves. Nothing could be done at Columbia until some 
attention was paid to the fine arts of painting, sculpture, and 
architecture. This work has been organized and is well started. 
The Department of Philosophy has recently offered a course 
on Aesthetics which promises excellent support from that direc- 
tion to the work in Fine Arts, Music, Poetry and the Dramatic 
Arts. It is certainly the function of the University, and to a 
certain extent of the College, to afford an opportunity for ar- 
tists in any branch to be more than technicians. Too many of 
our musicians, poets and painters are sufficiently competent 
technically but have all too little to express. We are all famil- 
iar with the barrenness of the results, in which grotesqueness 
of form, or the lack of it, is put forward as a substitute for 
something more worthy. The next step in the direction of 
broadening and unifying our educational offering is a study of 
the best means of supplying the most solid basis, the widest 
intellectual horizon, and the clearest exposition of the common 
aim and function of the Arts. 

All of the projects just mentioned are broader in aim than the 
work that they have replaced. The Honors reading and the 
History of Science are frankly surveys of immense fields. 
The new course in Economics will certainly relate the subject 
more intimately to other features of our curriculum and to the 
experience of the student than the old course has ever been 
able to do. If the suggestions concerning the arts can be car- 
ried out the gain will be one in richness of background and in 
reserve power rather than in specialized proficiency. 

I do not mean to suggest or imply that there is any substitute 
in a College curriculum for thorough intensive courses in the 
various subjects of study. There is no royal road to scholar- 
ship. But I do believe that the steps that have been taken 



42 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

and which are immediately before us in Columbia College in 
the direction of orienting our students in their intellectual life, 
of relating material which our system of departments tends 
to separate, of attempting to view the entire figure in the 
mosaic rather than to study the individual stones, are impor- 
tant and in the interest of the soundest and most productive 
scholarship. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Herbert E. Hawkes, 

Dean 
June 30, 1023 



SCHOOL OF LAW 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the report for the School of Law 
for the academic year ending June 30, 1923. 
The registration of the School was as follows: 

Graduate Students 8 

Third Year — Class of 1923 175 

Second Year — Class of 1924 197 

First Year — Class of 1925 263 

Non-Matriculated Students 40 

Total 683 

Summer Session 326 

1,009 
Less Duplications 162 

Net Total 847 

Colleges and universities whose graduates were in 

attendance during the academic year 1 922-1 923 

numbered 128. 

During the year the degree of LL. B. was awarded to 157 
candidates and the degree of LL. M. to 4 candidates. Degrees 
were denied to 40 candidates because of deficiencies in final 
examinations. 

During the past year the physical equipment and facilities 
of the school have been crowded to their full capacity, notwith- 
standing the fact that 78 students, previously registered in the 
School, were precluded from reregistering, by the rules adopted 
during the previous year requiring all students to maintain a 



44 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

certain prescribed grade of scholarship in order to continue in 
the School. More than fifty students who had previously 
attended other law schools were refused admission to our 
school on any terms because their records in schools previously 
attended disclosed grades of scholarship falling below our 
minimum requirement. 

The procedure, which we have now established, of excluding 
from the school students who are not educationally worth the 
effort and expense required for the training of a lawyer by 
modern law school methods, is a part of the plan formulated 
some years ago for the improvement of our school by the syste- 
matic and progressive raising of its educational standards. The 
plan is already demonstrating its worth. The strengthening of 
the scholarly performance of the student body as a whole and 
the notable improvement in student morale in recent years 
are direct results of the steadfast adherence to this policy, 
which has made it possible for us to build a more effective 
school and to render a larger service to the student who is 
educationally worth while and to the profession whose highest 
interests we serve. 

All of scholarship and of professional training are not em- 
braced within the old fashioned virtue of thoroughness and 
fidelity to the day's task and the inspiration which the practice 
of them brings, but certain it is that there can be no real 
scholarship and no sound professional training without them 
and they are far more important to the development of the 
professional law school than most of the educational plans and 
procedures which engage the attention of those who are respon- 
sible for the progress of legal education in America. 

Professional training, especially in law, is in very real danger 
from a kind of competitive zeal which has for some years ad- 
versely affected undergraduate education in colleges and uni- 
versities. The desire to do something distinctive, to give some 
evidence of originality, to attract public attention, or to secure 
patronage, has led from time to time to the presentation to the 
public of numerous educational nostrums, as improvements 
upon the old educational fundamentals or as dispensing with 
them as relatively unimportant. "Point of view" on the part of 



SCHOOL OF LAW 45 

the student or the callow instructor, on occasion, seems to be 
more important than the foundation of educational experience 
and intellectual capacity on which one may build the super- 
structure from which with years and experience he may hope 
to have a "point of view." "Openness of mind," it would appear, 
is more to be desired than the development of the mind's 
capacity to lay hold of the fundamentals of human knowledge 
and experience, and to organize and use them with discriminat- 
ing intelligence. 

Too often the organization of new courses and the re- 
arrangement of old ones engage the attention rather than the 
mastery of the old and recognized fields of intellectual experi- 
ence, for there is always a presumption in certain minds that 
the new and untried is an improvement upon the old and 
established mode of procedure. Recently we have been told 
authoritatively that the true solution of the problem of legal 
education in America is to be found, not in a more thorough and 
exacting study of legal science or in better standards of educa- 
tion and bar admission, but in so organizing our system of 
legal training as to bring the bar within the reach of the great 
and increasing number of applicants whose training, both lib- 
eral and professional, is of the most superficial character. 

These new educational "discoveries" are not wanting in novel 
and dramatic qualities which are lacking to the ancient educa- 
tional procedure of hard work inspired and guided by com- 
petent teaching. Nor are they so difficult of application. 
They are often the more attractive to students, especially to 
that growing class of students in American who are seeking 
some painless and effortless route to professional efficiency 
and success. 

By these observations I do not mean, of course, that the last 
word on legal education has been spoken. There will undoubt- 
edly be, from time to time, new ways of looking at law and new 
developments in the law itself which will affect the teaching 
and study of it. Nevertheless the constant search for the new 
and dramatic merely because they attract attention or have 
advertising value tends to shift emphasis from the essential 
and fundamental to the more superficial aspects of the educa- 



46 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tional process and to that extent it is a serious menace to the 
stability and orderly progress of professional education. 

Whatever may be done at Columbia therefore to improve 
and strengthen the type of legal education which is being de- 
veloped here, it ought to be steadily borne in mind that there 
can be no substitute for exacting standards of scholarly per- 
formance on the part of its students and inspiring and devoted 
service on the part of its teachers and that ultimately the repu- 
tation and public service of our School of Law will depend 
more on these factors than on any others or all others 
combined. 

There are in fact two very distinct problems of legal educa- 
tion in America, neither of which has any very close relation- 
ship to the other, which must continue to invite our attention. 
The first and more important problem, one often alluded to in 
these reports, has grown out of the development in the United 
States of two distinct types of law school. One type is repre- 
sented by a relatively small group of university law schools 
having high entrance requirements and exacting educational 
standards; the remaining 120 or more schools constitute a dis- 
tinct class with low admission requirements, low educational 
standards and on the whole low professional ideals. Most of 
them give their courses at night or on a part time basis, their 
students' principal time and energies being devoted to activi- 
ties other than the study or practice of law. The very existence 
of these Schools is made possible (a) by our traditional policy 
of low bar admission requirements which are less exacting than 
the standards of admission to other professions and (b) by the 
fact that, by providing instruction largely or wholly by part 
time instructors and with inadequate libraries and equipment, 
it has been possible to maintain such schools on a financially 
profitable basis. 

This second group of schools has created the problem with 
which the American Bar Association has sought to deal in its 
campaign for raising bar admission standards by requiring 
that all candidates for the bar must have pursued a minimum 
period of liberal and professional study greater than that 
now required by the majority of law schools and requiring 



SCHOOLOFLAW 47 

the schools themselves to be adequately equipped with teach- 
ing staff and library. 

The problem raised by these schools can ultimately be 
solved only by insistence on what I have characterized as the 
old fashioned virtues of thoroughness and fidelity to the task of 
training men for membership in the bar and fitting them to 
perform the functions of a difficult and exacting profession. 

That the bar has taken upon itself the reform of this phase 
of legal education is a hopeful sign of the times and that it has 
set its hand to the task in the right and only way to accom- 
plish it is, I believe, not open to serious question. 

The other important problem of legal education, and one in 
which we at Columbia are immediately concerned, is suggested 
by the history and development of those schools which I have 
included in the first class. No one looking fairly and intelli- 
gently at the work of these schools can maintain that their 
problem arises from their methods of instruction or from any 
want of zeal for scholarship, or thoroughness or devotion to the 
educational enterprise. In all these respects they have set an 
example which might well be emulated by educational institu- 
tions of other types, and in all of them they have gained an 
educational leadership which they must under no circum- 
stances relinquish by subordinating these fundamental things 
to the fads and fancies of an educational opportunism. 

Present day problems of legal education, for schools of this 
type, arise, rather, from our traditional attitude toward the 
law as a body of technical doctrine more or less detached from 
those social forces which it regulates. We have failed to recog- 
nize as clearly as we might that law is nothing more than a 
form of social control intimately related to those social func- 
tions which are the subject matter of economics and the social 
sciences generally. 

Twenty years or more ago this failure was most apparent in 
law school teaching for the very obvious reason that the 
common law itself is technically more highly developed than 
any other system of law and the law teacher not unnaturally 
directed his energies principally toward the exposition of its 
more technical aspects. 



48 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In the last fifty years, too, the law has expanded enormously 
both in the field it covers and in its content. It is not sur- 
prising therefore that lawyers and teachers of law in the 
effort to master the intricacies of the common law should have 
become absorbed in its technique to such an extent that they 
have to some degree lost sight of its true relationship to what 
I have referred to as social functions, and have come too 
much to regard it as a body of learning quite distinct and 
apart from those social forces which create it, much as the 
scientist regards the body of natural law which he studies and 
investigates as something apart from social organization and 
development. In recent years there has come a clearer under- 
standing of this relationship and a noticeable tendency on the 
part of the most successful and distinguished teachers of law 
to direct attention more and more to those causal elements 
in legal science which are the more fundamental in the develop- 
ment of technical doctrine, instead of dissipating their ener- 
gies in the vain attempt to cover, in the brief period of law 
school training, the entire technique of their subjects. 

This change of attitude has not, however, up to the present 
time produced any noticeable effect upon the organization of 
law school work. For more than thirty years the only sub- 
stantial change in law school curricula has been the addition 
from time to time of new courses to cover some new field into 
which law has expanded with the growing complexity of 
modern business and economic life. Starting with the funda- 
mental courses in Contracts, Torts, Property and Equity, we 
have added courses in Insurance Law, Public Service Com- 
panies, Unfair Competition, Restrictions on Trade, Industrial 
Relations, Bankruptcy, Statutes, Damages, to mention only 
a few of the many new courses which adorn modern law school 
curricula, and withal every instructor continuously and per- 
sistently presses for an increase in the time alloted to his 
subject in order that he may treat adequately its ever ex- 
panding technique. This is the process which has steadily 
been going on until at last we are beginning to realize that the 
logical outcome of it must be that ultimately students who 
come to us to be trained as lawyers must remain with us for 



SCHOOL OF LAW 49 

most of their natural lives in order to be trained properly to 
begin the practice of their profession. 

The only solutions that have been proposed are mere me- 
chanical solutions. Some courses of lesser importance, it is 
suggested, may be taken superficially; overlapping of courses 
must be definitely located and eliminated; the law school 
course must be increased from three to four years, notwith- 
standing the fact that the changes in our law which require a 
four years course will by the same logic ultimately require a 
five or six or ten year course. There can be no mechanical 
solution for a problem which is created by the endeavor to 
force a continually increasing volume into a fixed space, and 
we are being brought to the realization that we must seek 
other methods to adapt the law school course to the growing 
technique of the law. 

Instead of dissipating our energies in the vain attempt to 
master in the brief period of three years the vast and growing 
mass of technical learning of our profession as an independent 
and detached system, we must seek a simplification of educa- 
tional methods by coming closer to those energizing forces 
which are producing the technical doctrine of the law. We may 
hope to do this by reaching a clearer and more accurate under- 
standing of the relation of law to those social functions 
which it endeavors to control and by studying its rules and 
doctrines as tools or devices created and placed in the hands 
of the lawyer as means of effecting that control. 

That is, I think, the heart of our problem and it naturally 
divides itself into two subsidiary problems. The first is the 
problem of so re-arranging and organizing the subjects of law 
school study as to make more apparent the relationship of the 
various technical devices of the law to the particular social 
or economic function with which they are concerned, so as to 
present them in their true perspective with respect to the 
social enterprise, and at the same time save the dissipation of 
energy and effort which goes on when, not perceiving that 
relationship, we treat various technical doctrines related to 
the same social or economic function in widely separated and 
apparently unrelated parts of our curriculum. 

The legal concepts of property and contracts are familiar 



50 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

devices for effecting social control. The first year student very 
properly begins his law study with a consideration of these 
subjects and of torts which deals with the legal control of acts 
which affect either persons or things, accompanied by an 
introductory study of pleading and procedure. Later his 
notions of the range of control of human action through the 
contract and property concepts is expanded by study of the 
doctrines of equity. In general most other courses in law school 
deal with various phases of the application of these concepts to 
particular social or economic functions but without any at- 
tempt at classification of the function involved or at bringing 
together in single courses the various devices applicable to a 
particular function. 

For example, the undertaking of a lawyer to secure satis- 
faction of a judgment in favor of his client presents itself to 
him as a single problem to be solved by resort to a variety of 
legal devices, the particular device to be selected depending 
on the particular circumstances of the case. 

But how does the law school deal with the problem? It 
treats of execution and levy in a course on procedure ; of credi- 
tors' bills and equitable execution in courses on equity; so also 
of equity receiverships, whereas proceedings supplementary to 
judgment and receiverships in such proceedings are usually 
dealt with in practice courses. Assignments for the benefit of 
creditors, if dealt with at all, are likely to be dealt with in the 
course on trusts, whereas the subject of bankruptcy and the 
rights of creditors in bankruptcy proceedings are usually dealt 
with in a separate course. 

In the same way in text books and law school curricula it is 
customary to treat independently the law of pledge, of mort- 
gage, of conditional sales and suretyship as well as such special- 
ized forms of security as endorsed bills of lading, warehouse 
receipts, trust receipts, equipment trusts and the various mod- 
ern devices for the financing of marketing operations which 
have had a rapid development in recent years. 

These various subjects are distinct branches of technical law, 
often having different origins and history, nevertheless they 
exist and have practical utility solely to make effective a single 



SCHOOLOFLAW .51 

important business function, namely, ensuring to the creditor 
a hold upon a particular piece of property or the obligation of a 
surety, in addition to the personal obligation of the debtor, as 
security for the payment of his debt. All this is indeed but a 
phase of the business man's problem of administering his 
credit risks if he is a creditor and his problem of administering 
his credit resources if he is a debtor. 

Many other examples might be given of our tendency to 
make isolated studies of various legal devices without reference 
to the more significant social functions which they serve, but 
these will suffice if they make it apparent that there is not 
only a waste of time and effort in dealing with separate legal 
devices having a similar use, at different times and in different 
courses, but there is a loss of educational opportunity in the 
failure to make a comparative study of them in the light and 
with clear understanding of the economic function which is 
being facilitated or controlled. 

It is quite possible that if, for example, we brought into a 
single course a consideration of all the devices to which the 
creditor may resort to ensure payment of his judgment or if 
we brought into another, a study of all the devices by which 
the creditor might obtain security for the payment of his debt, 
the central idea in each being a consideration of the various 
legal methods by which law controls and effectuates the social 
function concerned, we would go far toward finding a solution 
of the difficulties in which the present day law school curricu- 
lum is involved. 

There would certainly be some saving of time and energy 
and a more adequate and satisfactory treatment of the sub- 
jects concerned, than is possible with the present arrangement. 
What is more important, this proposal suggests the possibility 
of a reorganization of the law school curriculum with reference 
to the social and economic functions with which law deals in 
something more than a mere mechanical way, and holds out 
the hope that it will be possible to continue the work of pro- 
fessional law schools without the continual multiplication of 
courses which has characterized their curriculums for the 
past twenty years. 



52 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

With this purpose in mind we have been engaged during the 
past year in making an extensive analysis and survey of all 
the courses offered in the law school. Each instructor has pre- 
pared a complete descriptive memorandum of his course, giv- 
ing in detail the subjects discussed and the method of treat- 
ment. These memoranda have been referred to a special com- 
mittee of the Faculty for analysis and classification, and with 
the report of this committee we should be possessed of the 
data on the basis of which a really scientific revision of the 
curriculum may be begun. 

The successful carrying out of such a plan is a matter of 
years rather than of months, not only because of the necessary 
studies which must be carried on and adjustments made, but 
because it ultimately will require the preparation of new case 
books in which the material will be selected with reference to 
the functional approach to the study of legal devices. 

The second part of the problem affecting what I may call 
the more scholarly type of law schools is related to the train- 
ing in social sciences which students have received before they 
begin their study of law. It is, I think, quite obvious that if 
law is a study of a method of social and economic control, 
the student in order to be adequately prepared for its study 
ought not only to have good mental discipline, but he ought to 
have a thorough-going knowledge of the social functions with 
which the law deals. While the undergraduate departments 
of colleges and universities are offering a great variety of 
courses in economics and the so-called social sciences, few of 
them indicate that any effort is made at any systematic 
approach to the problem from this viewpoint. 

It is rare to find among the students of entering classes in 
the law school, who are graduates of colleges and universities, 
any well developed knowledge of our social structure and how 
it functions. Their economic training is too often based on 
a priori assumptions and a kind of closet philosophizing which 
unfits them to deal objectively with the type of economic 
problem with which he must deal in law school and later on as 
a lawyer. Where his training has been objective it seems too 
often to have been concerned with the description of the minu- 



SCHOOL OF LAW 53 

tiae of more or less unrelated phases of social development 
without dealing with fundamentals. Too often he knows little 
or nothing of economic functions of property, contract, com- 
merce, credit, of distribution and of money and banking. 

I am especially pleased to report that the economists of 
the several departments of the University have taken this 
matter up in conference with a view to the preparation of an 
undergraduate course of study in economics and social science, 
organized along the lines here suggested, which would be of 
positive value as training for the liberally educated man 
whatever life work he may take up, but which ought equally 
to be of value to the student planning to take graduate courses 
in law or business. Such a program of study properly organized 
and established at Columbia ought to give a new trend to 
training in the social sciences which would strengthen liberal 
education and prove of inestimable benefit to the work of law 
schools. 

It is eleven years since I first made the proposal that Colum- 
bia establish a doctorate in law to be awarded for advanced 
studies in law. It is especially gratifying that the decision of 
the Trustees of the University to establish the degree (Juris 
Doctor) comes at a time peculiarly opportune for the stimula- 
tion of advanced law study. The type of work which has been 
carried on in the analysis of case law in American law schools 
during the past generation was bound to lay a solid foundation 
for the development of legal research in universities. The 
studies of university law teachers which are bearing fruit in 
monographs and treatises on various subjects are constantly 
suggesting new fields of investigation. The movement toward 
law simplification resulting in the creation of the American 
Law Institute has emphasized the importance of legal re- 
search and stimulated interest in it, so that the time is ripe 
for the development of this phase of university law study. 
Fortunately the J. D. degree at Columbia is to be distinctively 
a research degree. Formal courses when required for, or 
accepted as, part qualification for the degree are incidental 
only to the candidate's main program for research. In thus 
fixing the requirements for the degree, the Faculty of Law was 



54 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

of the opinion that in most American educational enterprises 
too great emphasis is placed on attendance on formal class- 
room exercises and too little on original investigation and inde- 
pendent study. In any case it was felt that here at Columbia 
we ought not to encourage students who have spent six or seven 
years in attendance on formal college and law school courses, 
to continue the practice as candidates for a doctor's degree. 

While the greatest flexibility is permitted in the arrange- 
ment of work and the course of study to be pursued, the 
plans for the degree contemplate intimate contact in confer- 
ence with the instructors in whose fields the candidate is 
carrying on his investigation, and the production of a doctor's 
thesis giving evidence of original investigation and sound 
scholarship. Such a degree should be a mark of high dis- 
tinction in scholarship and it is not to be expected that the 
number of successful candidates will be large. The success 
of the plan for advanced study in law must be measured rather 
by the scholarly productivity which it stimulates than by the 
number of students which it attracts. 

The year has brought few changes in the curriculum or in the 
assignment of courses, principally because it was deemed in- 
advisable to make any except very necessary changes pending 
the thorough-going revision of the curriculum which, as I 
have indicated, is contemplated. 

During the coming year the first year class is to be divided 
into two sections in all first year subjects. This is made highly 
desirable by the increasing size of the first year classes and the 
necessity of more intimate personal contact of students with 
the instructor at the beginning of their law school course. 
To accomplish this needful improvement we are compelled 
to seek additional lecture room space in other buildings of the 
University with as yet no certainty that the space can be 
found. Each year the crowded condition of Kent Hall makes 
more difficult the carrying on of the work there and strengthens 
the hope that the time may soon come when the whole of 
Kent Hall may be turned over to the Law School and its work 
may be carried on with the advantage of adequate physical 
facilities. A great improvement was made during the past 



SCHOOL OF LAW 55 

winter when the seats in the two large lectures rooms in the 
second floor of Kent Hall were placed on an inclined plane, 
thus making it possible to carry on with ease the class-room 
discussion in these rooms. To carry on the work of the school 
satisfactorily there should be at least two other lecture 
rooms in Kent Hall similarly equipped. 

I report with great satisfaction the addition of two of our 
own graduates to the teaching staff of the School. Huger W. 
Jervey, A.B., LL.B. of the Class of 191 3, has been appointed 
Associate Professor of Law, and Carroll Low, A.B., LL.B., of 
the Class of 1922 has been appointed a Special Lecturer. Both 
won distinction as students in this Law School and as Editors of 
the Law Review and both are members of the New York Bar, 
and have already given evidence of their scholarship and their 
ability as teachers. 

During the spring examination we made an experimental 
test of the psychological method of examination in three 
subjects— Contracts, Real Property I. and Trusts. A part of 
each examination was given in the customary manner by ask- 
ing the usual type of problem question and requiring the stu- 
dent to write out at length a reasoned answer to each question. 
The other part of the examination paper was made up of a 
series of problems with reference to each of which a large 
number of categorical statements were printed on the ex- 
amination paper. The student was required to mark each 
statement with a symbol indicating his agreement or disagree- 
ment with it and his paper was scored on the basis of his 
answers thus indicated. The part of the examination of the 
old type was marked as is usual by the instructor. The in- 
structor also indicated on the psychological part of the ex- 
amination how each statement should be marked and turned 
it over to a second examiner who scored this part of the 
examination independently of the instructor. 

The results thus obtained when collated and compared 
showed that with the exception of few and very slight varia- 
tions in most instances easily accounted for, there were no 
substantial differences between the results of the two methods 
of examining. 



56 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In the three examinations mentioned, if the psychological 
method alone had been used the grades of individual students 
would not have varied materially from those given on the old 
type of examination and those actually reported to the 
Registrar. 

A great deal has been written in recent years with respect 
to the advantages of the psychological method of examination 
over prevailing methods. Those which are especially significant 
in legal subjects are the wide range of subject matter which 
can be covered by the psychological type of examination and 
the great saving of time and energy of the instructor which are 
now devoted to grading the papers in the old type of ex- 
amination. To the modern law school the latter is especially 
important. 

With the old type of examination, where the student is 
marked on the basis of the instructor's judgment of the excel- 
lence of his answers written in opinion form, the instructor 
should personally read and value his students' answers. This 
has been the practice at Columbia Law School in recent years 
and all instructors have faithfully read and marked their stu- 
dents' examination books. Every instructor reads some hun- 
dreds of these books in the course of the year. Some of them 
read a thousand or more. This monotonous drudgery is a 
serious burden to impose on a body of men devoted to teaching 
and scholarship, and has in my judgment cut down materially 
the scholarly productivity of those engaged in law school 
teaching in America. 

That this burden can be lightened to a very great extent by 
the adoption of the psychological method is obvious, if our 
a priori doubts as to its practical utility can be satisfied. The 
more important of these doubts are with respect to its utility 
and its adequacy as a test of the lawyer's ability to discern the 
legal problem involved in a given state of facts without the aid 
of suggestion by the form or method of stating the question 
he is called on to answer. All that can be said at this time is 
that many and diverse opinions have been expressed on this 
subject. But one well-conducted experiment is worth many 
a priori opinions. A series of experiments such as that of last 



SCHOOL OF LAW 57 

spring ought to enable us to form definite opinions as to the 
value of the psychological method of examining in law subjects 
and the extent to which it can be profitably used in the law 
school, based on actual experience. Our first experiment is re- 
assuring as to the reliability of the method, and it has revealed 
unsuspected possibilities for the testingof the student's capacity 
for exercising his reasoning power and "seeing the point" in 
legal problems. It is not too much to hope that as a result of 
future experiments that are to be carried on this coming year, 
we may find a method of combining the psychological with the 
old type of law examination which will prove to be a satisfac- 
tory method of testing the student's proficiency and at the 
same time materially lessen the sacrifice of time and energy of 
the teaching staff which has heretofore been made in order to 
make these tests effective. 

Satisfactory progress has been made in the work of building 
up the library. Our collection now exceeds 101,000 vol- 
umes. With the adoption of a policy of regular and substantial 
annual appropriations for the library we have been able to 
build up the library more systematically and intelligently 
than heretofore, but it is necessary to remind the trustees and 
our friends that much necessary work remains to be done in 
filling gaps in our collection if Columbia Law School is to do 
adequately its appointed work. This is especially the case with 
early American statute law, with the British Colonial reports 
and the legal literature of South America. During the year 
2884 volumes were added to our law library by gift. I make 
grateful acknowledgment for these gifts to William G. Low, 
Esq. 1869, Harold W. Buchanan, Esq., Columbia University 
Law Library Association, Franklin Day, Esq., Equitable Life 
Assurance Society, Roger Foster, Esq., Law 1880, Albert 
Mayer, Esq., C. 1916, Estate of John B. Pine, C. 1877, John C. 
Rowe, Esq., Law 1898 and Charles W. T. Weldon, Esq. 

We are also indebted to Trubee Davison, Esq., of the Class 
of 1922 for generously providing a fund of about $2,200 for 
binding and preserving our extensive collection of books from 
the library of Chancellor Kent, and to the Law Library Asso- 
ciation for a gift of specially built book-cases which has en- 



58 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

abled us to place the collection permanently on exhibition in 
the main library reading room. Our growing collection of Kent 
Memorabilia and manuscripts has been added to by the gener- 
osity of Frederick H. Man, Esq., Law 1866, Henry H. Man, 
Esq., Law 1876 and Alrich N. Man, Esq., Law 1879 who 
have donated to the library two manuscript lectures of 
Chancellor Kent delivered to students in his office in New York 
City in 1826. 

The most notable event of the year was the organization by 
the Law Alumni Association under the able and inspiring lead- 
ership of Hon. Edward R. Finch, President of the Association, 
of the celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of 
Chancellor Kent's second professorship in Columbia College 
following his retirement as Chancellor in 1823. As is well 
known the lectures then delivered at Columbia by Chancellor 
Kent formed the basis of his Commentaries on American Law. 
The celebration was preceded by the publication in a special 
number of the Alumni News of a series of interesting sketches 
of the life and services of Chancellor Kent. On the evening 
of June fourth, in University Hall, the Honorable Charles Evans 
Hughes, Secretary of State, delivered a notable oration on the 
life and service of Kent to a distinguished audience of members 
of the bench and bar and of our own Alumni. This was fol- 
lowed by a reception to Mr. Hughes by the Faculty of Law and 
the Officers of the Alumni Association in Kent Hall. The cele- 
bration in interest and dignity was altogether fitting and 
worthy of the memory of the great chancellor and legal scholar. 

The graduating class, following the example of our graduat- 
ing classes for some years, has donated a substantial sum of 
money to be expended for the benefit of the school, under the 
direction of the Dean. This is only one of many evidences of 
growing student loyalty to the school and a strengthening 
student morale which are important elements in the develop- 
ment of any educational institution. 

This is the 13th Annual Report which I have had the honor 
to submit in behalf of the Law School. Taken as a whole they 
record a healthy growth and progress which are the normal 
result of steadfastness of purpose and abiding confidence in 



SCHOOLOFLAW 59 

what I have elsewhere referred to as the old-fashioned educa- 
tional virtues of thoroughness and fidelity to the day's task. 
They give also some indication of the great importance of com- 
petent and inspiring teaching in the building up of the highest 
type of professional law school. 

This experience of the past while not a complete chart to 
guide us in the future may at least suggest some of the more 
essential things without which the future will not be secure. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Harlan F. Stone, 

Dean 
June 30, 1Q23 



COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the following report of the work 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons for the year ending 
June 30th, 1923. 

Three hundred and eighty-one students registered for the 
courses leading to the M.D. degree. There were 103 First Year 
students, 98 Second Year, 86 Third Year and 94 Fourth Year. 
There were 56 students who registered in the various depart- 
ments of the School of Medicine under the faculties of Pure 
Science, of whom 6 were working towards the Master's degree, 
14 for the Ph.D. degree and 36 as special students. In the 
courses for graduates in Medicine, there were 160 students. 

The selection of students, both for the First Year Class and 
for advanced standing, remains a difficult and time-consuming 
task. This work is becoming more satisfactory, chiefly because 
of more intimate contacts with the teachers of the pre-medical 
subjects in the various colleges from which our students come. 
This is especially true of Columbia College, where the carefully 
considered opinions of these pre-medical teachers regarding the 
relative fitness of the candidates is of the greatest aid. The rel- 
ative standing of these men later on in the School of Medicine 
corresponds more closely to this rating than to any other 
standard at our disposal. 

Professor Zinsser's decision to accept the Chair of Bacteri- 
ology at Harvard was received with very sincere regret by all 
of his associates. As a student in the School, and as a younger 
instructor, he showed to a marked degree the inspiring leader- 
ship which so strongly marked his later years as Professor of 
Bacteriology and as a member of the Committee on Adminis- 
tration. High idealism and far-sighted vision were combined 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 6l 

with practical common sense to an extent rare in one so gifted 
as a productive scholar. His counsel and friendship have been 
valued very highly by all of his associates. Dr. Frederick 
Parker Gay succeeds Dr. Zinsser as Professor of Bacteriology. 
Dr. Gay received his A.B. from Harvard in 1897, his M.D. 
from Johns Hopkins in 1901. He was a demonstrator in Path- 
ology at the University of Pennsylvania for two years. Follow- 
ing this he studied abroad at the Pasteur Institute at Brussels 
for three years and then returned to Harvard as an instructor 
in Pathology and Bacteriology. After three years he went to 
the University of California as Professor of Pathology and 
Bacteriology and later, of Bacteriology. He had a year's ser- 
vice in the Army. He was Chairman of the Division of Medical 
Sciences of the National Research Council last year, on leave 
from the University of California. Dr. Gay is the author of 
numerous publications in the field of Bacteriology and Im- 
munity and a member of national societies in these fields. He 
was recently decorated by the Belgian Government as Com- 
mander of the Order of the Crown for his scientific work. 

Promotions 
The following promotions have been made : 

Charles C. Lieb from Associate Professor to Professor of Pharmacology 

Frederick T. van Beuren, from Associate in Surgery to Assistant Professor 
of Surgery 

George M. MacKee, from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of 
Dermatology and Syphilology 

William C. Von Glahn from Associate to Assistant Professor of Pathology 

Benjamin P. Farrell from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of Or- 
thopedic Surgery 

Charles I. Lambert from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of Psy- 
chiatry 

Isadore Rosen and Fred Wise from Associates to Assistant Professors of 
Dermatology and Syphilology 

John D. Kernan, Jr., from Instructor to Assistant Professor of Laryngology 
and Otology 

Harold T. Hyman, from Instructor to Assistant Professor of Pharmacology 

S. Philip Goodhart, from Assistant Professor to Professor of Clinical Neu- 
rology 

Ernest L. Scott, from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology 



62 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

J. Howard Mueller, from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of Bac- 
teriology 
Frederick Parker, Jr., from Associate to Assistant Professor of Bacteriology 
Henry A. Riley, from Associate to Assistant Professor of Neurology 
George M. Mackenzie, from Associate to Assistant Professor of Medicine 

The Department of Neurology and Psychiatry has been 
separated into two different departments and Professor 
Thomas W. Salmon has been appointed Executive Officer of 
the Department of Psychiatry. With him are associated Dr. 
Charles I. Lambert as Associate Professor and Dr. Mortimer 
W. Raynor as Assistant Professor. A psychiatric clinic has 
been started at the Vanderbilt Clinic with Dr. Lambert as 
Chief of Clinic. 

The courses for graduates in medicine have been further 
developed under an Administrative Board. This latter is made 
up of the Dean of the School of Medicine, Chairman, the Dean 
oftheGraduate Faculties, the Director of University Extension 
and Professors of Neurology, Oto-Laryngology, Diseases of 
Children, Surgery and Medicine. Courses have been given 
during the past year in Neurology and Psychiatry at the Van- 
derbilt Clinic and the Neurological Institute, in Dermatology 
and Syphilology at Vanderbilt Clinic, in Surgery at New York 
Hospital, in Internal Medicine and the Treatment of Diabetes 
at Presbyterian. Other courses have been arranged to start 
during the coming academic year as follows : General Medical 
subjects at Mt. Sinai, Oto-Laryngology at Vanderbilt Clinic 
and Bellevue Hospital, Diseases of Children at Bellevue, Pres- 
byterian and St. Luke's Hospitals, and Treatment of Diabetes 
at St. Luke's. The general policies adopted by this board to 
govern the graduate studies in medicine recognize first a dis- 
tinction between "original investigation" and "continued edu- 
cation." The former should be under the guidance of the 
graduate faculties, as at present, whether it leads to the de- 
grees of M. A. or Ph. D., or whether it is carried on merely for 
its own sake. The "continued education" courses are to be 
developed under University Extension, which has so well 
worked out the machinery for organizing and administering 
this kind of work. It is intended to meet two demands, first to 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 63 

make it possible for any properly qualified teacher to offer any 
course in medicine he is able and desires to give; second, to 
provide any course which a sufficient number of properly qual- 
ified graduates in medicine desire to take. Such courses may 
be limited to a very narrow and special field or may be quite 
general in character. They may be of short duration or may be 
carried on for a considerable portion of time. It seems desir- 
able to develop courses in the various special branches of medi- 
cine which will give men the opportunity to become proficient 
in that branch. Such courses should provide for instruction in 
the various fundamental subjects as applied to that specialty, 
as well as for clinical work in that field. A degree may be 
granted for such work when those who are responsible for the 
work feel that the student has become qualified as a specialist. 
This should be measured by proficiency rather than the num- 
ber of hours spent in this work. A year's residence, however, 
should be the minimum required for such a degree. 

Another year's experience with the vocational plan of or- 
ganization in the clinical departments has furnished additional 
light on this perplexing problem. The relative importance of 
the various factors seems to become clarified as time goes on. 
Some of these factors grow increasingly important and their 
value more apparent. Others become less essential and less 
desirable. It is increasingly evident that the departments of 
medicine and surgery have been far more successful in ful- 
filling their duties of teaching, research and care of the sick 
since they were put on an academic basis. It is necessary that 
the men in these departments on whom these responsibilities 
rest shall devote their major energies to this work. The op- 
portunity to concentrate their efforts in one place, to spend 
their entire day in the hospital, classrooms and laboratories is 
eagerly welcomed by these men and has already been pro- 
ductive of excellent results. So far the plan has proved to be an 
unqualified success and should be encouraged and maintained. 

In order to establish and develop this plan it was thought 
best to impose certain protective conditions. Some of these 
have proved undesirable and perhaps unwise. If such con- 
ditions are not in themselves productive of good, and if they 



64 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

do not indirectly contribute toward the fulfillment of the 
essential purpose of the plan or even protect this, it is better 
that they should be changed. One condition was that they 
should only care for private patients within the hospital, at 
first no fee being charged for such service. Later on a fee was 
charged by the hospital and a fixed sum was turned over by the 
hospital to the university, from which additional salaries were 
paid to all the professional staff of the hospital, both clinical 
and laboratory, who were devoting their entire time to this 
work. The details as to private practice as in effect the past 
year seemed to offer many advantages as outlined in the last 
report. In its application, however, these were outweighed by 
its disadvantages. There has been considerable opposition to 
this arrangement from many quarters and it is doubtful if it is 
either necessary or wise. It is objected to by the men them- 
selves, as artificial and unnatural. It removes their power of 
selection of cases as to numbers, type and time. There is a 
difference in responsibility with the indirect relationship be- 
tween patient and physician. It is objected to by most of the 
patients and by their family physicians. 

A far more serious factor in this problem is the preferential 
scale of salaries existing between the clinical and laboratory 
departments. In order to command the services of enough men 
who were properly qualified to assume the responsibilities of 
caring for the sick in the hospital, teaching the students and 
carrying on research, the salaries were larger than those paid 
in the fundamental departments. In turn they accepted con- 
ditions regarding their outside activities not imposed either on 
the other departments of the school or elsewhere in the 
University. This was clearly realized in the beginning by all 
concerned. It was thought necessary in order to establish the 
clinical departments on an academic basis, and the unselfish 
attitude on the part of the laboratory men was most com- 
mendable. But this unselfishness should not be leaned upon 
too heavily when attempting to determine a more permanent 
arrangement. In the same way the loyalty of the clinical 
group and their willingness to thoroughly try out a plan at 
their personal loss should not be strained too far. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 65 

To be successful over a period of time the plan of organiza- 
tion must be both theoretically and practically sound and 
wise. It should be simple and automatic, fair and just, elastic 
and adjustable to varying circumstances and individuals. 
A clinical department must contain men of different talents 
and abilities and the organization must be such as will ac- 
commodate a varying and varied assortment of individuals. 

A committee has been at work on this problem and it is 
hoped that definite recommendations will be presented to the 
Trustees of the University and the Managers of the Hospital 
for their consideration. 

The work in all three subdivisions of the composite De- 
partment of Anatomy has progressed in a very satisfactory 
and uninterrupted manner during the period covered by this 
report and has adjusted itself very well to the changes in the 
curriculum of the first two years. The educational soundness 
of the tripartite division of their teaching activities, into the 
microscopical and gross anatomical courses and the third con- 
necting link between them furnished by the course on Verte- 
brate Morphology and Organogeny, has been proved more 
especially during the year now nearing its close, since it afforded 
a practical tryout of the working of the combined two-year 
course, with students of the First and Second year sitting 
together as a class. 

The first complete revolution of the wheel, carrying courses 
107-108, 109-110 as its periphery, was accomplished smoothly 
and with eminently satisfactory results. 

Both the consideration of the Organogenetic material, and 
of the special educational topics offered in the History of 
Medicine and Evolution, with its collateral branches of 
Heredity and Variation especially related to Medicine, reached 
their appointed places of presentation to members of the class 
of 1925 on schedule time. 

The administrative mechanism worked smoothly, and Dr. 
Huntington seems more than ever convinced that they have 
arrived at a sound practical pedagogic solution of their ana- 
tomical problem in establishing this course in its present form, 
serving as an intellectual cement filling the crevice which 



66 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

otherwise would inevitably separate the teaching provinces of 
minute and gross anatomy. It thus affords the highly desirable 
unity of the entire educational tender offered by the depart- 
ment as a whole, while at the same time it rounds out the 
entire program of the school by giving due educational value 
to those cultural aspects of medicine properly falling within 
the domain of Anatomy, by utilizing the alternating third of 
the two year course for the consideration of these topics de- 
manded by modern progress. 

The growth of the teaching equipment of the Department, 
indispensable to the successful organization and conduct of 
this form of instruction, has been more than commonly satis- 
factory and encouraging during the year. The accessions to 
the phyletic and ontogenetic series have been numerous and 
of great value and have filled many previously existing gaps. 

A conclusive answer to the question "what is the present 
state of Organic Evolution in the Bodies of the Higher Verte- 
brates?" is urgently demanded by the phase which the entire 
Evolutionary Problem has reached in modern times, even if it 
can only be attempted at present as covering a single common 
and universal province of Animal Oeconomy. In no part of 
the higher Vertebrate Organization is the course and present 
status of evolution as clearly patent as in the structural detail 
of the organ of Respiration. The morphology of an entodermal 
derivative, serving an universal and practically unchanging 
function, based on the reaction of the cell to a single chemical 
element, offers the best opportunity for tracing the first ap- 
pearance and incorporation of morphological increments of 
evolutionary significance in the past, for determining the 
present level of the process in general, and for obtaining an 
indication of its future trend. 

An inquiry of this nature, having an answer to the above 
question in view as its ultimate result, has closely engaged the 
scientific activity of the Department for more than 35 years 
and has now reached very definite and satisfactory conclusions. 

When Chr. Aeby in 1880 for the first time presented an 
analysis of mammalian intra-pulmonary organization on lines 
of pure morphology, the results based on these researches 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 67 

included a number of disturbing and discrepant factors, due 
to errors of interpretation unavoidable at a period when the 
ontogenetic control of the results was as yet imperfectly de- 
veloped and sparingly employed. In the more than four 
decades which have elapsed since the appearance of this 
initial fundamental publication, the pulmonary problem has 
been the subject of many subsequent investigators, but with- 
out amending these early discrepancies or leading to a con- 
sistent and clarified conception of the entire question, which 
remained fundamentally in the state in which Aeby left it. 
It is only during the past year that the accessions of additional 
conclusive comparative anatomical and embryological ma- 
terial, long desired, have reached this laboratory. The critical 
analysis of these types has at last yielded facts which enable 
them to read the course of reptilio-mammalian pulmonary 
organic evolution clearly and to offer a consistent interpreta- 
tion, free from the disturbing factors referred to. It is gratify- 
ing to find that this conforms in every detail to the phylogenetic 
structural lines laid down on logical grounds based on the then 
available material in the Department's publication issued in 
1920 (A Critique of the Theories of Pulmonary Evolution in the 
Mammalia. Amer. Jour. Anat. Vol. 27, No. 2, May, 1920). 
These important accessions of 1922-23 included the following: 

1. Both of the Aplacentalia, Platypus and Echidna. 

2. The unrivalled collection of Didelphys embryos of the Wistar Institute, 
placed at our scientific use by the Director and Governors. 

3. The rich Marsupial fauna received from the New York Zoological So- 
ciety. 

4. Further from the same source, the desert Artiodactyl adaptations Came- 
lus, Giraffa, Auchenia. 

5. The Indian and Central American form of Tapirus, containing the key 
to the interpretation of the dominant mammalian pulmonary type. 

6. Two examples of the Sirenian Trichechus. 

7. The Edentate Bradypus. 

8. The Sondiac Perissodactyl Rhinoceros. 

The great wealth and range of this material permitted the 
substantiating of previously anticipated theoretical deductions 
by concrete morphological facts, and it is considered fortunate 



68 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

that final publication of the results was delayed awaiting the 
confirmation afforded by these accessions. 

This makes, however, prompt publication a matter of 
great importance to the Department and it is regretted that 
the printing situation has been and still is in a most unsatis- 
factory state in this country. This is especially true of scien- 
tific publications depending upon the extensive illustrations 
which are absolutely demanded in the pulmonary work for its 
satisfactory presentation. Fortunately it has been possible 
for a number of years to prepare and store a large proportion 
of the required plates in a state ready for printing in anticipa- 
tion, and it is hoped that a rigid economy in the administration 
of the departmental appropriation during the next fiscal year 
will enable carrying the work to a successful conclusion within 
that time. 

The second direction in which the energies of the Depart- 
ment have been extended is a historical research into the 
anatomical iconography of the early 16th century, in con- 
nection with the special topic of the History of Medicine 
forming an integral part of Course 107-108 as given in the 
preceding year. This includes a study of the historical evo- 
lution of the early superimposed anatomical plate, based 
chiefly on the publications of Berengarius, Vesalius, Sylvestre 
and Geminus. The Ms. of this, in six parts, is completed and 
in the hands of the printer for technical survey and estimate. 
It is hoped that it may be possible to publish this in a con- 
tinuous whole, as one of the American Anatomical Memoirs 
issued by the Wistar Institute of Philadelphia, but the same 
considerations as in the pulmonary work, in regard to the 
essential illustrations, will have to be the determining factor 
in its final disposition. Here again portions of this illustrative 
material are already in metal and ready for the press, so that 
jt is believed that it can eventually be brought out without 
additional assistance being called for. 

Course Anatomy 101 — Histology and Embryology. In 
accordance with the curricular re-organization the histological 
course was concentrated into the first half of the year and the 
total number of hours reduced to 210. This rearrangement, 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 69 

as a whole, worked out in a very satisfactory manner. It is 
believed that the time allowed is just sufficient to give a thor- 
ough general course in Histology, but special demonstrative 
material will have to be largely cut out. It may be possible later 
on to organize such material into optional courses for limited 
groups. 

The presentation of students' papers was continued as a 
feature of the course, and the high quality of these papers 
warranted their publication as the third volume of the "Student 
Reports" under auspices of the Anatomy Department. 

It is felt that this work offers an excellent means to stimu- 
late and sustain the initiative and interest of the student. 

The Course on the Anatomy of the Nervous System for 
graduate students was given in cooperation with the Neurol- 
ogy Department and was attended by nearly fifty students. 
It has been very gratifying to see this course grow from a trial 
stage a number of years ago to its present well established 
position in the University curriculum. The summer course in 
Histology was given as usual. 

Investigation has been continued in the directions outlined 
in a previous report. Through cooperation of Doctor Noble of 
the Museum of Natural History, a graded series of primitive 
urodele embryos was placed at the disposal of the Anatomy 
Department. Eight of these embryos have already been 
stained and mounted, and a fairly complete set is expected to 
be ready in the near future. 

Material for the Histology of the Arterial Wall has been 
stained and mounted and will be utilized for special study and 
course work. A careful histological and anatomical study was 
made of a rare case of human double appendix. The report will 
be published as soon as proper arrangements are made. 

In thecourse of the past year there have been no fundamental 
changes made in the scheme of teaching in the Department 
of Bacteriology except in so far as the plans for a greater em- 
phasis on public health teaching to the afternoon class in 
Course 201 have been carried out. The new plan inaugurated 
has proved successful, in that it has been possible to carry a 



70 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

class of nine individuals who had had a preliminary course in 
bacteriology, through a detailed training in "carrier" work, 
and some of the other problems particularly important for 
workers who wish to enter public health. 

In the undergraduate course in bacteriology the only import- 
ant change worth mentioning is that lecturing to the class was 
cut down to a minimum, and for it was substituted assigned 
reading with a conference on the assigned reading covering the 
day's work with one of the instructors before the laboratory 
work was begun. This method has been greatly superior in 
results to formal lectures, keeping the students more alert, and 
it is felt that better results were obtained. Whether for this 
reason or for others it is not known, but the Second Year work 
in bacteriology was more satisfactory this year than it has been 
for many years past. In other respects, the various courses 
have not been changed in any important aspects. 

The researches carried on by the Department during the 
year have been the following : 

Dr. Mueller has completed his study on a sulfur containing 
amino acid on which he made several reports last year in con- 
nection with his work on bacterial nutrition and this work is 
now ready for publication. 

At the present time Dr. Mueller is engaged with Professor 
Zinsser and Dr. Wayman, professor of chemistry at Hunter 
College, in making chemical analyses of the so-called "residue" 
antigens on which Professor Zinsser has been working, im- 
munologically, for several years. 

Dr. Frederic Parker, Jr., completed his work on the Sachs- 
Georgi reaction during the beginning of the academic year of 
1922 and has been engaged in the continuation of studies on 
encephalitis and herpes virus, on which he has worked with Pro- 
fessor Zinsser for over a year. A very large amount of material 
has been gathered which, however, is not yet ready for publica- 
tion. Incidentally, he has discovered in the brains of herpetic 
rabbits, nuclear inclusions similar to those described by Lip- 
schiitz in the cornea of herpes infected rabbits, inclusions 
which have never before, as far as we know, been found in the 
brains of such rabbits. A note on this will be published shortly. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 71 

With Mrs. J. T. Parker, Dr. Frederic Parker has been en- 
gaged, also, in the study of the filtrable virus which causes 
fowl pox. Their efforts to cultivate this virus are showing 
promise and are still going on. This problem was attacked by 
them largely with the view of leading to information and tech- 
nical developments which could be applied to filtrable virus in 
human disease, since the fowl pox virus is much more easily 
handled and apparently contains bodies which can easily be 
stained and seen as the probable virus. It is hoped that by the 
study of this condition in chickens analogies that can be ap- 
plied to the more difficult problems in human beings may be 
discovered. This work is not yet finished. 

Mrs. J. T. Parker, who has continued in the Department as 
volunteer research assistant, assisted Professor Zinsser in com- 
pleting a study of the immunological reactions with "residue" 
antigens on which a paper was published at the beginning of the 
academic year, and also studied, with him, an inhibitory body 
in horse serum which interfered with complement fixation and 
has practical bearing on all complement fixations in which 
the sera of immunized horses are used. This has just been 
published in the Journal of Immunology. This work was 
completed early in the year, and since that time she has worked 
with Dr. Frederic Parker, Jr., on the problems mentioned above 
and has been making some independent studies on the re- 
lationship of hydrogen ion concentration to agglutination 
reactions. 

Miss Kuttner, together with Dr. Ratner worked on the 
transmission of antitoxin from mother to child, working in 
conjunction with Dr. Studdiford's clinic at the Sloane, par- 
tially supported by a fund obtained by Dr. Studdiford for 
these researches. An interesting and important research has 
been approved and accepted by the Journal of Pediatrics to 
appear shortly. In connection with this work, there should 
be included a few words of appreciation for the splendid co- 
operation obtained from Dr. Studdiford and his assistants. 

Dr. Shubert, a Rockefeller Foundation student who is here 
for research training, worked for the first part of the year on 
bacteriophage phenomena by the single cell method and 



72 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

carried these studies as far as they could be carried by avail- 
able methods. When it was found that this work did not lead 
much further than other methods had led, he was put on a 
study of the identification of meningococci by the precipita- 
tion reaction of residue antigens, such as those prepared by us. 
He is just completing a very interesting study on these re- 
actions, based upon a fractionation of the polyvalent menin- 
gococcus horse serum with various concentrations of am- 
monium sulphate. 

Mr. John Rice has continued at his own laboratory, under 
the direction of Professor Zinsser, his studies on hemolytic 
streptococci. Mr. S. A. Petroff has continued at Saranac, 
under the direction of Professor Zinsser, with the cooperation 
of Dr. Edward Baldwin, studies in continuation of work on 
tuberculosis in which he has obtained a number of important 
results. The results of the work of both of these gentlemen are 
about to appear as Ph.D. theses, and they both came up for 
their Ph.D. examinations on May 15th of this year. 

Dr. Hopkins, who has continued to carry on the Wasser- 
mann laboratory, has completed a study on Bismuth salts in 
their therapeutic action on syphilitic rabbits, and an extensive 
study on the ringworm fungi. Both of these researches are now 
awaiting publication. 

Dr. Ornstein is engaged in the study of tuberculosis in rats, 
since these animals seem to show a high natural resistance to 
tubercle bacilli. 

Dr. Bent, a National Research scholar, a colored man who 
is being prepared for teaching in a southern medical school, has 
taken courses and assisted in teaching. He is also assisting 
Miss Rockstraw, of Dr. Hopkins' division, in carrying out a 
comparative study of the Wassermann reaction, the Kahn re- 
action and the Sachs-Georgi, on a large number of sera. 

Professor Zinsser finished a study of the immunological re- 
action on residue antigens, a study of a serum constituent 
which interferes with complement fixation with immune horse 
serum, both of which are completed and have just been pub- 
lished in conjunction with Mrs. J. T. Parker. With the as- 
sistance, at first, of Dr. Marguerite Wayman, and now with 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 73 

Dr. Mueller, his chief work of the winter has consisted in pre- 
paring large quantities of residue antigens from various organ- 
isms in an attempt to obtain definite information as to their 
chemical constitution. An enormous amount of work has been 
done on this problem, but it being of fundamental significance 
and extremely difficult because of the small amounts obtained 
after purification, this work will have to be continued for a con- 
siderable period, it having been decided that a preliminary pub- 
lication at this time would not be advisable. 

Professor Zinsser has, furthermore, continued his investiga- 
tion of hypersensitiveness to bacterial antigens and is just 
completing a study of this matter with pneumococci which 
will probably be completed before the academic year is 
over. 

Since the beginning of the academic year, also, a completely 
rewritten edition of the Textbook of Bacteriology by Profes- 
sor Zinsser, with a rewritten section on Protozoa, by General 
F. F. Russell, has appeared, and a completely rewritten edition 
of his book on Infection and Resistance, now completely in the 
hands of Macmillan's, will probably appear before the end of 
the summer. 

The technical and other personnel of the Department has 
done unusually good work this year, and the Department has 
run smoothly and happily without friction or administrative 
difficulties. 

In the Department of Biological Chemistry, instruction has 
been given during the year to 149 students (nearly all for one 
full year). Of the graduate students (25), eleven were candi- 
dates for the A.M. or Ph.D. degree, with biological chemistry 
as their subject of major interest. The eleven special students 
were advanced workers who were not candidates for a degree. 
The two pharmacal students were candidates for the degree of 
B.S. in pharmacy. Officers in this department have also given 
lectures under the auspices of Teachers College and University 
Extension. 

The staff of officers for 1921-22 was continued without 
change during 1922-23, with one exception, Dr. Berman hav- 



74 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ing retired to conduct research in endocrinology in several 
European laboratories. 

During the past academic year Louis Freedman and Louis 
Pine fulfilled the requirements for the Ph.D. degree, with bio- 
logical chemistry as their subject of major interest. 

An endeavor has been made to improve all the courses, in 
content and conduct. The members of the staff regard their 
teaching duties as responsibilities of the first importance; and, 
despite their sustained interest in research, do not permit at- 
tention to the latter to interfere with devotion to the former. 

A new course in "advanced physiological chemistry" was 
given, by Professor Miller, as an elective for graduate students. 
It included one hour per week of conference and lecture, with 
assigned readings. It was designed to coordinate the advanced 
work of other courses; to familiarize students with certain 
phases of biochemical theory which could not be fully dis- 
cussed during the progress of their more specialized work; and 
to consider the theory and practice of the most recent ad- 
vances in biochemical research. This course was elected by 
six students in the first semester; and, though originally de- 
signed as a one-semester unit, was continued, at the students' 
request, throughout the year. 

This department has continued to perform effective service 
for various departments in the medical school and university 
by supplying distilled water and absolute alcohol at cost 
prices. The breeding stock of albino rats, kept under careful 
control and supervision, has made it possible to supply a large 
number of animals to other departments. 

A chemical section of the course in pharmacology, required of 
second-year students of medicine, has again been given in 
the laboratory, in cooperation with the Department of Phar- 
macology. 

Research under the auspices of the Department of Derma- 
tology and Syphilology has been conducted actively in the 
laboratory, in various chemical phases, by officers of that de- 
partment. There have been several publications of original 
work in these relations during the past year. 

A second generous gift from Mr. Herman A. Metz has been 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 75 

devoted to continued promotion of research on vitamines by 
Dr. Casimir Funk assisted by Dr. Julia B. Paton. This re- 
search has involved a considerable increase in the department's 
equipment for experimental studies on animals. Some of the 
rooms in the "annex" are now in use in this relation. Several 
valuable papers descriptive of this work have recently been 
published. 

Research has been conducted actively in various fields and 
on a variety of subjects. The main subjects of inquiry were the 
following : 

(i) Different aspects of the problem of origin, quality and 
nutritive influence of vitamines ; (2) Composition and biochem- 
ical peculiarities of bacteria; (3) Effects of diet on dentition, 
with special reference to prenatal nutritional conditions; (4) 
The salivary elimination of substances that may be involved in 
the production of periodontoclasia; (5) Conditions affecting 
formation of dental "tartar;" (6) Pathological changes in blood 
and tissues ; (7) Plant physiology — microchemical ; (8) Studies 
of the chemical qualities and quantitative estimation of gly- 
coproteins; (9) Physiology of alimentation in albino rats; (10) 
Histochemical studies of connective tissues; (11) Effects of 
medication with arsenical compounds. 

During the year Dr. Harrow has published books on "Glands 
in health and disease" and on "What to eat in health and dis- 
ease." Each has received favorable notice from reviewers. Pro- 
fessor Gies has had editorial charge, for the Journal of Dental 
Research, of the preparation of Best's volume on "Pulpless 
teeth and pulp devitalization," the proceeds of the sale of which 
accrue to the endowment fund of that Journal. 

During the year Professor Gies has continued to conduct 
and will soon complete, for the Carnegie Foundation, a study 
of dental education. During his absences, engaged in the work 
of inspecting dental schools, Professor Miller, Dr. Krasnow and 
Mr. Karshan attended very efficiently to his teaching duties. 

Last October, Professor Gies proposed to the faculties of the 
dental schools in Canada and the United States the amalga- 
mation of the four national associations of dental schools and 
dental teachers into a single international association to be 



76 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

called the American Association of Dental Schools. This sug- 
gestion was accepted unanimously. An organization commit- 
tee of twenty (five each from the four associations) met in Jan- 
uary and proceeded to establish the proposed association. The 
bodies that entered the "merger" were the Canadian Dental 
Faculties Association, the American Institute of Dental Teach- 
ers, the National Association of Dental Faculties, and the Den- 
tal Faculties Association of American Universities. By unan- 
imous vote of the committee, Professor Gies served as chairman 
of the Committee on Organization, and is temporary president 
of the Association, which will hold its first meeting, and com- 
plete its organization, in September. 

At the first annual meeting of the International Association 
for Dental Research, last December, he was elected honorary 
president. 

At its last meeting, in Toronto, in December, the Annual 
Conference of Biological Chemists adopted, without change, 
the report of a committee of seven that had been "appointed to 
recommend a course in physiological chemistry that would be 
suitable for adoption in schools of medicine." As chairman of 
the committee, Professor Gies had the privilege of writing the 
report. The course proposed is the one given in this laboratory. 

He was also appointed a member of a committee of the 
Annual Conference of Biological Chemists to recommend, at 
the meeting next December, "a course in pathological chem- 
istry that would be suitable for adoption in schools of medi- 
cine." 

The various activities of the Department of Dermatology 
and Syphilology may be summarized as follows : 

1. Clinical dermatology. The treatment of skin diseases by medicinal 
remedies, caustics, dressings, etc. 

2. Roentgen-therapy. X-ray treatment of skin diseases. 

3. Phototherapy. Ultraviolet light treatment. 

4. Electro-therapy. Treatment by dessication and electrocoagulation. 

5. Clinical syphilology. The treatment of acquired and congenital 
syphilis. 

A. Intravenous use of arsphenamin. 

B. Intraspinal treatment. 

C. Intramuscular injections of mercury. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 77 

D. Intramuscular injections of arsphenamin and mercury in syphilitic 

children. 

E. Laboratory procedures involved in the treatment of syphilis. 

F. Social service. 

6. Miscellaneous: Vaccine injections, blood tests, blood counts, tubercu- 
lin injections and tests, chaulmoogra oil injections, applications of carbon 
dioxid snow, treatment by means of electrolysis, actual cautery, etc. Ra- 
dium applications are made at the Presbyterian Hospital. 

7. Minor surgery. 

8. Photography of skin diseases and syphilitic eruptions, etc. 
q. Microphotography. 

10. Pathological Laboratory. 

A. Preparations of sections of skin and other tissues for diagnostic 
and teaching purposes. 

B. Mycology, bacteriology, urinalysis, etc. Special study of fungous 
parasites of the skin, including the tineae and yeasts. Dark field 
examinations for spirochetae. 

C. Research work in cutaneous pathology and syphilis. 

11. Teaching: Clinical dermatology, syphilology, histo-pathology, 
roentgen-therapy, phototheraphy, etc. 

The following new equipment has been obtained during the 
year: 

A new Waite and Bartlett deep therapy X-ray machine. 
A new Wappler endothermy and electro-coagulation apparatus. 
One Alpine Sun Lamp. 

A considerable number of new moulages of skin diseases and syphilis has 
also been added to the old collection, and placed in suitable cabinets. 

The total number of visits made by patients during the year 
was 32,067. There were 5,241 new patients, of which 1 ,400 were 
cases of syphilis. 64 of these latter were children and 80 were 
babies. 4,276 salvarsan treatments and 6,609 mercury injec* 
tions were given. There were 3,852 Wassermann tests taken. 
There were 128 spinal punctures (24 of them in babies) and 
264 spinal treatments. 5,297 X-ray treatments and observa- 
tions were made. 31 cases were treated by ultra-violet light, 
107 by the Kromayer light and 16 by the Alpine light. 300 new 
clinical photographs were taken and 200 lantern slides made. 
151 cases were treated by electrocoagulation. 

In addition to the undergraduate course the graduate 
courses were given to ten students. 



78 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In addition to the twenty-eight members of the medical staff, 
there were seven salaried nurses and technicians and four vol- 
unteer assistants. 

The work on congenital syphilis has been continued during 
the past year, one afternoon in the week being devoted to the 
treatment of infants and young children. Recently arrange- 
ments have also been made for a special Clinic Day for the 
treatment of pregnant women. 

During the past two years extensive research has been con- 
duced on the quantitative determination of arsenic in the body 
fluids of syphilitic patients treated with the various arsenicals. 
This led to the establishment several months ago of a division 
of chemotherapy in connection with the Department of Der- 
matology and Syphilology, Dr. C. N. Myers being made 
Associate and placed in charge. In addition, three full time 
assistants and one part time worker have been engaged on this 
work. 

Several other problems in connection with the treatment of 
syphilis ayiII be investigated as soon as the results of the arsenic 
research are published. The first paper entitled "Quantitative 
Studies in Syphilis from a Clinical and Biological Point of 
View" was published in the American Journal of the Medical 
Sciences October 19, 1922. The second paper "Normal Arsenic 
Content of the Body Fluids" will appear in the May issue of the 
Archives of Internal Medicine. The third one on "Arsenical 
Content in Scales, Blood and Urine in Arsenical and Non- 
Arsenical Eruptions" is to be published in the July number of 
the American Journal of Syphilis, as well as the fourth article 
entitled "Arsenic Content of the Blood After Intravenous In- 
jections of Salvarsan." The remaining articles of the series will 
probably appear in the October issue of that Journal. 

The following experimental work in Dermatology has been 
carried on. In connection with the Department of Bacteriol- 
ogy, work is under way to determine the nature of certain dis- 
eases, suspected of being due to tuberculosis, as well as true 
tuberculoses of the skin. This work is being carried on by Dr. 
A. B. Cannon, and involves the taking of biopsies, various 
blood tests, serum tests, animal inoculations, and so forth. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 79 

Active experimental work in the removal of angiomas and 
port-wine marks, by means of ultraviolet light and radium, is 
being carried on by Drs. Wise and Eller. 

Experimental work in the treatment of acne vulgaris with 
vaccines alone is in progress. 

During the past year cultures for tinea have been made for 
diagnosis on a limited number of cases. The high percentage of 
negative cultures is explained in part by the fact that in many 
of these cases the clinical diagnosis was in doubt and cultures 
were made merely to rule out ringworm infection. 

More attention has been paid to the study of the cultural 
characteristics of strains previously isolated. Two years ago a 
study of their fermentation reactions was begun. It is ex- 
pected that a report on this work will soon be ready for publi- 
cation. 

For the diagnosis of tinea capitis slide examinations have 
been depended on and no cultures made. 

The few positive results obtained in dermatitis of the hands 
and feet confirms the impression which we have obtained in 
previous years that only a small group of these cases are due 
to ringworm infection. 

All patients with ringworm or favus of the scalp have been 
examined in the laboratory to confirm the diagnosis. Only 
cases in which the fungus has been demonstrated have been 
treated by X-ray. Direct slide examination in caustic soda has 
been depended on for diagnosis and in no instance have cul- 
tures been positive when the fungus could not be found by 
examination of the hair or scales. In a large proportion of 
cases cultures have also been made to determine the species of 
fungus. Roughly, 90% of the positive cultures have shown spe- 
cies of microspora and about three fourths of these have been of 
the lanosum group. Culture from cases where the hairs were 
positive microscopically has failed in only about 10% — in these 
cases failure was due to heavy contamination. In most in- 
stances it has been possible to differentiate the microspora, 
trychophyta and achoria on direct examination but in one 
instance where the hair showed a typical endothrix picture the 
organism proved on culture to be a Microsporon lanosum. 



80 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Cases presenting clinical pictures of ringworm of the body, 
hands, feet, groin and nails have been also studied with con- 
siderable care. In typical cases of tinea circinata both direct 
microscopic examination and culture have been almost uni- 
formly successful. In onychomycosis about 25% have been 
positive and occasionally culture has succeeded where slide 
examination has failed. On the other hand in eczema margin- 
atum, pompholyx, and circumscribed eczemas of the hands and 
feet we have only in a few instances succeeded in demonstrat- 
ing a fungus. In most of these successful exceptions, the dem- 
onstration has been easy. The conclusion is being forced on us 
that most of the conditions diagnosed clinically, as epidermo- 
phytosis of the hands, feet and groins, are not due to infection 
with fungi of the ringworm group. 

In connection with the Department of Bacteriology cultures 
obtained from skin lesions are being studied in order to perfect 
methods of identification. This work has been going on, with 
some interruptions, for about three years, but the task of 
classification has been baffling and the results are not yet 
ready for report. Among other things it has been found that 
the dermotophytes give fermentation reactions which dis- 
tinguish them from most similar saprophytic forms. 

Cultures have also been made from genital ulcers by the 
method of Teague and Deibert for demonstration of the bacil- 
lus of Ducrey. Results can be obtained in from 24 to 48 hours 
and the method has proven of considerable practical use in 
diagnosis. 

The Clinical Staff of the Department of Laryngology and 
Otology at the Vanderbilt Clinic has been increased, otherwise 
but few changes have been made. The resignation of Dr. 
Leshure, after 25 years of faithful service, is regretted by the 
entire staff. The Vanderbilt Clinic and Bellevue Hospital assist- 
ants have been painstaking in their work and faithful in attend- 
ance, and much of the success of the Department is due to the 
efficient work of the Staff. 

At Vanderbilt Clinic, during the twelve months from April 
1st, 1922, the Department has treated 11,340 cases, a decrease 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 8l 

of 1 80 over the previous year. There were 2667 new cases, a 
decrease of 299. These figures do not represent all the cases 
examined by the Staff, as every day cases are brought from 
other departments for consultation and, as many of them re- 
quire no treatment, no credit is given for this work. The new 
ruling that all children, regardless of local complaints, be first 
examined in Children's Department, probably more than 
accounts for apparent loss in number of new patients. From 
the Eye and Neurological Departments many referred patients 
are examined for which no credit is received. 

The number of interesting and unusual cases has been large 
and the material satisfactory. 

A pleasant feature of the year's work has been the interest 
taken by the Fourth year students in the section courses at 
Bellevue Hospital. 

In the small section teaching at Vanderbilt Clinic this year 
there have been but six students in each section to whom 
eleven two-hour lessons were given. The increase in the 
teaching staff and the continuation of the section teaching 
throughout the entire year means a considerable increase in the 
amount of individual instruction and attention the Instructors 
could give to each student, which has made the section teaching 
much more satisfactory than in previous years. 

During the past year effort has been made in the Department 
of Neurology to place all the teaching, as much as possible, on 
the basis of clinical experience for each student. In the pre- 
liminary instruction in the anatomy of the nervous system 
given in the first and second years, the aim has been to show 
the student the actual clinical pertinence of the subject to the 
practice of medicine by the introduction of patients and other 
clinical material illustrating the anatomical topics under dis- 
cussion. This scheme seems to have increased the interest of 
the students and to have given them an insight into the neces- 
sity of devoting so much time to the intricate structures of the 
nervous system. At best, it is difficult to make the exposition 
of the nervous system simple. To be understood at all it 
must be comprehended with some degree of thoroughness. 
In the past there has been criticism, perhaps justified, that the 



82 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

student has been under the necessity of learning a complicated 
system of nomenclature covering many parts of the central 
axis. Now, however, the attempt is made, so far as possible, 
to attach a practical clinical significance to all of these parts 
and give them as much dynamic importance as may be through 
the medium of illustrative clinical cases. In the third and 
fourth years the entire principle of teaching has been on the 
basis of affording opportunity for the student to learn from 
the many sources of material in and about the city. The 
results obtained seem thus far to have been more satisfactory 
than in the past. No examinations or special tests have been 
held, but the attendance throughout the year, both at the 
clinical demonstrations and the formal clinics, has maintained 
an unusually high average. 

Dr. Riggs has given a course in the third year on the nature 
and treatment of the psychoneuroses, which has been most 
successful and stimulating. 

The Staff meetings have continued as in past years. The 
Wednesday Staff Conference has had an average attendance of 
20 members of the Clinical and Teaching Staff, while the night 
Staff Class of the Neurological Department this year has 
branched out into new fields. Professor Gregory of the De- 
partment of Biology has given a series of lectures on the 
Paleontological Evidence in the Evolution of Motion, at the 
American Museum of Natural History. This has been largely 
attended. Dr. Salmon has also given a series of lectures on the 
Development of Personality. The Staff Conferences at the 
Neurological Institute, P & S Division, have been unusually 
profitable this year, and the stenographic reports of this most 
instructive group of cases is now in process of editing for 
subsequent publication. 

The research activities of the Department have been carried 
on with increased vigor. The association of Professor Frank H. 
Pike with the Department, during the year, has afforded op- 
portunity for pursuit of certain problems in the physiology of 
the nervous system. This combination of physiology with 
clinical neurology is a somewhat new departure. It has the 
dual advantage of revealing to the physiologist the major 



PHYSICIANS A X D SURGEONS 83 

problems in the field of clinical neurology, while at the same 
time it gives the neurologist the necessary check and conser- 
vatism afforded by exact physiological technique. A combina- 
tion so advantageous in its effects upon neurological science 
will, it is believed, become a fixed feature in all well organized 
neurological departments. The clinical research of the year 
includes a continuation of Professor Elsberg's experimental 
study of Epilepsy, the first results of which were read during 
the Christmas holidays before the Association for Research 
in Nervous and Mental Disease. This communication was 
the most comprehensive and satisfactory discussion of the 
subject presented at that meeting. Dr. Cornwall, under a 
grant of the Commonwealth Fund, is still continuing his 
studies of Multiple Sclerosis with the chief object of confirm- 
ing, if possible, the discovery made some time ago of an or- 
ganism said to be specific in this disease. He is also con- 
tinuing his work on Syphilometric Tests known as the Verne's 
reaction, as well as completing his studies on the serology of 
Epidemic Encephalitis. Dr. Tilney and Dr. Pike are now carry- 
ing on a series of experiments to reveal the more intimate 
nature of muscular coordination in its relation to the cere- 
bellum. This problem embodies one of the most important 
clinical subjects of the present day. Dr. Casamajor and 
Dr. Tilney have been carrying on a study in the Genesis of 
Behavior by the myelinization method. Reports upon both 
of these researches were presented in June at the meeting of 
the American Neurological Association, and will have early 
publication thereafter. A study of the Evolution of the Primate 
Brain Stem carried on for the past three years by Dr. Riley 
and Dr. Tilney will begin to appear as a series of six contribu- 
tions in the Journal of Comparative Neurology 7 . Dr. Riley 
has been investigating the Optic Thalamus in its relation to 
the development of emotions and instinctive reactions, an 
investigation which in the course of the next year should be 
completed. It will be seen that the scope of experimental 
work now in process in the Department of Neurology covers 
many phases in this field of science. 

Although much emphasis is laid on the morphological, 



4 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

comparative and evolutional aspects of the nervous system, 
important physiological problems receive a large share of re- 
search interest, and the greatest stress perhaps is laid not only 
upon the investigation of clinical problems, but even more on 
the effort to make all neurological research bear as directly 
and forcibly as possible upon the clinical side. 

This direct conversion of the results of investigation to the 
needs of clinical medicine should, it is believed, be one of the 
chief aims of all departments in a medical school. 

The work in the Department of Ophthalmology has pro- 
ceeded during the past year without any change. The pre- 
liminary instruction for the Third year was given both at the 
Vanderbilt and the Herman Knapp Memorial Eye Hospital. 

The clinics are being given as usual, depending for material 
nearly in full on the Memorial Eye Hospital. 

The Fourth year instruction on continuous days has been 
working out satisfactorily, though it required considerably 
more work on the part of the instructors. 

The death during the past winter of Dr. John H. Larkin, who 
for many years had been on the staff of the Department of 
Pathology, came as a great shock to the other members of the 
department. During the past several years, Dr. Larkin had 
taken an active part in the teaching of Gross Pathology, 
through demonstrations at autopsies performed at the City 
Hospital. 

The changes in personnel for the coming year will be the 
following : Dr. von Glahn has been promoted to the position of 
Assistant Professor, from that of Associate in Pathology. 
Dr. Hannah Pierson has been appointed Assistant in Path- 
ology, replacing Dr. Frederic B. Jennings, who has resigned. 
Dr. Marcus E. Stites will be succeeded by Dr. Mark Butler, 
who is at present an interne in the Protestant Hospital, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

There have been several workers doing voluntary research 
in the department. Dr. B. S. Oppenheimer is still continuing 
his studies on the Pathology of the Conduction System; Dr. 
Alfred F. Hess is collaborating with the other members of the 
staff in the research on the rickets problem; Mr. Milton J. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 85 

Matzner, a second year student, has been assisting Dr. Hess 
in his work. 

The Director of the Laboratory has temporarily discon- 
tinued his investigations of pellagra, and is at present, with 
the aid of Drs. Johnson and von Glahn, engaged in studies 
preliminary to more extensive work on pernicious anaemia. 
Dr. Pappenheimer, since his return from a sabbatical leave, 
during which he gave lectures at various French universities, 
has resumed his work on the rickets problem. Dr. Johnson is 
continuing his active supervision of the work on gynecological 
and obstetrical pathology of the Sloane Hospital, assisted by 
Drs. R. N. Pierson, Laurence W. Cotter, and J. R. Meyer. 
The latter is a volunteer worker, holding a scholarship under 
the Rockefeller Foundation, from the Medical School of 
Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dr. M. J. Sittenfield is working on the ef- 
fects of radium and X-ray on experimental tumors of animals. 

The work on experimental rickets has been continuing 
throughout the entire year. Their own results and the recent 
investigations of others in this field have opened many new 
problems, which will demand continued study. In applying 
the results of their experimental studies, the Department has 
been favored with the cordial cooperation of the Department 
of Pediatrics. An additional grant of $3,600 by the Common- 
wealth Fund has made possible the clinical studies in prophy- 
laxis and treatment, which are now in progress at Bellevue 
Hospital. Miss Marion Barnett and Mrs. M. Gutman- 
Newburger have continued their work in connection with the 
rickets research. 

There have been no definite changes in the methods of 
teaching, other than the condensation of the course within the 
shorter period of time allotted. 

An intensive study of the thyroid gland and of the in- 
voluntary nervous system has been carried on in the Depart- 
ment of Pharmacology for the past two years. The prelimi- 
nary laboratory work has been reported by Drs. Lieb and 
Hyman in the American Journal of Physiology, December, 
1922, under the titles of Studies of Graves' Syndrome and the 
Involuntary Nervous System; 



86 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

IV. Vascular response of the pithed cat to single intra- 
venous injections of adrenalin ; 

V. Vascular response of the pithed cat to repeated intra- 
venous injections of equal doses of adrenalin ; 

VI. Attempts to alter the vascular response of the pithed 
cat to repeated intravenous injections of equal doses of ad- 
renalin ; 

VII. On the mechanism of sensitization to subcutaneous 
injections of adrenalin; (63, 60, 68, 83, 88.) 

IX. A clinical and laboratory study of the Involuntary 
Nervous System, Journal of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, Sept. 30, 1922, 79: 1099. 

Dr. Hyman, in association with Dr. Leo Kessel at the Mt. 
Sinai Hospital, has also carried on clinical studies and these 
have been reported as follows : 

"Studies of Graves' Syndrome and the Involuntary Nervous 
System, General Introduction", American Journal of Medical 
Sciences, March 1923, 165: 387. 

I. Thyroid enlargement in individuals without Sympa- 
thomimetic symptoms, ibid. 389. 

II. Clinical manifestations of disturbances of the in- 
voluntary nervous system, ibid. April 1923. 

III. A study of 50 consecutive cases of exophthalmic goiter, 
Archives of Internal Medicine, March 1923, 31: 433 (with 
Dr. H. Lande). 

IV. An estimation of the pathogenesis and an evaluation of 
therapeutic procedures in Graves' Syndrome, Journal of the 
American Medical Association, October 7, 1922, 79: 12 13. 

In the Department of Physiology Professor Lee has con- 
tinued his activities as Research Professor. Professor Burton- 
Opitz has conducted the teaching of physiology in Columbia 
College and has given courses in Teachers College and in Uni- 
versity Extension. Professor Pike has been working with the 
Department of Neurology on problems relating to the physi- 
ology of the nervous system. The teaching staff at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons has comprised the following: Pro- 
fessors H. B. Williams and E. L. Scott, Mr. H. F. Pierce, Dr. 
Helen C. Coombs, Mr. Frederick B. Flinn, Mr. Cecil D. Mur- 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 87 

ray, Dr. Walker E. Swift and Dr. K. Wallach. Dr. A. B. Heck 
and Miss Aleita Hopping have filled part time emergency ap- 
pointments from about March 1st, 1923, in lieu of Dr. Coombs 
who was obliged by ill health to retire from the staff in 
February. 

Two factors have operated to restrict the productive work of 
the department this year. The teaching staff, numerically less 
than in recent years, has been obliged to carry an unusually 
heavy burden, partly on account of changes in the course which 
will be detailed below, and partly on account of sickness. Dr. 
Coombs' illness which occurred almost at the beginning of the 
teaching work, placed much additional labor on Mr. Pierce, 
and the serious illness of Professor Burton-Opitz made it nec- 
essary for Professor Scott to take over the course at Columbia 
College known as Physiology 2. A list of work completed or in 
progress follows: 

Study of some effects of environmental temperature upon the blood of 
dogs, by Mr. Flinn. Ready for publication. 

Study of the constituents of the blood and urine of the alligator and of 
seasonal variations in physiological phenomena. Miss Hopping. Ready for 
publication. 

Study of the laws governing the distribution of material between the 
phases of a two-phase system. By Mr. Murray. Accepted for publication. 

Study of the condition of the reducing substances in the blood. By Pro- 
fessor Scott. In progress. 

Investigation of Weichardt's supposed fatigue toxin. By Professor Lee. 
In progress. 

Study of heart sounds, by Dr. Williams, continued. 

Study of physiological factors involved in cerebral hemorrhage, by Mr. 
H. F. Pierce and Dr. Harvey S. Thatcher. In progress. 

When the College of Physicians and Surgeons inaugurated a 
laboratory course in physiology for undergraduate medical 
students, very few schools in the country were offering such 
courses. The course as planned at its initiation probably repre- 
sented as good a selection of experiments as could have been 
chosen for the purpose. Since that time the progress of physi- 
ology as well as that of the other medical sciences and the 
clinical branches has been extensive. 

From time to time alterations in the course have been made, 



88 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

but no thoroughgoing reorganization has been attempted. 
During the spring of 1922 it was thought advisable to under- 
take a survey of the course with a view to revision or recon- 
struction. About the time that this was being done the matter 
of changing the first year curriculum came up and it was for- 
tunately possible to arrange the schedule of hours to suit the 
changes which the survey indicated as desirable. After careful 
consideration it seemed best to formulate an entirely new 
course. In doing this the following guiding motives were kept 
in mind : to secure the student's interest at the start by com- 
mencing the work Avith matter which his previous experience 
enables him to comprehend; it seemed also preferable that 
this be something unmistakably related to medicine; to choose 
subjects for study which illustrate the fundamental principles 
of physiology and at the same time serve to prepare the student 
for his subsequent work in pathology and the clinical branches ; 
to plan the course so that the student may have completed 
study of the anatomy and histology of the central nervous 
system before studying its physiology; to give the student the 
maximum available number of hours of laboratory work and to 
give as far as possible quantitative experiments; to provide 
adequate apparatus and facilities so that the most desirable 
type of experiments can be performed without waste of the 
student's time and with reasonable hope of success in practi- 
cally all experiments. It was recognized that the carrying out 
of this program would probably mean that the senior members 
of the staff would have to devote a great deal of time to the 
course for at least a year and forego their usual activities in 
research, but the importance of the matter seemed to justify 
such action. 

It has been customary to begin physiological work with the 
study of the properties of nerve and muscle as illustrating gen- 
eral principles. This work to be satisfactory should be done in 
the autumn at which time the frogs which are used in this work 
are in good condition. With the course beginning in the middle 
of the year the frogs are never in entirely satisfactory condi- 
tion. Furthermore it has always seemed difficult to interest 
medical students in this work at the beginning of their course 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 89 

because it seems so very academic and they are usually very 
anxious to study things which bear an evident relation to their 
chosen profession. The technic of muscle and nerve physiology, 
contrary to somewhat general opinion, is not easy. To do it 
well so that the results are of educational value, requires care- 
ful manipulation and excellent apparatus. Failure to get good 
results discourages students and is apt to lead to the opinion 
that the work of the biological laboratory is essentially less 
precise than that of chemical and physical laboratories. This 
year the course was begun with digestion, secretion, and the 
physiology of the blood. This was followed by a study of the 
circulation, and a study of respiration, respiratory metabolism 
and animal heat will complete the year's work. The plan seems 
to have been successful from the standpoint of securing the 
students' interest and it is believed that when the nerve and 
muscle physiology is taken up in the autumn results will be 
secured with greater rapidity and precision because of this 
year's experience. The physiology of nerve and muscle will be 
followed immediately by the physiology of the central nervous 
system and that of the special senses with which the general 
physiology of nerve is closely related. The students will have 
completed the anatomy and histology of the central nervous 
system in the first year. 

In order to make it possible to provide apparatus really ade- 
quate for the performance of such experiments as it is thought 
should be introduced into the course to give the student the 
best foundation for his later work, it was necessary to divide 
the main sections of the class into a number of sub-sections 
and arrange the course so that only a small number of the sub- 
sections would perform the same experiments on any one day. 
In this manner a comparatively small number of expensive 
pieces of apparatus could be made to serve the entire class. 
By this device, which has operated admirably, it has been 
possible to introduce into the course experiments never before 
given here except as demonstrations and others never before 
given to students in this school at all. Every student in the 
class has had an opportunity to work with a string galvano- 
meter, to perform physiological experiments requiring determi- 



90 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

nation of the gases of the blood, and all have had practical ex- 
perience with some of the methods of determining basal 
metabolism. 

As given in recent years the course has consisted of one lab- 
oratory session, one conference and a demonstration for each 
of the two sections of theclass, and three lectures a week, given 
once for the entire class. As now given there are two lectures 
held before the entire class, one conference and two laboratory 
sessions of three hours each for each main section of the class 
per week. It will be seen that the number of hours which must 
be given to laboratory teaching by the staff is about doubled 
under the new system. 

Since the new arrangement permits of having the students 
themselves perform many of the more difficult experiments for- 
merly given in the demonstration course, it was felt that the 
demonstration course might well be omitted and the time thus 
made available added to the laboratory periods. When neces- 
sary, demonstrations can be arranged to be given in connection 
with the laboratory work of the class. In general, the policy is 
to have the students do as much of the work as possible. 

The sub-sections number about six students each, permitting 
the assignment of a definite duty to each student in connection 
with each experiment. Sections are required to make a written 
report on each day's work and where numerical results are ob- 
tained they are required to determine the mean, median and 
standard deviation of their results. When possible the results 
of various sub-sections are compared. The entire aim of the 
course is to develop the student's interest and powers of 
thought. Ability to memorize is a minor consideration. 

The lecture course is designed to be explanatory and is used 
to convey information as to matters of fact only in exceptional 
cases. The latter are to be obtained in the reading course. 
Some facts will be learned in the laboratory, but the main 
purpose of the laboratory is to afford a background for reading 
and to train in habits of observation and in precision of 
thought. 

The course as outlined could not have been given with the 
equipment of the department available at the beginning of this 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 91 

year. Some apparatus was purchased and much was con- 
structed in the laboratory. Mr. Pierce designed a most satis- 
factory apparatus for anaesthetization and artificial respira- 
tion. Nine of these and eight animal operating boards, so 
arranged as to permit warming them, have been built. The 
artificial respiration valves are operated by small compressed 
air motors. These motors were the gift to the department of 
Mr. F. G. Folberth of Cleveland, Ohio. Their use permits 
control of rate of artificial respiration and volume of air at each 
table independently of the others. Eight electrically driven 
long paper kymographs have been built, three of which were 
available for this year's work. Their use has made it unneces- 
sary for us to use the unsatisfactory spring-operated single 
drums hitherto employed by the students. The substitution 
of better instruments has resulted in great saving of students' 
time with more and better results. Among other items of new 
apparatus may be mentioned a Harvard type spirometer for 
determination of basal metabolism, five Douglas bags for 
respiration and metabolism experiments, six Henderson-Orsat 
apparatus for gas-analysis, six Van Slyke apparatus for blood- 
gas analysis, twelve apparatus for analysis of alveolar air and 
one precision chemical balance with weights. A multigraph 
was also procured for preparation of the laboratory instruc- 
tions. In former years printed sheets were used and later a 
book, but it is thought that this tends toward an undesirable 
permanency in the laboratory system which might tend to 
block improvement. 

The lecture course has been divided between Drs. Williams 
and Scott and Mr. Pierce. Mr. Pierce has been in immediate 
charge of the work in the students' laboratory and the success- 
ful operation of the new plan has been in great measure due to 
his enthusiasm and industry. The chemical physiology of di- 
gestion and nutrition and the chemical physiology of the blood 
as developed in the laboratory were planned by Professor Scott 
and we were especially fortunate this year in having Mr. 
Flinn, an experienced organic chemist, as instructor. Mr. 
Louis Dotti also gave valuable technical assistance in this 
work. The laboratory work in respiration and respiratory me- 



92 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tabolism was planned by Mr. Pierce, who has had extensive 
experience in such work. During the progress of the work on 
circulation, Mr. Keyes assisted the students who worked with 
the string galvanometer. His skill in manipulation of that in- 
strument as well as his familiarity with the technic of animal 
experimentation made the work of the instructors much easier 
and did much to insure the success of that part of the course. 

Regarding the preparation of students for work in this de- 
partment, there appeared this year certain outstanding defi- 
ciencies. The students with a few notable exceptions, seem to 
have no knowledge whatever of the principles of volumetric 
analysis. As this is almost the only type of analytical work 
which the practitioner of medicine ever does and as these meth- 
ods are constantly in use in all biological laboratories where 
research in chemical physiology is done, it seems important 
that they should understand them. In connection with the 
computation of their results it is also necessary that they 
should have elementary knowledge of the use of logarithms 
and desirable that they should have some familiarity with the 
use of the slide-rule. This information they could probably 
acquire in the courses they now take if they realized the need 
for it. A word of advice to prospective students regarding the 
desirability of this preparation might be helpful. 

Messrs. Murray and Flinn and Miss Hopping have com- 
pleted the work for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Phys- 
iology. Mr. Murray has already successfully passed the final 
examination. The others will doubtless also be admitted to 
the degree. Mr. Joseph Tulgan has also completed work for 
the Ph.D. degree. 

The department has a considerable amount of floor space, 
but arrangements are not in all respects ideal for its economical 
use. No changes were made this year as it was thought unwise 
to spend any money on this building unless necessary. It was 
also desirable to have a year's experience before making recom- 
mendations. Inasmuch as the new plant will not be ready for 
some time to come, it seems desirable to take steps this summer 
to make the present space of the department more serviceable. 
Room is especially needed for research students. It is believed 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 93 

that changes involving comparatively little expense will 
greatly increase the effectiveness of the department. 

With the assistance of Messrs. Knowles and Miller of the 
First Year class, Miss Gaines has effected a very considerable 
improvement in the classification and arrangement of the de- 
partment library. It has been necessary this year to restrict 
the use of the library somewhat in order to permit the prosecu- 
tion of this work. It is hoped that arrangements can be made 
to make the library available to a greater number of readers 
next year. This library should be catalogued. If the college is 
to remain for several years longer at 59th Street, it would be 
desirable that this cataloguing begin before the removal. 

Last November Professor Lee gave the Willard Parker lec- 
tures at Union Theological Seminary on fatigue from the 
standpoint of physiology. 

In December, 1922, Professor Lee spoke at the Columbia 
meeting to commemorate the centenary of Pasteur on the 
Debt of Medicine to Pasteur. 

The extensive experimental investigation of the physiologi- 
cal, psychological, hygienic and medical aspects of atmos- 
pheric conditions and their relation to the problem of ventila- 
tion, by the New York State Commission on Ventilation (of 
which Professor Lee was a member, and which began its work 
in 1913), has been completed by the publication of the final 
and comprehensive report. 

The report of the sub-committee on teaching of physics to 
medical students in the preparation of which for the American 
Physical Society Dr. Williams has assisted, will be ready for 
publication shortly. In connection with the general feeling 
that there is a need for popularizing knowledge of the neces- 
sity for preparation in physics and chemistry in increasing 
measure on the part of the pre-medical student, Dr. Williams 
has given two addresses this year. One was given before the 
department of physics at the University of Michigan and the 
other before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at 
Lynn, Mass. This latter meeting was also attended by the 
medical profession of Lynn. Dr. Williams served as represent- 
ative of the American Physical Society at a meeting called by 



94 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the National Research Council in Washington this spring to 
promote cooperation between users and manufacturers of 
scientific instruments in America. 

The business of Mr. C. F. Hindle, who since 1914 has manu- 
factured the string galvanometers and other instruments de- 
signed by Dr. Williams, has been incorporated in a new com- 
pany, The Cambridge and Paul Instrument Co. of America, 
Inc. The majority of the stock of this company is held by the 
Cambridge and Paul Instrument Co. of Cambridge, England. 
The English company has for many years constructed high 
grade scientific apparatus, largely designed by Sir Horace Dar- 
win. This affiliation ensures permanency of service for users of 
the American built galvanometers, the construction of which 
will be continued by the new company. Dr. Williams is a mem- 
ber, without salary, of the board of directors of the new com- 
pany. 

Only slight changes have been made in the plan of organiza- 
tion of the Department of Practice of Medicine outlined in a 
rather long report made a year ago. The teaching in the depart- 
ment has been conducted in much the same manner as a year 
ago. Dividing the fourth year into four parts, and taking the 
specialties out of the medical quarter, has aided materially in 
securing consecutive and better work from the clinical clerks. 

It is a pleasure to report progress in the solution of the prob- 
lem presented by the Dispensary as a unit for teaching and re- 
search, as well as for the care of the sick. The special clinics in 
metabolism, diabetes, nephritis, asthma, cardiac disease, and 
tuberculosis, have grown in size and importance. Good oppor- 
tunity is afforded here for contributions of educational value. 
The inauguration of the appointment system has been fraught 
with difficulties, but seems more than well worth the effort 
which is being put into it. Much more time and thought are 
necessary to so organize the out and in patient services, in 
order to cement their activities, to the best advantage ol both 
patient and doctor. 

The medical laboratories have been active, and a good record 
for work accomplished exists. In all, twenty men (twelve of 
them have no practice outside of the hospital) have been en- 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 95 

gaged in research. The problems outlined in last year's report 
have been pursued further, with profit. 

Upon recommendation of the Committee on Administra- 
tion, a separate Department of Psychiatry was established 
during the year. This is the administrative method of dealing 
with this subject that has proved to be most desirable in med- 
ical schools possessing clinical facilities of their own for teaching 
mental medicine. It had been in mind, as a further step in the 
development of our teaching facilities in this branch, when the 
Department of Neurology was changed last year to that of 
Neurology and Psychiatry. A Psychiatric Clinic under the 
direction of Dr. Charles I. Lambert, Associate Professor of 
Psychiatry, has been instituted at the Vanderbilt Clinic. It is 
hoped that this will become the nucleus for the clinical facili- 
ties for the study and treatment of mental diseases that con- 
stitute so essential a part of the modern medical school. 

A course of fifteen lectures on psycho-pathology has been 
given for the first time, in the second year, and the scope of the 
clinical lectures on psychiatry in the fourth year has been 
broadened and accompanied by clinical demonstrations. A 
considerable number of students elected to do work at the 
Mental Hygiene Clinics conducted by private organizations at 
the Harlem Health Center and St. Vincent Hospital, arrange- 
ments for this work being made by Professor Emerson. 

The development of the new Department of Psychiatry is 
being undertaken with the aim of preparing physicians to 
understand the nature and management of mental factors in 
disease generally, rather than become familiar with highly 
specialized clinical problems of psychiatry. It is earnestly be- 
lieved that the inroads made by irregular practitioners, with 
very grave danger to the public health, are partially due to the 
fact that scientific medicine has not sufficiently included psy- 
chiatry within its interests. The belief is gaining ground that 
what Sherington has called the "reintegration" of the patient is 
necessary for the understanding of disease as a total reaction. 
Such a concept cannot be obtained if the highly important 
bearings of the intellectual and emotional life of the individual 
upon his health are ignored. 



96 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The Professor of Psychiatry gave a series of lectures to the 
nurses at the Presbyterian Hospital and at the Wednesday 
evening Neurological Conferences at the Vanderbilt Clinic. In 
what may properly be termed extension activities, lectures 
have been given at the Government Neuro-Psychiatric School 
of Instruction at Washington and for the Federation for Child 
Study, Parent-Teachers' Associations and other organizations 
interested in child health. 

The new Department of Public Health Administration cre- 
ated by a vote of the Trustees in May, 1922, was put in opera- 
tion in September by the appointment of Dr. Haven Emerson 
as professor. Courses in preventable diseases and public health 
administration have been given to fourth year students at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons and to graduate nurses at 
Teachers College, in the former case as a part of the required 
instruction of the School of Medicine. 

In both instances the class participates in the instruction 
through the presentation by the students of topics selected by 
them and prepared as if for a clinical conference. The first half 
year is devoted to discussion of the various groups of preventa- 
ble diseases, particularly the communicable, occupational, 
nutritional and mental, and the heart diseases, cancer and dis- 
orders due to habits and developmental defects. The inci- 
dence, causes and means of control of the commonest sick- 
nesses and death are described. During the second half year 
the organization of public and private health agencies and the 
services of the medical and associated professions for the pre- 
vention of sickness and postponement of death are described 
and the results presented. 

Among the elective courses open for the first time this year 
to fourth year medical students there were offered under the 
Department of Public Health Administration five courses of 
seven weeks each in several of the practical branches of practice 
in preventive medicine, namely, "Infant Health Service, Pre- 
natal Supervision, Health Examination of the Pre-School 
Child, School Medical Service and Psychiatric Examination of 
Children." One third of the members of the class availed 
themselves of these courses. Arrangements have been made 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 97 

whereby these courses next year will be offered under the ap- 
propriate departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics, and Psychi- 
atry. 

It will be recalled that a codicil in the will of Joseph DeLa- 
mar, by which Columbia shared the residual estate with Har- 
vard and Johns Hopkins Universities, expressed the wish that 
some at least of the legacy would be devoted to the education 
of the lay public in matters of preventive medicine and partic- 
ularly in matters of diet and the use of foods. 

To meet this obligation the written and spoken word has 
been used to reach considerable audiences. Of the fifty public 
lectures and addresses made in the course of the Academic 
year by the head of the Department half have been before lay 
audiences, the remainder to medical and nursing groups. 

Through editorial responsibility, as member of the staff of 
The Survey, The Nation's Health and Hygeia, contributions 
in many fields of public health have been made, phrased so as 
to interest and inform the laity. 

The most important research undertaking in the particular 
field of public health administration has been a Survey of the 
seven Catholic hospitals of Brooklyn and Queens, made at the 
request of the Bishop of the Diocese of Brooklyn. 

During the year a study of the Chronic Cardiac Cripple and 
the cost of maintenance of this large class of permanent invalids 
in New York City has been completed for the Association for 
the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease. 

For the American Medical Association forms for periodic 
health examinations of apparently healthy persons have been 
prepared for use by the medical profession. 

As New York City has become the home of all the National 
Health Agencies and has for its own needs developed special 
local private health services in practically every field of health 
protection or promotion, participation by the University 
through the Department of Public Health Administration has 
been expected and these wide contacts with those in the midst 
of the field work have proved valuable means of gaining expe- 
rience for students. 

Until authority and appropriations are approved for the 



98 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

necessary expansion of the teaching of preventive medicine 
from one department and until courses are offered under all the 
University departments which must contribute to the educa- 
tion of health officers and sanitarians, no great expansion of 
present activities can be provided. 

The immediate needs are such additions to the staff and affil- 
iation with institutions as will permit the preparation of phy- 
sicians and others for hospital administration, the training of 
physicians for the specialties of industrial and mercantile hy- 
giene, and the special branches of public health administra- 
tion. 

The first primary function of health services to be provided 
for will be Medical School Inspection, in which a Summer 
Course will be offered to physicians. 

There have been no radical changes made in the teaching 
schedule of the Department of Surgery. The second year 
work has become so well organized as to be looked upon as a 
model. During the past year there have been more inquiries 
regarding the second year course in Surgery than any other. 
The outline has been asked for by Surgical teachers in Eng- 
land, Belgium, France, Canada, China and Japan, as well as 
several in the United States. A new departure this year has 
been the instruction of groups of twelve second year students, 
during the second term, at the Presbyterian Hospital in wound 
healing. Drs. Stout and Parsons have given this instruction 
during dressing rounds on the wards. This has proved a great 
stimulus to the students and has been appreciated by all of 
them. It is a step in the direction of giving second year stu- 
dents contacts with the clinical side and of breaking down an 
artificial barrier between preclinical and clinical years. 

In the third year very definite improvement has been made 
in giving more time to the study of peritonitis and the acute 
surgical abdomen. It is being planned to cut down a too 
elaborate course in the surgery of the chest, and to spend more 
time on the lesions of the stomach and duodenum. A very real 
improvement has been accomplished during the past year in 
correlating the instruction in the third year regional surgery 
with the Wednesday morning clinic. An endeavor has been 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 99 

made to illustrate, as far as possible, the lesion under dis- 
cussion in the School by showing cases with that lesion in the 
Hospital Clinic. At this Clinic Drs. Bancroft, Hooker, van 
Beuren, Auchincloss, St. John, Parsons, Hanford, Bauman 
and Whipple, and at Bellevue, Drs. Hooker and Lambert have 
presented cases in the subjects they were teaching. Mimeo- 
graphed copies of the case histories of the patients shown have 
been regularly distributed to the class, and as these patients 
are shown from week to week or as Follow Up cases the stu- 
dents have been urged to add notes to their case histories. 
This has made it possible to show more cases because of the 
time saved in writing down histories in longhand. It is be- 
lieved, moreover, that the training in presenting cases has 
been a valuable one for the younger instructors. 

Instruction in Surgery in Clinics has shown the most im- 
provement in the fracture room of the Presbyterian O. P. D., 
where as a result of the efforts of Drs. Darrach, St. John and 
Cleveland, both students and internes have had systematic 
and carefully checked work presented. 

Until the new buildings make it possible for the fourth 
year clerks to live on the hospital grounds, it is impossible to 
accomplish as much as desired in the fourth year. Dr. Bull has 
succeeded in having more clerks see the acute emergency 
cases than any of his predecessors. The clerks while working 
on their group studies in the Record Room at night were 
given the opportunity of examining acute cases as they came 
to the Emergency Ward. 

The studies in the Record Room have again demonstrated 
the value of the Unit History System. The unit histories 
are being used more and more as texts, and as these become 
more and more life histories of diseases, continuous and con- 
tinuing records of cures, remissions or recurrences of lesions 
as shown by the follow-up notes or readmissions or autopsy 
records, the more valuable will these texts become to our 
students and to our staff. 

It is exceedingly imperative that we cooperate with General 
Pathology in collecting our material for joint conferences. 
The benefit derived from the clinical pathological conferences 



100 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

held on Thursday mornings is so obvious that it seems un- 
fortunate that this phase of hospital study cannot be carried 
out in a less hurried manner, on a morning less filled with 
clinical and investigative discussion. Thursday morning oc- 
cupies for half the year, the time of Drs. Clarke, Stout and 
Parsons, preventing their attendance at the conference. 

Dr. Stout has collected the follow-up results in a large series 
of tumor cases. These results would add greatly to the value 
of discussions of pathological material, if he could present 
such material as it came up in our combined pathological 
conferences. 

In the Surgical Laboratory, this year has seen several men 
continuing problems undertaken last year and three new men 
with new problems. Dr. Beverly Smith has done unusually 
good work in the study of ileus and with Drs. Bauman and 
Whipple is publishing a preliminary report on the nature of the 
toxin in ileus. Dr. Klein is ready to publish the result of two 
years' work in gastric surgery. Dr. Neuhof is still experi- 
menting with the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer. Mr. Abram- 
son of the present fourth year class has begun some very 
promising work on the contractility of the gall bladder. 
Dr. Whipple, in conjunction with Dr. Smith, is studying the 
absorption of insulin through isolated loops of the lower ileum. 

Happily, the problem of manning the Presbyterian Clinic 
has been solved by the addition of voluntary workers. Drs. 
Fink, Jennson, Smith, Given and Melicow have given very 
efficient and conscientious service without the regular salaries 
of instructors, and this opportunity is taken of acknowledging 
their valuable services. 

Dr. Cleveland, who has done such a fine piece of work in 
reorganizing the clinic following the war time period of con- 
tracted effort, has decided to go into orthopedic surgery as the 
result of a very promising offer from Dr. Hibbs. His training 
in anatomy and extremity work has fitted him for this work 
and his transfer will increase the cooperation between the 
orthopedic and the general surgery staff. Dr. Hibbs has taken 
two men who have completed their interne service and two 
others will have had training in the New York Orthopedic 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS IOI 

Hospital when they begin their interne service in the Presby- 
terian Hospital. This interchange of internes is an excellent 
policy for both departments and for the internes themselves 
in giving them a more rounded training. 

There is one change connected with the Out Patient De- 
partment which seems most desirable. This is the organiza- 
tion of a gastro-enterological clinic in which men from medicine, 
surgery, radiology and constitutional clinic will see cases 
together and study them as a group. A combined study of 
these cases — most of them non-surgical — with a careful com- 
bined follow up would do much to eliminate the present mis- 
understanding and disagreement which exists between so- 
called gastro-enterologists and surgeons throughout the 
country and would open up new lines of investigation and 
therapy. It seems essential to organize such a clinic before 
moving to the new buildings. Many problems in organization 
and structure should be solved before the move is made. 

During the past year the Surgical Service has shown the 
results of the efforts expended by the Attending Staff in organ- 
izing the two divisions. The smooth running of the interne 
staff is in marked contrast to the period of readjustment ne- 
cessitated by doing away with the sixteen month interne 
service and the resident system. There is now a fine esprit 
and pride in the work of the internes that is very gratifying. 

This improved organization has made it possible for the 
men to spend more time in clinical investigation, and for the 
first time since 1921 it seems evident that foundations for 
thoroughly sound productive and original work are being laid. 
Dr. Cleveland has collected the results of the hand surgery of 
the last seven years and his report shows an astonishing im- 
provement in functional results since the plan of treatment for 
hand infections outlined by Dr. Auchincloss three years ago 
has been carried out. 

Dr. Penfield has made excellent use of the small number of 
neurological cases that come to the Hospital. His study of the 
pathological material of neurological nature, his training 
of a special technician in this work, and his cooperation with 
the Pathological Department have impressed all of us who 



102 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

know of this work. His study of external as well as internal 
hydrocephalus is continuing. 

Dr. Bauman has been of the greatest help in supervising 
the metabolism of the large number of diabetics with surgical 
conditions that have had to be cared for because of the large 
numbers coming to the Hospital for insulin therapy. His 
obesity clinic is growing so rapidly that a second morning 
or more help will be required soon. 

Dr. St. John has been concentrating on the study of gastric 
and duodenal lesions and has analyzed all the cases treated 
here since 19 14, the year the Follow Up System was started. 
By next year this will give a ten -year result on a series which, 
although only 200, will be one of the most carefully analyzed 
and followed as yet published in this country. With Dr. 
Golden, Dr. St. John and his staff have been seeing all the 
upper digestive tract cases and if this could be supplemented 
by the Medical O. P. D. workers, the results would be im- 
measurably better. In the same way Professor Whipple has 
been seeing with Dr. Golden the biliary tract lesions, many of 
them being studied with Dr. St. John in the course of differ- 
ential diagnosis. Results in so-called chronic appendicitis 
were analyzed this year and brought out one very glaring 
fault in the Out Patient Department and Diagnosis Clinic, 
i.e., the lack of any provision for the study and treatment of 
patients with anxiety neuroses. Twenty-nine of the forty-nine 
failures in this appendix series showed some form of anxiety 
neurosis and should never have had operative therapy. 

A symptom complex of asthenia, low blood pressure, an- 
orexia and vomiting and tendency to hemorrhage, has been 
studied in the past year. This post operative complication has 
been noted in some fourteen cases always associated with 
pancreatic or common duct involvement. So far as it has been 
possible to discover it has never been described as a clinical 
entity. 

Dr. Parsons is now getting an increasing number of thyroid 
cases. It is very gratifying to have Dr. van Beuren on the 
Attending Staff, not only for his ability as a surgeon, but for 
his counsel and advice in interdepartmental problems. 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 103 

Dr. Hanford has vindicated the wisdom of taking in a part- 
time man on the Surgical Service. His regular attendance, 
his constant appreciation of the problems and sympathy with 
them has made his association on the service a most helpful 
one. He has published two articles and is preparing two more 
on the subject of tuberculous lymphadenitis. 

The work of Dr. Auchincloss has progressed favorably. 
His broad view of the cancer problem and acute and chronic 
infections as related to the lymphatic system has resulted in 
his undertaking some very promising studies, that have already 
resulted in astonishingly better results in hand and face sur- 
gery. The spread of metastases in breast cancer, the retro- 
peritoneal lymph node involvement in chronic infections of the 
peritoneum and some of the recent obscure acute abdominal 
cases, the blood supply of the hand, the acute lymphatic 
infections of the face and parotid are a few of the studies that 
he has continued or has undertaken this year. His accurate 
sketches and drawings are most valuable. His interest in the 
cancer problem has given him an experience in radio-therapy 
which will be of great help in evaluating the results with the 
new high voltage apparatus. 

The Surgical Division at Bellevue plays an important part 
in the teaching of the department, as the director and his 
assistants take care of half of the work of the fourth year. 
The service there is especially valuable as it affords the stu- 
dents an opportunity of studying cases of accident of major 
importance in addition to many of grave pat! ological signifi- 
cance. There is, in addition, considerable research work being 
carried on. Dr. Lambert is investigating the intricacies of 
thoracic surgery, especially the problems in connection with 
lung abscess, utilizing the anaerobic organisms recovered from 
clinical cases in attempts to establish their etiology by the use 
of monkeys, a field which up to the present has been quite 
unexplored. This has been made possible through the kind- 
ness of Dr. Symmers and his assistants in offering the use of 
the exceptional facilities of the experimental laboratories of 
the pathological department. 



104 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Dr. McCreery has brought the history and follow up systems 
to a point of efficiency and is correlating the cases of ulcer of 
the stomach and duodenum, especially in regard to the etiol- 
ogy of these conditions. 

Drs. McGuire and McWhorter are carrying on an exhaustive 
study of bone tumors, with the purpose of determining their 
relative malignancy. They have been accorded, through the 
courtesy of Dr. Symmers and the directors of the other ser- 
vices, the opportunity of utilizing the vast wealth of material 
which the entire hospital offers and in addition have access to 
the cases at the Presbyterian and French Hospitals. 

Dr. Cunningham is continuing a study into the causes of 
gangrene and diseases of the arteries, as exemplified by throm- 
boangiitis obliterans. 

Dr. Greenough is studying the problems of amputations of 
the lower extremity, in order to determine the most advan- 
tageous site in relation to the adaptation for fitting an artificial 
limb. 

A great deal of time and effort has been expended during 
the year in correlating the work in the out-patient department 
with that in the wards. Up to the present time this has never 
been attempted at Bellevue on any of the Divisions. Through 
the employment of one paid worker and four volunteers, 
whose services have been invaluable, a system has been in- 
stalled by which a resume of ward histories goes to the dis- 
pensary on the discharge of a case from that service and 
similarly a resume of the dispensary- history is incorporated 
in the ward history-. This is of course a wasteful method in 
many ways but it is felt that the advantages derived far 
outweigh the energy and time expended and it is hoped may 
serve as an example to the hospital authorities whereby they 
will adopt a system of interchange as a routine. 

The organization of the Department of Diseases of Children 
has been primarily aimed at carrying out in the best possible 
way the instruction given to the third and fourth year under- 
graduate students. To this end the effort has been toward 
closer contact between this and other departments whose 
subjects are related: better cooperation between the several 



PHYSICIANS AND S U ?. G I N S IO5 

institutions in whose wards teaching in diseases of children i3 
done ; more uniformity of method and sequence of instruction 
by various teachers; more definite correlation of instruction 
given in lecture, clinic, conference, quiz and case teaching. 

The belief that individual instruction is the best means of 
training the undergraduate in methodical accurate observation 
and correct logical interpretation has resulted in the need for a 
larger number of instructors and a greater demand on their 
time. 

Xot until the end of the current year has it been felt that 
this first obligation had been sufficiently well met to allow the 
consideration of elective, optional and graduate teaching. 

Arrangements have now been made for elective courses 
open to fourth year students, on the Feeding and Care of 
Infants: the General Diagnosis and Treatmen: »f Older 
Children; and the application of Laboratory Methods to 
Diagnosis and Treatment in Children. These elective courses 
are offered at Bellevue Hospital in the wards and in the 
laboratory attached to the Children's Medical Divisj 

It is felt that this elective work could be made more valuable 
to the student if the afternoon, as well as the morning hours 
were available. 

It has become possible for the first time this Spring to 
organize graduate instruction in the Department. Such 
courses are to be offered qualified graduates in medicine, 
under University- Extension. They are arranged to occupy 
the student's whole time for a period of eight weeks and 
include Infant Feeding, General Diagnosis and Treatment 
of Older Children, Laboratory Technique as especially ap- 
plied to children; Instruction in Developmental and Nutri- 
tional Disturbances; Special Clinics on Diseases of the Lungs 
the Treatment of Diabetes; Abnormalities of the Central 
Nervous System; Children's Surgery; Tetany and Rickets 
Glandular Tuberculosis; Cardiac Diseases: Ci-genitAl and 
Early Acquired Syphilis: Asthma, Hay Fever and Protein 
Sensitizations. 

These graduate courses are given by members of the De- 
partmenta] staff at Bellevue Hospital and in conjunction with 



106 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

other departments at Presbyterian and St. Luke's Hospitals. 

The Laboratory has also aimed its primary effort at aug- 
menting the teaching value of the material in ward and out 
patient department and aiding the instructor in making his 
diagnosis more definite and treatment more exact, — that is, 
by improving the care of the patient to offer better educational 
opportunity to staff and students. 

Studies undertaken last year on Kidney Function, Chemis- 
try of Spinal Fluid and Anaemias are being continued. 

New investigations are under way on the value of the 
Kottman Reaction in certain diseases of children, the Chemis- 
try of Rickets and the preparation of test material for Food 
and Protein Sensitization. 

The Department personnel is unchanged. Twenty-three 
instructors of various grades are carrying on the departmental 
teaching. Through an increase in the budget and some out- 
side assistance it has been possible to put the Director of 
Laboratory on a full-time basis, which has been of great ad- 
vantage. 

Undergraduate and graduate teaching is carried on at 
Bellevue Hospital, where ward and out-patient case teaching 
is done two days a week and clinical conferences given two days 
a week, with elective courses daily. At Presbyterian Hospital, 
St. Luke's, St. Mary's, Babies and the Vanderbilt Clinic, 
clinical instruction is given one day weekly. 

Two changes made in the third year curriculum have been 
of benefit. The recitations are now being held weekly through- 
out the year, which has made it possible to correlate this form 
of instruction more closely with the subjects covered in 
lecture. 

Each section is now given eight afternoon clinics, so ar- 
ranged as to familiarize the student with the behavior of well 
infants and sick children and allow him to examine for him- 
self conditions taught didactically in lecture and recitation. 
Up to the present time, the student has come to his fourth 
year without any opportunity to observe the actions and 
development of the normal child or his reaction to disease. 
Provision of this sort for the third year Class is still in- 



PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS 107 

adequate and it is hoped that more time will be allotted for 
this purpose in the future. 

The eagerness with which third year students last year 
took up a voluntary course of this nature, and the interest 
shown by the present third year Class in the required course, 
has demonstrated the value from the student's standpoint. 

The fourth year teaching still consists largely of ward and 
dispensary clerkships where individual instruction is given 
on cases which the student has himself examined and pre- 
pared for report. To this have been added two weekly hos- 
pital clinics and clinical conferences by sections; instruction 
in acute contagious diseases and their complications; in- 
struction in natal and pre-natal care at Sloane Maternity 
Hospital in conjunction with the Department of Gynecology 
and Obstetrics; instruction in preventive medicine and child 
hygiene at City Health Centers and Public Schools, under the 
direction of the Department of Public Health and Preventive 
Medicine. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Darrach, M.D. 

Dean 

June jo, 1923 



INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH 
ENDOWED BY GEORGE CROCKER 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the tenth annual report of the 
Institute of Cancer Research. 

There has been but one change in the staff during the past 
year. Dr. R. E. Prigosen, a graduate of the Johns Hopkins 
Medical School, has been appointed associate in cancer re- 
search. 

The customary activities of the staff of the Institute of Can- 
cer Research in instruction of graduate and undergraduate 
students, not only in the Summer Session but as part of the 
undergraduate second year course in pathology at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, were carried on as in past years by 
Professors Wood and Woglom. 

As has been our custom in previous years, the Institute sup- 
plied, for experimental purposes, examples of standard trans- 
plantable tumors of rats and mice to various laboratories and 
hospitals, among them the Research Institute of Cutaneous 
Diseases, Philadelphia; the University of Montreal, Canada; 
the Montefiore Hospital, New York; the Rockefeller Insti- 
tute, New York; the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Michigan; the 
University of Chicago; the Wm. H. Singer Memorial Research 
Laboratory, Pittsburgh; the Cornell University Medical 
School, New York; the Department of Health, Philadelphia; 
the Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore; the Philadel- 
phia General Hospital, Philadelphia; the Wistar Institute of 
Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia; the Washington Univer- 
sity Medical School, St. Louis; the University of Nebraska, 
Omaha, Nebraska; the Robinwood Hospital, Toledo, Ohio; 



INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH 109 

and the Department of Pathology, College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York. 

A list of the more important publications of the members of 
the laboratory staff during the year follows : 

A transplantable metastasizing chondro-rhabdomyo-sarcoma of the rat. 
F. D. Bullock and M. R. Curtis. Journal of Cancer Research, 1922, vii, 

195. 
A critical investigation of the Freund-Kaminer reaction. Louis Herly. 

Journal of Cancer Research, 1921, vi, 337. 
Chemical changes of the blood during immunization. Otto F. Krehbiel, A. 

Bernhard, and G. L. Rohdenburg. American Journal of the Medical 

Sciences, 1922, clxiv, 361. 
Cancer and parasite. Isidor Kross. Journal of Cancer Research, 192 1, vi, 

257. 

Parabiosis and organ transplantation. Isidor Kross. Surgery, Gynecology, 
and Obstetrics 1922, xxxv, 495. 

Histological studies of tumor cells after x-ray. I. Preliminary report on the 
mitochondria and degenerative vacuoles. R. E. Prigosen. Proceedings 
of the New York Pathological Society, 1922, n. s., xxii, 175. 

The salt content of malignant tissues. G. L. Rohdenburg and Otto F. Kreh- 
biel. Journal of Cancer Research, 1922, vii, 417. 

The salt metabolism of tumors. G. L. Rohdenburg and Otto F. Krehbiel. 
Proceedings of the New York Pathological Society, 1922, n. s., xxii, 184. 

The prevention and cure of cancer. Wm. H. Woglom. Illinois Health 
News, November, 1922. 

The Institute of Cancer Research. Wm. H. Woglom. Columbia Alumni 
News, November, 1922. 

Acidosis, alkalosis, and tumor growth. Wm. H. Woglom. Journal of 
Cancer Research, 1922, vii, 149. 

A critique of tumor resistance. Wm. H. Woglom. Journal of Cancer 
Research, 1922, vii, 283. 

The regression of spontaneous mammary carcinoma in the mouse. Wm. H. 
Woglom. Journal of Cancer Research, 1922, vii, 379. 

Does meat cause cancer? Wm. H. Woglom. Hygeia, 1923, i, 23. 

Education in cancer problems. Wm. H. Woglom. Lancet, 1923, i, 304. 
(Letter to editor.) 

Mitochondria in tumors. Francis C. Wood and A. Hartman. Proceedings of 
the New York Pathological Society, 1922, n. s., xxii, 173. 

Multiple homologous tumor transplantations and their bearing on the 
genetic problems of suceptibility and immunity. A preliminary report. 
Francis C. Wood and M. R. Curtis. Proceedings of the New York Patho- 
logical Society, 1922, n. s., xxii, 179. 

Recent developments in the treatment of cancer. Francis C. Wood. Pro- 
ceedings of the New Hampshire State Medical Society, November, 1922 



110 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Cancer, its prevention and cure. Francis C. Wood. The World's Work, 
November, 1922. 

Hospitals and cancer control. Francis C. Wood. Modern Hospital, Chicago, 
November, 1922. 

Recent cancer therapy. Francis C. Wood. The Canadian Medical Associa 
tion Journal, March, 1923. 

The American Society for the Control of Cancer; Its Work. Francis C. 
Wood. Health, 1922, ii, 14. 

Cancer and its control. Francis C. Wood. Americana Annual, 1923. 

A text-book of pathology (Delafield and Prudden). Twelfth edition. Fran- 
cis C. Wood. William Wood and Company, New York, 1922. 

St. Luke's laboratory technique. Second edition. Francis* C. Wood. J. T. 
Dougherty, New York, 1922. 

The Institute has continued to support and publish the Jour- 
nal of Cancer Research, volume vii of which has just been 
completed. 

A number of addresses were made by Professor Wood during 
the year, some to physicians at the annual meeting of the State 
Medical Society of New Hampshire, the Academy of Medi- 
cine, Toronto, Philadelphia County Medical Society, the Ra- 
diological Society of North America, and the Mayo Founda- 
tion, others to general audiences, especially in connection with 
the recent publicity campaign of the American Society for the 
Control of Cancer. 

The research of the Institute on the general investigation of 
the biological qualities of the cancer cell has continued on 
various lines, some of which were outlined as early as 1913. 

Professor Woglom has continued his studies attempting to 
discover if possible some constant differences in biology be- 
tween the normal and the cancer cell, using some of the highly 
specialized modern methods of estimating minute variations 
in electrical potential. The results so far have shown that cells 
of different types of animal cancers show slight variability, 
but that the ranges of such differences do not exceed, in fact, 
do not equal those of the animal tissue. Thus, in this particular 
phase of cell biology there is no characteristic difference be- 
tween the cancer cell and the normal. 

He has also studied the conditions underlying the spontane- 
ous disappearance of animal tumors to see whether such disap- 



INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH III 

pearance was due to changes in the tumor biology, or to defen- 
sive reactions of the host, or to some simple mechanical condi- 
tion such as the disturbance of the blood supply. While a 
definitive solution of the problem is not yet in sight, the pre- 
ponderance of evidence seems to suggest that such disappear- 
ance is largely determined by the simpler mechanical method 
of vacular thrombosis, thus cutting off the nutrition of the 
tumor. Possibly slight changes in the vitality of the tumor 
cells may be correlated with such thrombosis, but there is no 
evidence available pointing to any curative effect on the 
tumor on the part of the animal bearing it, provided only that 
the tumor is once well established. 

These facts add one more bit of evidence concerning the 
futility of attempting to influence the rate of progression of 
human tumors by dietary or medicinal treatment. Unfor- 
tunately, some members of the medical profession pay but 
scant attention to such research work in which the lives of a 
few animals are sacrificed, but continue to carry on experi- 
ments on human beings, although the disease with which they 
are afflicted is fatal unless properly treated, and in defiance of the 
fact that there is ample evidence on hand to convince anyone 
with an open mind that neither diet nor medicine affects cancer. 

Professors Wood and Prime with the assistance of Dr. 
R. E. Prigosen and Miss Hartman have continued the study of 
the effects of radiation on cancer cells, partly in the amplifica- 
tion of the methods of determining death points under varying 
conditions of radiation for the purpose of transferring these 
results directly to the treatment of human beings and partly 
as a general biological study of the morphological alterations 
which take place when the cell is rayed. The upshot of the 
work shows that such minute changes do occur, but that they 
are not sufficiently constant to permit of the definite determina- 
tion of the death point of the cancer cell by mere microscopic 
inspection. Final recourse must therefore be had to the method 
of animal inoculation to determine in any ultimate fashion 
whether the cell is dead or alive. 

One interesting by-product of these ten years of work with 
radium and Roentgen rays has been the demonstration that 



112 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the cells of certain animal tumors have not changed in any 
degree in their susceptibility to radiation during that period, 
despite the fact that to keep these tumors alive they have 
been transplanted through some two hundred generations of 
animals of varying strains. Thus despite considerable varia- 
bility in the mouse, which in this case plays the part of the 
culture tube for the bacteriologist, the original qualities im- 
posed on the cells of the first mouse who developed cancer, 
have been preserved. Such cells are, for example, killed by 
exactly the same dose of radium and x-ray in 1923 as they 
required in 1913. 

It is the opinion of those most competent to judge that 
such a standard biological material will ultimately be adopted 
in determining the destructive and hence the possible curative 
effects of radiation, and thus furnish another illustration of the 
practical benefit which may spring from purely abstract inves- 
tigation. 

Mr. Terrill and Miss Pine have been occupied with a num- 
ber of physical studies, using the large continuous current 
apparatus which was constructed several years ago with the 
accrued income of the Emil C. Bondy Fund for Cancer 
Research. 

The effectiveness of this machine in the destruction of cancer 
has been shown to be much greater than that of the commercial 
types, tumors being destroyed twice as rapidly with the con- 
tinuous current as with the same amount of pulsating current. 
Whether the advantages in speed of the destruction of cancer 
cells by such a continuous current apparatus will outweigh 
its bulk and high cost, is now impossible to predict. That is a 
question for electrical engineers to solve. In the meantime the 
interesting and valuable results which have been obtained by 
the analysis of the mouse tumor x-ray and radium studies 
have been applied with satisfactory issue to human patients 
under the favorable conditions created by the development of 
an admirably equipped x-ray plant at St. Luke's Hospital un- 
der the direction of Professor Wood. 

Dr. Bullock and Miss Curtis are continuing their most im- 
portant investigations on the hereditary susceptibility to the 
production of cancer by artificial means, and in the course of 



INSTITUTE OF CANCER RESEARCH 113 

their study on pedigreed animals, have already been able to 
produce almost 1,000 tumors in a race of animals in which 
such tumors never occur spontaneously. As these animals 
are, in other words, perfectly healthy and normal creatures, it 
is obvious that there has been discovered a new biological re- 
agent for testing tissues of an animal for the transmission of a 
susceptibility which cannot otherwise be demonstrated. If the 
livers of the susceptible strain are suitably irritated, cancer 
develops in a large proportion, but in the large general stock of 
animals kept under similar conditions and amounting during 
the past ten years to some 116,000 white rats, no similar tumor 
has ever appeared. It would seem probable that these highly 
susceptible animals would also be more frequently attacked by 
other varieties of tumor, thus showing that the susceptibility is 
not necessarily confined to one organ, but this is not the case. 
And, on the other hand, attempts to produce cancer of the skin 
by painting the susceptible race with tar, highly successful as 
that substance is in the production of cancer in mice, have not 
yet succeeded in rats. Therefore, susceptibility to one irrita- 
tion does not necessarily imply susceptibility to another. 

Dr. Rohdenburg and Dr. Krehbiel have continued their in- 
teresting studies of the variations in the mineral constituents 
in the blood and tissues of animals bearing tumors or treated 
in a variety of ways, and have uncovered many interesting and 
suggestive facts, some testifying to the extraordinary capacity 
of the body in general to resist serious distortion of its general 
mineral composition, others showing definite although minute 
fluctuations subsequent to an inoculation of tumor, varying 
according to whether that tumor grows continuously or dis- 
appears, or whether the tumor cells are previously killed by 
any physical agent, or whether they are healthy normal cells, 
alive or dead. To each of these tests some response is made, 
but it would be premature to draw as yet any conclusions from 
these observations on the conditions underlying the appear- 
ance or the growth of cancer. They merely foreshadow the 
vastness of the biological problem which confronts those who 
study cancer. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Francis Carter Wood, 

Director 
June 30. IQ23 



SCHOOLS OF MINES, ENGINEERING 
AND CHEMISTRY 

REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 92 3 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present to you the following report on 
the work of the Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 
in the academic year just closed. 

The number of students registered this year was in the 
third year 51, second year 60, first year 69, naval officers 22, 
non-matriculates 19, total 221. The corresponding total in 
the previous year was 206. The number of students graduating 
in the class of 1923 was 44. The degree of Master of Science 
was awarded to 22 U. S. Naval officers on completion of the 
special postgraduate course in mechanical or electrical en- 
gineering. A very satisfactory feature of the first year regis- 
tration was the more even distribution in numbers among the 
several courses of study than had prevailed in recent years. 
The course in electrical engineering was in the lead as to 
number of students entering, and mining engineering came 
next. 

There are transmitted herewith copies of annual reports of 
the departments. These give a more detailed review of the 
features of the past year's work than can be included in full 
in this report. Briefly the following may be noted. 

In the Department of Chemical Engineering the instruction 
in electro-chemistry, for which Dr. Colin G. Fink was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the department as associate a year ago, 
has been undertaken by him with marked success as to the 
interest developed among students and the researches that 
have been started. At the beginning of next year Dr. Fink 
becomes associate professor in this subject. 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY II5 

The course in factory design given by Professor Hixson, 
which was established a year ago, has been enlarged and im- 
proved and represents much more actual design work than pre- 
viously ; the students working in squads give complete records 
on the designs, specifications and course data for the establish- 
ment of proposed factories for chemical manufacture; for 
example, the work of three of the squads consisted of designs 
for (1) 40 Ton Chamber Sulphuric Acid Plant; (2) A 200 bbl. 
Shale Oil Plant; (3) A Gas Plant for a city of 100,000. In 
spite of the cramped quarters for research work, researches 
have been carried out during the year on the following subjects : 

New Bakelite compounds 

Organic constituents of oil shales 

Gasoline from shale oil 

Nitrogen constituents of shale oil 

Physical constants of various glasses 

Comparison of low temperature tars 

New method of sulphural chloride manufacture 

Chlorination of methane 

Constitution of asphalts 

Perfume base from carvacrol derivatives 

Utilization of liquid sulphur dioxide in the removal of ligneous matters 
from wood 

The desulphurization of iron and steel 

Thermal insulation 

Portland cement manufacture 

Rubber fillers 

Ageing of rubber 

Electrolytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide 

Anodic corrosion of lead-tin alloys 

Electroplating of chromium 

Oxidation of unsaturated acids 

Method for manufacture of intarvin, an odd carbon atom fat for 
diabetic treatment 

Announcement will be made within a month of a remarkable 
development in scientific medicine, namely a fat for diabetic 
patients and others suffering from acidosis, which, because it 
has an odd number of carbon atoms in it instead of an even 
number, as ordinary fats, seems to be tolerated by diabetics, 
to furnish the necessary food value and remove the acidosis, 
This material has been developed and studied by Dr. Max 



Il6 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Kahn, Associate in Biological Chemistry, in his laboratory 
at the Beth-Israel Hospital. The possibility of the manufacture 
of this special fat at reasonable cost has been worked out 
with great success in our chemical engineering laboratories 
under the direction of Professor McKee. 

In the Department of Chemistry the students registered 
directly under the Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemis- 
try, form but a small part of the number studying this subject, 
the larger number being under Columbia College and the 
Faculty of Pure Science, yet the strength of this department 
is one of the greatest assets of our engineering schools. Hence 
its present plight stirs deeply both pride and regret, the plight 
being that the great success of the work of the department 
has drawn to it more students, particularly graduate students, 
than the laboratories can accommodate or the staff care for. 
In a laboratory building that is small in comparison with those 
at several other universities and is shared now with chemical 
engineering, the department conducts the instruction of a 
large body of undergraduates and directs the research work 
of the largest group of advanced students in chemistry in any 
American university. With admirable foresight the depart- 
ment is laying its plans years ahead as to the personnel of its 
staff and the general lines of its work, but the lack of space is 
a handicap that renders progress impossible. The time is 
opportune for expansion of facilities, for students of the highest 
grade are coming here now. If the reasonable expansion of the 
laboratories is delayed much longer the tide of such students 
may well set elsewhere. 

The Civil Engineering Department has carried on its 
instruction without notable changes. The volume of work 
done in the Testing Laboratories has continued to be as large 
as the laboratories could accommodate and several investiga- 
tions of value have been in progress. The publication from this 
laboratory of a report on "Comparative Tests of Clay, Sand 
Lime and Concrete Brick Masonry" by Professor Beyer and 
Mr. Krefeld, as a result of an investigation carried out largely 
through the support of the William Richmond Peters Jr. 
Research Fund, has called forth a great deal of discussion in 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY 117 

the journals devoted to engineering and building and in the 
Society for Testing Materials. It seems likely that this report 
will stimulate more careful studies of bricks and mortars and 
their interactions than have been made heretofore. 

The Department of Electrical Engineering reports a year 
without unusual incidents. The members of the staff have 
been kept very busy, for students are coming to this depart- 
ment in increasing numbers. An additional instructor has 
been provided for the coming year and the equipment of the 
laboratories is being augmented at the rate of $3500 a year. 
In recognition of his attainments as an investigator and his 
influence as a teacher, Professor Morecroft has been promoted 
to be Professor of Electrical Engineering, instead of associate 
professor. The electrical engineering department gives five 
evening courses under the University Extension department, 
three of which are elementary and two rather advanced 
courses. In these courses there has been an average aggregate 
attendance of 103 students indicating that through this 
evening work the department is meeting the needs of a con- 
siderable number of persons interested in the study of electrical 
engineering subjects. In the summer of 1922 the twenty-two 
naval officers who were to take the post-graduate course in 
electrical and mechanical engineering after a year of post- 
graduate work at Annapolis attended the Columbia University 
Summer Session, taking special courses in alternating currents, 
heat, and storage batteries. The plan worked so well that at 
the request of the U. S. Navy, Postgraduate School Summer 
Session courses are to be provided again this year in alternating 
currents and in electric storage batteries for the forty naval 
officers who will attend Columbia next year. These courses 
are to be taught by Professor Slichter and Professor Arendt 
with assistants. 

Through the ability of the members of the staff of the 
Department of Geology and Mineralogy to take on heavier 
teaching responsibilities and to redistribute some of the 
instruction in the department, the four senior members of the 
staff have been able to be away on leave for periods of field 
study, writing and travel. In the spring, Professor Kemp 



Il8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

spent an active month in Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
on the natural history survey of these regions for the New 
York Academy of Science. In the winter he was engaged 
for several weeks on the geological side of valuation work 
for some of the largest copper mines of the country. Pro- 
fessor Berkey returned in November from his exploratory 
trip as geologist of the Third Asiatic Expedition of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History into the Gobi desert region 
of Mongolia. In geological results the expedition was fruitful 
beyond all expectation and Professor Berkey's account of 
that side of the expedition's accomplishments has made him 
very much in demand as a lecturer at universities and before 
scientific societies. Professor Johnson while on sabbatical 
leave for the Spring Session was engaged in his physiographic 
researches, mainly at the university. Professor Luquer was 
on sabbatical leave for the whole year, for a large part of which 
he was traveling in Japan and the East. 

The first class, five in number, was graduated this year from 
the course in Industrial Engineering, with the degree of 
Master of Science. The Department of Industrial Engineering 
has now conducted a group of students through the whole 
curriculum and has experienced both the difficulties and the 
satisfactions of working out courses of instruction in subjects 
not hitherto organized for instructional purposes, for the type 
of instruction which has been offered in the analysis of in- 
dustries and in production methods has not been undertaken 
elsewhere or heretofore. The seminar or problem method 
has been adopted in this work rather than presentation by 
lecture. Following these preliminary years the department 
looks forward to extending its contacts with industries and 
organizations outside the university. 

The Department of Mechanical Engineering reports a lack 
of any remarkable happenings and a most successful operation 
in accordance with its plans. Opportunity is seen in the 
development of the possibilities of the present type of student 
for a rearrangement of the curriculum to provide for optional 
groups of subjects and elective subjects. On the one hand this 
will give freer play to the individual interest of the student and 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY IIQ 

on the other hand will permit the professor to develop more 
completely his special field of work. It is expected that the 
results of the studies that are being made now will become 
effective in the curriculum in 1924-1925. It is gratifying to 
record here that provision has been made by the Trustees for 
augmenting the staff in mechanical engineering by the addition 
of the best man that can be obtained to give instruction in 
the subject of steam engineering. For several years no member 
of the department has primarily represented this subject of 
steam engineering. Fortunately the teaching has been supple- 
mented by assistance of the most valuable kind at the hands 
of experts from the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Co. and the General Electric Co. These great manufacturing 
corporations have been most generous in their cooperation 
by sending us their engineers to supplement our instruction 
in steam turbines. It has, however, been well recognized 
that there should be a member of the staff to represent and 
develop here this important part of mechanical engineering, 
and it is expected that nomination of an incumbent for the 
position will be made before September. It is a pleasure to 
record that Assistant Professor Thurston has received promo- 
tion to the grade of associate professor. 

In the Department of Mining and Metallurgy note is made 
of the fact that the installation of new apparatus in the ore 
dressing laboratory has been practically completed so that 
the laboratory is now equipped for nearly all ore dressing work ; 
that the metallographic laboratories have acquired valuable 
new apparatus; and that the non-ferrous laboratory is now in 
need of additions to equipment. Research studies under the 
following heads are noted : 

Non-Ferrous Laboratory: 

The Effect of Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt and Silicon on Retarding 

Corrosion of Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys. 
Electrolytic Refining of Tin in Sulphate and Chloride Electrolytes.. 

and Effect of the Presence of Certain Addition Agents. 
Reduction of Tin Ores in Atmosphere of Hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide 

and Mixtures of Hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide 

and Nitrogen of Gas Producer Composition. 



120 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The Effect of Superimposed Alternating Current upon the Electro- 
deposition of Silver and Nickel. 

Metallographic Laboratory: 

Graphitic Corrosion of Cast Iron (Study of samples from modern 
engineering structures). 

Ore Dressing Laboratory: 

Surface Tension and Absorption Phenomena in Flotation. 

It seems to be by no means widely appreciated how great a 
center of mining and metallurgical activities the region adja- 
cent to New York City is. The value of mineral products 
mined annually within one hundred and fifty miles of New 
York City, far exceeds that of such products mined in any state 
west of the Mississippi. In combined variety and magnitude 
of metallurgical establishments there is no other region so 
favored. Through visits to nearby mines and metallurgical 
plants our students of mining and of metallurgy have the 
best local opportunities of seeing actual work in these fields, 
but for a study of still more varied conditions the summer trip 
of the mining engineering students last year included a visit 
to the Lake Superior Copper Mines and the iron mines in the 
Menominee range. The students of metallurgical engineering 
were conducted through steel plants in the Pittsburgh region. 

It is very pleasant to record here the fact that the Gold 
Medal of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of America 
was this year awarded to the senior professor of mining, 
Robert Peele, for distinguished service in the literature of 
mining. This medal was presented to him at a dinner of the 
Society in his honor on April 26, 1923. 

Of student activities mention may be made of the Engineer- 
ing Society which has conducted its series of interesting 
meetings through the year. At these meetings, as well as in 
regular classes and at various other meetings, a portable 
motion picture projection machine, the gift to the university 
of Mrs. Walter B. James, has been used to much advantage. 
Under the leadership of the Tau Beta Pi honorary society the 
students prepared a Mines, Engineering and Chemistry issue 
of the Alumni News, published on May 4, 1923, which gave 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY 121 

a view of the activities of the Schools of Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry developed largely from the student standpoint, 
which differs not inconsiderably from that of either the faculty 
or the alumni. This issue was sent out to all alumni of the 
schools. 

I desire to express in this report thanks to the Honor System 
Committee of the year for the fine manner in which it accepted 
and discharged its responsibilities in several cases in which 
unfortunately there seemed to be a lapse from observance of 
the Honor System. While the Honor System regulations 
apply formally to examinations, quizzes and laboratory work, 
the tendency of student opinion is clearly toward the applica- 
tion of the same principles in every relation of student to 
instructor and of students to one another. 

For several years we have had two loan funds provided by 
our alumni, that of the Class of '79 and that of the Class of 
'87. Until the present year the amounts loaned were not as 
great as the funds might well stand, but this year the call 
for loans has been very heavy and if it keeps up at the same 
rate we shall be in need of additional loan funds before these 
recent loans can be paid back. Free scholarships are very 
proper aids of students and the University is generous in its 
provision of these, but they cannot be carried beyond a 
reasonable limit, and there are certain advantages from the 
standpoint of the student in a loan fund, as compared to 
scholarships, and of course a decided advantage from the 
standpoint of the University. It is therefore to be hoped that 
gifts for the establishment of loan funds will keep pace with 
the need for them as the number of students increases. 

The high esteem in which the late George Vincent Wendell, 
Professor of Physics, was held by his students and colleagues 
has received in some part expression in the establishment, 
through a fund contributed under the guidance of the Class of 
192 1, of a medal to be known as the George Vincent Wendell 
Memorial Medal. This medal is to be awarded annually by 
vote of the graduating class upon names nominated by the 
faculty to that member of the graduating class who best 
exemplifies the ideals of character, scholarship and service of 



122 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the late Professor Wendell. The first award was made at 
Commencement 1923 to Mr. Reginald Gordon Sloane, A.B. 
Harvard, Chemical Engineer, Columbia. 

Another foundation is also to be mentioned here, namely 
the Herbert A. Wheeler Scholarship. This scholarship is to be 
awarded by the faculty annually to a candidate for a profes- 
sional degree in mining engineering or geology who is in need 
of financial assistance. The Encumbent will receive the annual 
income of the capital sum of $6000 given by Herbert A. 
Wheeler of the Class of 1880, School of Mines. The letter of 
gift from Mr. Wheeler stating that the gift was the fulfillment 
of a purpose formed early in his career to pass on in this way 
certain aid received by him while a student in the School of 
Mines, is a document that makes the foundation of far more 
significance than just the gift of money. 

There has been in operation for two years an exchange of 
professors in engineering and applied science between seven 
universities on the Atlantic coast, namely Columbia Uni- 
versity, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins 
University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the 
University of Pennsylvania and Yale University, and the 
National Department of Public Instruction of France. This 
year the representative of France in this exchange was Profes- 
sor E. de Margerie, Director ol the Geological Survey of Alsace 
and Lorraine, and Professor in the University of Strasbourg. 
Professor de Margerie spent the first month in this country at 
Columbia University and since he was already familiar with 
the language and well acquainted in the United States, he was 
able to begin at once his authoritative lectures on cartography 
and connected subjects to students in our Department of 
Geology. Besides lecturing about a month at each of the 
seven universities Professor de Margerie traveled extensively 
from coast to coast. A notable luncheon was given in his 
honor in June under the auspices of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and four other of the large engineering 
societies. Professor de Margerie returned to France with a 
wide and intimate acquaintance with American universities 
and scientific institutions and in this and the insight which 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY 123 

his lectures gave into geological work in France and its 
organization, he has carried out admirably the purpose of the 
exchange. For the American representative to France next 
year the choice of the committee has fallen on Professor D. W. 
Johnson of our Department of Geology, who will in the coming 
year visit all the important universities of France and lecture 
on physiography and its applications. 

The engineering curriculum, and particularly the question 
of lengthening it, is under discussion all over the country. 
It is a complicated subject with too little of definite knowledge 
available. For example, no one at present knows whether too 
few or too many young men are being given — "given" is used 
advisedly, for it is expensive — an engineering education. The 
lack of conclusive knowledge on this point has been clearly 
brought out by investigations made by the National Industrial 
Conference Board in cooperation with a committee of the 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education and 
reported at the June meeting of that society in Ithaca. As 
to the proper education for students of engineering there is 
the widest divergence of opinion. There is little room for more 
opinion, but much need for careful educational studies and 
the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 
through a committee on Investigation and Coordination is 
hoping to have the cooperation of educational foundations, 
engineering schools, engineering societies, and industries, in a 
more thoroughgoing study of some of the broader problems 
of the results of engineering education than has heretofore 
been possible. For example, it is a fact that the engineering 
schools of the country in general know little about their own 
alumni, as to their accomplishments and what the relation 
of these accomplishments may be to the type of education 
they received. Columbia University seems to have as little 
information in regard to its alumni as any other university. 
It would be of some direct assistance if we could in the near 
future undertake to collect statistical information in regard 
to our own alumni. 

No one arrangement of the curriculum will meet the needs 
of every student or conform at all to the opinion of every 



124 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

professor or alumnus. Our own curriculum at Columbia with 
its high admission requirements is at present at the extreme 
upper end of the scale and has the disadvantages as well as the 
advantages of that position, the principal disadvantage being 
that too few students who desire to come to Columbia have 
been able to meet the admission prescriptions. At a con- 
ference of representatives of the Trustees, Faculty and Alumni 
called to meet at the President's house on January 3, 1923, 
the subject of the number of students admitted was carefully 
discussed and it was agreed that the faculty might well con- 
sider modifying the admission prescriptions so that the 
requirements, while not less extensive, would be much less 
rigid, to the end that our engineering courses might be entered 
by a larger number of students with collegiate education. In 
accordance with this informal discussion the Committee on 
Instruction of the faculty presented proposals for modifications 
in the admission prescriptions which were adopted by the 
faculty at its March meeting. In terms of the courses taken 
by pre-engineering students in Columbia College the modifica- 
tions as authorized by the faculty are as follows: 

Resolved: that the following subjects now prescribed for admission 

to the Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry for students preparing 

in Columbia College be no longer required: 

Mathematics 57 3 hours (the third session of calculus) 

Mechanics 12 2 hours (statics) 

Chemistry 12 1 hour class and 6 hours lab. (second session of qualita- 

tive analysis) 

Physics 7 6 hours (heat and light) 

Physics 50 3 hours laboratory (physical laboratory, heat and elec- 

tricity) 

English 13 3 hours (introduction to English Literature) 

and that the admission requirements in general be correspondingly 
changed. And 

Resolved Further: that all the first year engineering curriculums be 
arranged so as to provide in the Winter Session for instruction in physics 
on the subject of heat, 4 hours, (corresponding with reduced number of 
hours to the present pre-engineering Physics 7), and Physics laboratory, 
3 hours laboratory (corresponding to the present pre-engineering Physics 
50). 



MINES, ENGINEERING, AND CHEMISTRY 125 

This lessening of the admission prescriptions in mathematics 
and chemistry and carrying over a half year course in physics 
to the first year of the engineering school is expected to make 
it materially easier for many students to enter the pro- 
fessional engineering course. 

The Committee on Instruction continued its studies of the 
curriculum in cooperation with departmental representatives 
and members of the faculty and proposed at the April meeting 
of the faculty two important modifications of the curriculum: 

(1) Resolved: that the prescriptions for admission to the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering and Chemistry be modified to admit students from 
Columbia College who offered for college admission elementary algebra 
complete, plane and solid geometry, trigonometry, physics and chemistry, 
and who have done not less than two years work in Columbia College, com- 
pleting the courses in English, Contemporary Civilization, economics, 
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and drafting as now required in the 
three-year pre-engineering course; and in addition a course in the theory 
of surveying and four weeks of surveying at Camp Columbia, or equivalent 
summer work to be prescribed for the several branches of engineering. 

(2) Resolved: that the Faculty recommend that beginning with 1924 
the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering be awarded to students 
upon the completion of the first two years of the three-year courses leading 
respectively to the degrees in engineering as now offered. 

These proposals were made the subject of a special meeting 
of the faculty on May I , and the first proposal was adopted by 
the faculty. The second was rejected. In each case the vote 
was close and did not seem to justify calling the special 
meeting of the faculty of Columbia College and of the Univer- 
sity Council to try to obtain the concurrent action of both 
these bodies, which would have been necessary to put the 
modification of the admission requirements into effect at once. 
These important matters therefore remain for further discus- 
sion which will bring opinion, it is hoped, to more nearly 
unanimous agreement in the coming year. 

In my report of last year I set forth as forcibly as I could 
the need of more buildings for the Schools of Mines, Engi- 
neering and Chemistry. The intolerable conditions for undertak- 
ing new buildings in the past year have prevented our coming 
any nearer the needed expansion than we were a year ago, but 



126 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

I can only repeat that our work in chemistry, physics, chemical 
engineering, mechanical engineering and civil engineering, is 
all seriously suffering from inadequate space for laboratories. 
It is hoped that at least as to class rooms some relief will be 
felt on the completion a year hence of the School of Business 
building, now under construction, since certain rooms, particu- 
larly in the School of Mines building, have for the past few 
years been practically taken away from engineering on account 
of the great need of the School of Business. The conference of 
representatives of the Trustees and professors in the depart- 
ments of chemical engineering, chemistry and physics which 
you arranged for one evening last November at the President's 
house served to bring out with clearness how dependent on 
new buildings the maintenance of our university standing in 
these great fields of science is. Plans are practically com- 
pleted for an extension to Havemeyer Hall and a building 
north of it to provide for chemistry and chemical engineering 
laboratories, and the general scheme of a building for physics 
to be built on 120th Street is ready. Only the rapid provision 
of these buildings can solve one of the most important prob- 
lems of the university. The mechanical engineering depart- 
ment needs laboratories on a suitable site, and the civil 
engineering testing laboratories are under even more stress 
for lack of space. These matters were more fully set forth 
in my report of last year, but I should like to keep them 
constantly before the attention of the President and the 
Trustees. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George B. Pegram, 

Dean 
June 30, 1923 



FACULTIES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, 
PHILOSOPHY AND PURE SCIENCE 

REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As Dean of the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy and 
Pure Science, I have the honor to submit the following report 
for the academic year ending June 30, 1923: 

The total registration under these faculties, including the 
Summer Session of 1922 and students registered primarily 
under other faculties, was 2,590, as against 2,124 for the 
preceding year. The registration for the Winter and Spring 
Sessions alone was 1,872, as against 1,520. The number of 
new students was 614, as against 477. The number of degrees 
was as follows: Master of Arts 522, as against 448; Doctor of 
Philosophy 107, as against 81. These figures are a little im- 
posing. During the academic year 1914-1915 the total 
registration of graduate students was 1,875. At that time, 
however, all candidates for the degree of Master of Arts in 
Education were counted as registered under these faculties. 
Since the assignment of candidates for the degree of Master 
of Arts in Education to the exclusive control of the Faculty 
of Education in 1915-1916, these candidates have no longer 
been counted in the registration under these faculties. It is 
thus apparent that our present registration is the highest yet 
reached in our history and exceeds all pre-war figures by a 
high percentage. The number of degrees conferred is much 
in excess of the normal even when the increase in registration 
is taken into account. There has been a marked increase in 
the number of degrees in the following departments: Chemis- 
try, English, History, Psychology. 



128 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The noteworthy events of the year are the following: 
(i) the reorganization of the Joint Committee on Graduate 
Instruction in such a manner as to provide for the administra- 
tion and control of a doctorate in law and the extension of the 
doctorate to subjects not now comprised within the depart- 
mental offerings of these faculties, (2) the enlargement of the 
offerings of the Department of Philosophy to include the 
history and philosophy of religion, and (3) the additions in 
personnel to the Faculty of Political Science. 

The Joint Committee on Graduate Instruction was reor- 
ganized by the addition to it of three members from the 
Faculty of Law and by a resolution of the University Council 
giving it Council recognition and defining its powers. This 
important resolution merits repetition here: 

Resolved: 1. That the University Council request the Trustees of the 
University to amend Chapter II, Section 14, of the Statutes of the Uni- 
versity to read as follows: 

"To fix and determine by concurrent action with the Faculties of Political 
Science, Philosophy, Pure Science and Law severally the conditions upon 
which the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Law (Doctor 
Juris) shall be conferred and to recommend candidates for such degrees." 

2. That, so far as the University Council is concerned and until further 
action by it, the Joint Committee on Graduate Instruction, constituted by 
resolution of the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, Pure Science 
and Law, shall have, subject to the reserved powers of the University 
Council and these Faculties respectively, the following powers: 

(a) To consider any and all questions of general interest or concern 
relating to the conduct of graduate instruction and the pursuit of re- 
search in the University and make recommendations and proposals 
with respect to such questions, either to the University Council or to 
any University Faculty or officer concerned. 

(b) To have equal and like jurisdiction over the degrees of Doctor 
of Philosophy and Doctor of Law (Doctor Juris) and, through its Chair- 
man, to matriculate students as candidates for such degrees and admit 
them to final examination, no matter under what University Faculty 
they may have enrolled. 

(c) To authorize the matriculation and admission to final examination 
of candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Law, 
not only in subjects now comprised within the departmental offerings 
of the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, Pure Science and Law, 



GRADUATE FACULTIES 120. 

but also in such other subjects as the said Joint Committee on Graduate 

Instruction may approve. 

3. That these resolutions shall become effective if similar resolutions 
are adopted by the Faculties of Political Science, Philosophy, Pure Science 
and Law. 

The similar resolutions referred to have been adopted by the 
faculties named. 

By this resolution a problem before the University for many 
years and revived with new interest last year, was brought to a 
solution, namely the establishment of a doctorate in law 
without destroying the unity of administration and control 
of the research work of the University. Since I discussed 
the problem itself in my report for last year, I shall comment 
at this time only on the solution of it effected by the resolution. 

The University will now confer a degree of Doctor of Law 
for the completion of studies and researches of the same 
general character as those required of candidates for the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This is made possible by 
the incorporation of the research work of the Faculty of Law 
within the existing administration of the research work of the 
University as a whole. How far this solution of the problem 
will be effective, remains for future experience to decide. It 
has its complications. It involves, in effect, at least so far as 
the doctorate is concerned, the recognition of four faculties 
instead of three, as constituting what we commonly call the 
"graduate school." This has, undoubtedly, its terrors. If the 
same principle were extended to other faculties, such as that 
of medicine, and to other schools, such as that of business, 
this office might well seek counsel of despair. The saving 
element in the situation is the Joint Committee and the powers 
granted to it. In order to provide at once for further exten- 
sions, the Committee is empowered to care for candidates for 
the doctorate in other subjects not now comprised within the 
departmental offerings of the four faculties. It is thus evident 
that continued unity in the administration of the doctorate 
depends on the success with which the Committee does its 
work and the confidence it can command. I have faith that 
the Committee will fully meet this responsibility and I bespeak 



130 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

for it the hearty cooperation of all who are interested in the 
research work of the University. It seems clear that we are 
entering on an experiment which may have far reaching con- 
sequences and which, therefore, merits careful attention and 
study. 

If the Joint Committee on Graduate Instruction is to do its 
work economically, speedily and successfully, it must be 
granted considerable autonomy by the faculties to whose 
reserved powers it is subject. And it is clear that, in proportion 
as this is done, the significance of the faculties in matters of 
administration will be increasingly minimized. This minimiz- 
ing process has already gone far. Ten years ago these faculties 
held stated meetings once a month, at which considerable 
administrative business was transacted. Questions of admis- 
sion, petitions of students, programs of study as well as the 
requirements for degrees were matters in which the faculties 
actively participated. The meetings, although often long and 
fatiguing, were usually interesting because they brought out 
pertinent discussion of educational problems. They served a 
social purpose also and kept members of the faculty informed 
about the work the faculty was doing. Now the faculties 
rarely meet oftener than twice a year, and then usually to 
confirm what their committees have already done or to elect 
officers. The meetings are short and uninteresting. I am fre- 
quently asked whether it is necessary to attend. It is only 
when some question affecting the powers or composition of 
the faculties is raised, or some proposal is made to alter the 
requirements for degrees, that much active interest is aroused. 
Even in these matters committees have come largely to have 
the right of way. Usually the several committees on instruc- 
tion and the Joint Committee have antecedently reached a 
decision which is seldom questioned. The important resolution 
of the Council which has provoked these remarks, provoked 
no debate in these faculties. Perhaps all this is admirable. 
Certainly — and I think I speak for the majority of my col- 
leagues — it has made our administration far more economical 
and orderly than it was before. It has confined the burden to 
a few who serve for a season to be replaced by others to share 



GRADUATE FACULTIES I3I 

the like responsibility. Personally, I have no wish to change 
it, for it has proved a blessing to this office and has left me 
free still to continue my own work as a student and teacher. Yet 
I contemplate it with regret. My experience and observation 
have taught me that, given men whose primary interest is 
scholarship and given the administrative problems with which 
they have to deal, the best results are reached by some such 
method as we have developed with the years. But I often feel 
— due, it may be, to the retrospective idealization of what once 
existed — as if something rather fine had passed away. 

Sober reflection, however, does not warrant even the wish 
to return to methods that have had their day and worn out. 
But it may raise the question, What purpose may faculties 
serve in a graduate school? As the subjects for research multi- 
ply and their supporting studies vary, as professional schools 
reach out beyond the training necessary to their immediate 
task to the scholarly and scientific exploration of the founda- 
tions of their arts, as institutes and bureaus of research arise, 
it seems futile to suppose that a single graduate faculty can 
be created to comprise the many individuals engaged in so 
many enterprises. And the creation of many faculties results 
in the erection of arbitrary barriers which the work of research 
is constantly tearing down. May it not be, even though our 
reminiscences are reluctant, that in this matter of research 
faculties have become the survival of a type of university or- 
ganization no longer adequate to existing demands? The 
conviction has grown with the years that a small board or 
council, similar to the Joint Committee on Graduate Instruc- 
tion, is a far more competent body to deal with the problem 
of university research and to frame and administer the require- 
ments for advanced degrees than a single faculty of a hundred 
or two, or several faculties of fifty each. The problems we 
have to meet are problems to be solved by inquiry and not by 
parliamentary discussion and debate. But I neither ask nor 
expect a revolutionary change. What I ask is the liberal 
consideration by our colleagues of the direction in which we 
seem to be moving, the watching and testing of it, and the 
willingness to try out its effectiveness. For we can make the 
experiment while yet we hold on to the tradition. 



132 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The really important service which something like faculty 
organization might render, is the stimulation of the common 
interests of naturally allied groups of scholars. Obviously, it 
is research itself, not administration and regulations, that 
sustains scholarly and scientific enthusiasm. What I conceive 
we need, in addition to orderly administration and the ade- 
quate support of our work, is the stimulus which would come 
from more common knowledge of what the University is 
actually doing. One could wish that our faculties were more 
like academies — bodies to which the results of investigation 
could be presented for information and appraisement. If 
allied groups of scholars held occasional meetings in which 
they might learn what their colleagues were doing, much 
might be done for the advancement of learning. Our busy 
life is not without illustrations. Departments have their 
meetings and colloquiums. The conferences at the President's 
House to discover and form university opinion on important 
projects, have revealed the University to those attending 
them in new and stimulating ways. The Joint Committee on 
Graduate Instruction, through a sub-committee with Professor 
A. H. Thorndike as chairman, is making a survey of the re- 
search work of the University which in part should soon be 
available for common knowledge. Perhaps through such 
movements as these we are preserving in our academic life 
that sense of a common enterprise which the old faculty 
meeting was supposed to promote. 

In my report for last year I called attention to the proposal 
made by the Union Theological Seminary for the doctorate in 
religion and related subjects. It has received renewed study 
during the year just closed. After unsuccessful attempts to 
deal with it as a matter jointly affecting these faculties and the 
faculty of the Seminary, the suggestion was made that the 
University erect, under the Faculty of Philosophy, a new 
division to be known as the Division of the History and 
Philosophy of Religion, to be coordinate with the other 
divisions of that faculty and to utilize, so far as possible, the 
resources of the Seminary. This was a promising suggestion, 



GRADUATE FACULTIES 133 

but it was found to be unworkable because the new division 
would so largely be made up of officers whose major interest 
was already in some other division, and also because our 
existing divisions have no defined standing in relation to the 
work of these faculties. The suggestion was modified in a 
manner which promises to be successful. Since the history 
and philosophy of religion are properly university subjects, 
the Department of Philosophy was asked if it could not include 
them in its offering in such a way as best to utilize the work of 
other departments and of the Seminary. This attempt will 
be made beginning with the academic year 1923-1924. The 
joint resources of the University and the Seminary are already 
considerable for this purpose. They should, however, be sup- 
plemented. Provision should be made as soon as possible in 
the Department of Philosophy for a professorship of compara- 
tive religions. This would decidedly strengthen the new work 
and significantly enrich our present offering. 

It was in consequence of the work of the Joint Committee 
on Graduate Instruction that this adjustment with the 
Seminary was made. In the course of the Committee's study 
of the matter, the proposal as originally presented became 
transformed. At first it involved the attempt so to accom- 
modate the work and requirements of different departments 
and faculties to one another that the doctorate might be avail- 
able for a certain group of students. It became eventually the 
problem of suitable provison in the University for an impor- 
tant subject. With such provision made, the difficulties of the 
earlier attempt practically vanished. Here is further illustra- 
tion of the kind of service the Committee is competent to 
render. Recognizing, as it does, that in the promotion and 
extension of research, the subject is the important thing, it can 
work out the adjustments necessary in our complex organiza- 
tion. 

The personnel of the Faculty of Political Science has been 
significantly increased by the addition to it of Professor 
Evarts B. Greene from the University of Illinois, Professor 
Serge A. Korff from Georgetown University, Professor William 



134 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Linn Westermann from Cornell University, and Professor 
Joseph P. Chamberlain and Assistant Professor Hessel E. 
Yntema. Professors Chamberlain and Yntema have been for 
some time connected with Columbia, associated with the 
Faculty in Public Law and in Roman Law and Comparative 
Jurisprudence. The three strictly new appointments are in 
the Department of History. They had their origin in one of 
the conferences at the President's House to which I have al- 
ready referred. As I recall the discussion at this conference 
and review the documents before me which set forth the 
subsequent inquiries, I am impressed with the fact that these 
appointments are significant, not only as rounding out in fuller 
measure the offering of the Department of History, but also 
as adding strength to other departments. The Department of 
Greek and Latin may congratulate itself on the appointment 
of Professor Westermann, risking even some jealousy that he is 
not officially of their number. The Slavonic Department 
receives in Professor Korff a colleague who will not only sup- 
port its work but will also bring to students of nationalistic 
ideas the interpretation of a civilization to which we have 
hitherto paid too little attention. And the Department of 
Philosophy with its growing interest in the ideas that have 
shaped America intellectually, will find an ally in Professor 
Greene. 

We have something to learn in the matter of encouraging 
students to realize the wealth of opportunity which lies 
beyond the borders of their departmental affiliations and 
which these new appointments so admirably illustrate. Our 
academic classifications often erect barriers between depart- 
ments and faculties, but genuine scholarship is continually 
breaking them down. This year has indeed been marked by 
acts which emphasize this fact. And I must believe that 
further recognition of it and progressive administration in 
view of it, will increasingly determine our university policy in 
the future. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, 
June 30, 1923 Dean 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As Director of the School of Architecture, I have the honor 
to submit the following report for the academic year ending 
June 30, 1923. 

While it is recognized that a nation's history is truly re- 
flected in the architecture it produces, we are hardly prepared 
to see this national expression follow the political and economic 
changes so promptly as is now evident throughout the land. 
The triumph of organized labor is a phenomenon which will be 
recorded permanently in the building of today. 

No longer do we see heaps of stone quarry blocks surround- 
ing the site of a growing building and hear the pleasant chatter 
of the stone cutters' chisels giving architectural form to the 
stones. Today huge motor trucks bring all material ready to 
set in place, and their burdens are lifted by powerful derricks 
and deposited on the scaffold. The hissing of hoisting engine 
and steam excavator, and the aggressive tattoo of the power 
riveter proclaim that a building is being born into the world. 
This state of things develops naturally in the struggle between 
power, on the one hand, to push forward, and of labor, on the 
other, to hold back. It is of great import — almost revolution- 
ary in fact. 

The architecture of today is making a record of these condi- 
tions in the form, style and fabric of the buildings we erect. 
The practicing architects mold their design primarily to ac- 
commodate the needs of occupation, and then try to wrest 
from an unwillng labor system buildings which have some 
semblance of beauty. The characteristic forms and expres- 
sions of architecture which are acceptable to Americans are 



I36 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

modified to make a plain building look attractive and a cheap 
building look at least inoffensive. Strict adherence to the 
minimum cost has shorn the average building of adornment. 

The School of Architecture is following the trend of the prac- 
titioners in design, by adopting a program of problems which 
embraces the typical buildings demanded by the American 
public. These buildings are designed by the students under 
the counsel and constructive criticism of our critics who are 
able practitioners, and the competitions are judged by a jury 
of the faculty and eminent practicing architects. 

We believe an American style will in time appear and that 
Columbia will participate in its gradual evolution, and, while 
it will be a slow growth, the evidence of its existence is apparent. 

The past year has been one of notable success in the field of 
design. At the Beaux- Arts Institute of Design, where the work 
of all prominent schools is judged in competition, the superior 
excellence of the work shown by Columbia was attested by the 
award to the School of the gold medal by the Societ6 des Archi- 
tectes Diplomes par le Gouvernement Francais, Paris, through 
the kindly offices of the American Branch of that distinguished 
body. 

In public competitions there were awarded to Columbia 
students the following prizes : 

American Academy in Rome Fellowship Competition — Prize of $3000 and 

residence for a period of three years in Rome. Arthur F. Deam, winner. 

Awarded to Columbia University for two successive years. Won by 

a student of Columbia for the fifth time, thus placing the School of 

Architecture in the lead in this competition. 

Municipal Art Society Prize Competition — A Reviewing Stand 
Perry Coke Smith — 1st Prize — $50. 
Louis Edgar Albright — 2nd Prize — $25. 

Emerson Prize — Base of a Flag Staff 
Charles Fuller — 1st Prize — $50. 

Warren Prize — A Memorial Park 
Perry Coke Smith — 2nd Prize — $25. 

(Arthur F. Deam awarded 2nd prize — not eligible for competition as 
he was not registered with Beaux- Arts Society in 1921-1922.) 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE I37 

Spiering Prize — A Flower Market — 
George M. Burch, awarded prize — $50. 

W. F. McCulloch, Architect, offered a prize for A Traffic Signal Tower 
H. S. Konold, winner; $25.00. 

McKim Traveling Fellowship 

The McKim Fellowship, endowed by the late Charles Follen McKim, 
is awarded every three years. The winner must, in all cases, spend a 
year in foreign travel and study under the direction of the Administra- 
tive Board. Competitions, open to American citizens only, are held in 
the Spring to determine the winner, and all graduates of the School 
within three years after graduation, as well as students in residence who 
have completed all requirements for the Thesis as determined by the 
Committee on Instruction of the School, are eligible to compete. The 
competition had A Civic Art Center for its subject this year. All of 
the drawings were of such a high quality that when the winning design 
was finally selected, the jury desired that none should be placed second, 
but all should rank together. Perry Coke Smith was awarded the prize 
of approximately $1,750. 

The American Institute of Architects Medal 

Awarded annually at Commencement to the student who has main- 
tained, during his entire course, the best general standard of scholarship 
in all departments. Frederick J. Woodbridge was awarded this medal. 
Alumni Medal 

Awarded annually at Commencement by the Alumni Association of 
the School of Architecture to the student who has maintained the 
highest standard in Advanced Design in the academic year preceding. 
This medal was awarded to Louis Edgar Albright. 

$5 Prize — Border for Heading and Page for Columbian — awarded to 
Earl C. Morris by "The Columbian." 

$5 Prize — A Bookcover for Columbia Publication — awarded to 
Louis E. Albright by "The Columbian." 

In general competitions judged by the Beaux-Arts Institute 
of Design, the School submitted the following number of 
designs : 

Beaux-Arts Institute of Design Competitions 
School of Architecture 

Class "A" Projets 

Class "B" Projets 

Class "B" Analytique . . . 

Class "A" and "B" Archaeos 

Class "A" Esquisse-Esquisse 

Class "B" Esquisse-Esquisse 



Submitted 


Passed 


Commended 


42 


22 


H 


42 


27 




33 


26 


4 


25 


6 


14 


14 




6 


24 




1 



1 38 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



University Extension 

Class "A" Projets 26 18 3 

Class "B" Projets .... 
Class "B" Analytique . . 
Class "A" and "B" Archaeos 



Class "A" Esquisse-Esquisse 
Class "B" Esquisse-Esquisse 



57 37 3 

64 51 

3 2 

11 2 

19 3 1 



The record in Architectural Design — Columbia University 
Problems — was as follows : 

Problems Submitted Passed Commended 

Pre-Elementary Design 39 27 8 

Elementary Design 54 36 11 

Intermediate Design 51 26 10 

Advanced Design 54 24 20 

Intermediate and Advanced Archaeos. 48 20 25 

Sketches 

Pre-Elementary Design 75 43 6 

Elementary Design 73 33 6 

Intermediate Design 69 25 12 

Advanced Design 37 15 5 

The registration in the School of Architecture was as follows : 

Winter Spring 
Session Session 

School of Architecture 57 54 

Combined Course 14 13 

University Extension 308 249 

Certificate Students (Estimated Number) .... 86 86 

465 402 

The number of graduates in June, 1923, was 9. 
The final report blanks contain records as follows: 

School of Architecture 

Passing grades 432 

Failures 30 

Debarred from examination 4 

Dropped 15 

Absent 6 

H (Attendance only) 2 

N. C. (No credit) 6 



SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 139 

University Extension 

Passing grades 49 2 

Failures » 93 

Debarred from examination 2 

Dropped 7^ 

Absent 6o 

H (Attendance only) 106 

N. C. (No credit) 63 

Mr. Sotoro Ohta, holder of the Perkins Fellowship, is now- 
traveling abroad; he submitted, as an envoi, a measured draw- 
ing of a beautiful restoration of the Basilica of Santa Agnese 
Fuori le Mura at Rome. 

This being Professor A. D. F. Hamlin's sabbatical year, he 
gave a series of French lectures on American Art to the stu- 
dents of the Ecole du Louvre, Paris, France, during the Spring 
term of 1923. This invitation was extended to him by M. 
Leonce Benedite, the Director, as the result of interviews when 
M. Benedite was in the United States in 1 921, on a visit which 
impressed him deeply with the progress of American art in 
recent years. Professor Hamlin also lectured before the Ecole 
des Hautes Etudes Sociales, a postgraduate school affiliated 
with the Sorbonne, giving a shorter course of lectures upon the 
same subject. This course of lectures was not in pursuance of 
any international exchange, but a gift to France in token of 
American appreciation of gratitude for the great services ren- 
dered by France to America in the field of fine arts. Inciden- 
tally the School will benefit by Professor Hamlin's presence in 
Europe, in that he is replenishing our stock of photographs and 
lantern slides of which he is curator. 

In view of the leave of absence granted Professor A. D. F. 
Hamlin and Director Boring the annual reception was not 
held. A farewell tea was given them by the students on Janu- 
ary 15, 1923. 

The annual meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools 
of Architecture was held in Washington, May 14 and 15. 
At this meeting Professor H. Vandervoort Walsh was present 
as a delegate from Columbia and ably represented the School 
in the discussion and accomplishments of the convention. 



140 : c i v v s : a v \~ : v z r = i ~ y 

Ar the Pageant in Washington, on May 18, President Hard- 
ing, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, presented a medal :: 
honor to Henry Bacon, architect of the Lincoln Memorial. 

Cclurrbia Uraiversicy mis rearesercerl by che Direemr arm dee 
r-'-T— -I "">.: carried a miumcia mrrer ar. el barrereece in che 
procession. 

5yrrpaaheii: ::.: mrdial '.;r. cersraredrg 'eecweer lire scucer: 
a: ay arm dee s:ar is especially irrpcrcarm ir the Serial :•:' 
Ar:hice:cure where much ::' are irsarumim is perscral arci 
Lraimam ir ::::: c: mac ahem ire: riser harrairy, che 
Arrhiceeraral Se-eiery :: che Serial was irmbea m sera a deie- 
guciir :: aisauss -.:':. me mmraiccee :r Irscrumiir. aribleras 
arismr m me aaramismaum ::' me Salami arm :: surges: me 
sraderas ideas ::' imar: veneres m :he curriculum arc. the 
conduct of exercises. Helpful ideas were ere :raic :: these 
rceerlrgs mum sciraularea ere Scree 1 sciri: errl rendered 
the view of the Staff on that pecofiai izmmiex — the students 1 
prdlesephy ere ideas :: nsdie. 

As ere ceaehirg ::' am ericeeds :r:ra mascer ec pupil by per- 
scral icrcacc sc bee ler iwiecge ara irspcrauir giver m ere 
acmariea saucer: as shiuld be eassed alirg ay r la err cc ere 
ycueager cues. Ir dais marr.er am mas caugar ay ere clc mas- 
rers era i: is rmw me syscera mile wed m ere resc ::re:gr. 
schools. In order to give younger students practice and knowl- 
edge of more advanced work, they are now encouraged be as- 
sis: me acvarmec smder:s ir. ereearirg me drawings ::' impcr- 
:arc resigns. Trey thus iearr :: werk as prarcicirg arehi- 
cecus -ara ir cries ahey acquire murage ir acaackirg larger 
cr:':iems ire beccrre s:r:rg ir placirg ideas ir priper graphic 
form. To compensate them for the time eras spent, they are 
mediced mica peircs ir design The success ::' ere sysiem was 
exeraelaec m me erchusiascii ir. ceres c che whale serial reck 
ir me Thesis ara Felliwship Ccrapeciricr. ara :he demcrscra- 
tkm which followed. 

In this connection it seems proper to specially commend the 
idrairac.e mm: ::' service ir :ea:hirg design which Mr. 
Frederic C. Hirons, Architect, brought to the School. His fine 
er.chusi.asm his rescmiemi suggescicrs arc crirlcism era his 



5Ce:oi g? a?.:h:::::v?.z :_: 

vrhcie 5:h::i and hid ia= reae:ri:a ha ahe "nahry ::' design 

An exhiainca. :: Fed:~=har: Drawings is a:~" :n vie™ in die 
Aver.- Ar:hi:e:aarai Libra— a -~hi:h =h;-."= ahe ~::h : 
year: a. re:: nap: a vrhiah ahe Uabveraiay na; 






The grea: :: = : ::" a::eaang laiaaaabia Sch 
keeps a:~aa regisaraaha agairea l:: are.e: 
cf many s--:-d snlea:; :r:m ::he: =.:h:>:i=. 
the design courses here. 

It is not customary to award a scholarshij 
::" a area dance SchAarshias =h:add be giv 
primarily and f referably to students in dire 



Three :rm:re sahAarahips A d-.:et hundred dihara $~ : z>: :»:• 
each :ae:ei :: saudeaaa ::' ea:eah:nai abihay aaa ready::: 
ahe chira :r ::arah year- vr:rk -■■ : -_ei d be ::' beaea: r: :he 
School. 

The School year closed with harmony in its family of Staff 
and sradenaa A heaiahy eaahuAasm ::r — :rk ea::a:aged by 
::.t =-.nap-aahy ::' ahe Ahamai ahe Baard ::' \dai::r= and ias 
friends — :he prae racing arc hi rears ::" enanea:e — seems :: pr;m- 
ise crariaaea inapr:vemen: ia :he chief aim ::' :he SchaA — 
high Svch:larship and g::i iesign .a Archirermre. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WnxiAM A. Boeixg, 

Z : •■::;:' 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the eleventh annual report of 
the School of Journalism. 

The registration for the year 1922-1923 was as follows: 





Matriculated 


Non-Matriculated 


1922— 1923 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


First Professional Year . . 
Second Professional Year 
Graduate Students .... 


41 

32 

6 


24 

24 

3 


10 




2 






79 


5i 


JO 


2 



The total number of registrations for the year was 142. Of 
these students, 49 were graduated with the degree of B.Lit. in 
Journalism, one received a Certificate of Proficiency, and two 
received the degree of M.S. in Journalism. 

The first professional year in 1922-1923 included 41 men 
and 24 women as against 50 men and 30 women in the pre- 
vious year. Of these 12 men entered from Columbia College, 
4 women from Barnard College and 2 men and 4 women from 
University Extension, 22 in all from within the University. 
The remaining 43 had received their college training in various 
institutions scattered all over the country, including Austin 
College (Texas), Bethany College (W. Va.), Boston Univer- 
sity, Bowling Green State Normal School (Ohio), University 
of California, College of the City of New York, University of 
Colorado, Florida State College for Women, University of 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 143 

Georgia, Harvard University, Hiram College (Ohio), Holy 
Cross College (Mass.), Hunter College (2), McGill University 
(Canada), Macalester College (Minn.), Mount Holyoke 
College, Nebraska University (2), New York Law School, 
New York University, University of North Carolina, Uni- 
versity of Ohio, Packer Collegiate Institute (3), University of 
Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, Princeton University, 
Radcliffe College, Randolph-Macon Women's College, Uni- 
versity of Richmond, Smith College (2), University of South 
Carolina, Syracuse University, Union College (New York), 
United States Military Academy (West Point), United States 
Naval Academy (Annapolis), Vanderbilt University, Wellesley 
College, Wesleyan University, Williams College, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

Of the 142 students registered during the year, 37 reported 
their home residence as in New York City, and 11 in other 
parts of New York State. The remaining 94 came from the 
following States and countries: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, 
California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, 
Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, 
Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, 
Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington; Canada, China, 
Porto Rico. 

The year has been an uneventful one except for the cele- 
bration of the completion of the first ten years' work of the 
School, which took place on Saturday, May 26th. The pro- 
ceedings began in the afternoon with the unveiling of a bust 
of Dr. Talcott Williams, the first Director of the School. 
The bust is the work of the American sculptor, William R. 
O'Donnell, and is mounted on a handsome pedestal in the 
entrance hall of the School Building, opposite the bust of 
Joseph Pulitzer by Rodin. The simple ceremony was per- 
formed by Mrs. Talcott Williams, on the invitation of the 
Director, in the presence of a group of past and present mem- 
bers of the staff, alumni, students, and friends. In the evening 
a dinner, attended by over two hundred past and present 
students, was held in the Hotel Commodore, under the presi- 



144 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

dency of Mr. Ralph Pulitzer, Chairman of the Advisory 
Board. The day was further marked by the publication of a 
memorial volume entitled "The Columbia Journalist, 1913 — 
1923" prepared by students and alumni. It contains brief 
biographies of the graduates, portraits of the present students 
and past and present members of the staff, and other interest- 
ing features, including articles by the Director Emeritus, the 
Director, and Professor C. P. Cooper. 

Among the articles contributed by the students, special 
mention should be made of an analysis of the occupations of 
the graduates, prepared by Mr. Foster Eaton. During the 
ten years, 277 students graduated, and reports received from 
203 of these show the following results : 

ON NEWSPAPERS 

Publishers 3 

Managing Editors 4 

Departmental Editors 14 

Sub-Editors 20 

Editorial Writers 2 

Special Correspondents 6 

Foreign Correspondents 4 

News Associations 8 

Foreign Papers 6 

Free Lance 4 

Reporters 24 

Total — 95 

MAGAZINES 

Editors 4 

Managing Editor 1 

Associate Editors 17 

Special Contributors 3 

Total — 25 

Publicity 20 

Advertising 17 

Graduate Students 17 

Instructors in Journalism 6 

Total — 60 

Grand Total 180 

Non- Journalistic Work 23 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 145 

In speeches delivered during the celebration, both the 
Director Emeritus and the Director urged the importance of 
maintaining the high standards of scholarship and technical 
efficiency which had won for the School the respect of the 
newspaper profession and of the University authorities. The 
School has steadfastly upheld its full requirements for admis- 
sion and has refused to accept students subject to any condi- 
tions. Including 50 members of the class of 1923, making 327 
in all, 139, or forty-two per cent, of all graduates, had received 
degrees before entering the school. Within the School itself, 
the same high standards of proficiency have been maintained, 
and the rule of excluding the unfit has been rigorously adhered 
to. In the early years of the School, the rate of mortality was 
heavy, and though with the spread of the School's reputation 
for severity, there has been less need for exclusion, it is still 
the duty of the School to point out to some students, kindly 
but firmly, that journalism requires certain natural capacities, 
native intelligence as well as industry, and that if these quali- 
ties are deficient, they cannot be supplied by training. At 
the meeting of the National Editorial Association, Mr. Arthur 
M. Howe, editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, and a member of 
the Advisory Board of the School, emphasized the importance 
to the profession of a strict exercise by schools of journalism 
of the duty of selection. The Columbia School has performed 
this duty at the risk of decreasing the number of students; it 
has done so with the support of the President and the Advisory 
and Administrative Boards, and this policy will be continued. 
Any relaxation which permits the graduation of a weak stu- 
dent not only injures the reputation of the School but is an 
injustice to the newspaper office to which he is admitted on 
the strength of his diploma. The School's reputation rests on 
the achievements of its students and it is by this standard 
that it wishes to be judged. 

Of the 49 students who took the B.Lit. degree this year, 5 
obtained graduate scholarships, and 31 have up to the time 
of writing obtained professional positions on newspapers, 
news associations, or magazines. The newspapers on which 
positions have been secured before or immediately after 



1 46 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

graduation included the New York Herald, New York Even- 
ing Telegram, New York Tribune, New York Times (3), 
Journal of Commerce, Wall Street Journal, United News (3), 
New York Bureau of La Nation of Buenos Ayres, Asheville 
Citizen, Bakersfield Morning Echo, Buffalo News (2), Mc- 
Keesport Daily News, Paterson Morning Call and Toronto 
Daily Star. 

This excellent result is, no doubt, in part due to the plan of 
allowing students in their second professional year to substi- 
tute actual work on a New York newspaper for one or two 
technical courses. The plan has obvious advantages, and these 
seem to outweigh some less obvious difficulties which have 
been met in its administration. Owing to the tact and pro- 
fessional experience of Professor Cooper, these difficulties have 
been overcome, and while the Faculty has introduced some 
modifications in the plan with a view to safeguarding profes- 
sional standards, the general outcome may safely be pro- 
nounced successful. This employment plan is naturally wel- 
comed by the students who take advantage of it, because it 
enables them to get experience and salary and at the same 
time keep their standing in the School. 

While the professional reputation and achievements of the 
School are the main criterion of its success, a word may also 
be said about the place it occupies in the University. Partly 
owing to the widespread publicity given to the Pulitzer bene- 
faction, the students in the early years of the School developed 
a strong professional spirit in which the wider university 
issues were sometimes unduly subordinated. But the students 
as a body now realize their privilege in belonging to the Uni- 
versity, with its broader outlook and longer tradition, and it 
was a satisfactory proof of this that as the title of the memorial 
volume referred to above they chose "The Columbia Journal- 
ist" without prompting or leading from any member of the 
teaching staff. The University, on the other hand, has gained 
in many ways from the addition to its equipment. The erec- 
tion of a new building at a time when building prices were 
reasonable, providing accommodation for many more students 
than the School has or is likely to have for many years to come, 



SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM 147 

has been the smallest of these benefits, though it is hard to see 
how the classes in Extension and the new School of Business 
would have been carried on without the Journalism Building, 
to say nothing of other departments. The real gain to the 
University has been the addition to its intellectual and teach- 
ing equipment, the attraction of a number of picked students 
keenly interested in current affairs and endowed with the 
forward-looking mind, and the direction of both teachers and 
taught to the study of modern problems and modern litera- 
ture, which in some universities tends to be neglected. The 
Journalism Library has taken over as its peculiar care modern 
drama, fiction, history and many other interests beside the 
housing and care of newspaper files, and certain Journalism 
courses are open to graduate students who submit evidence 
of sufficient ability and training to take advantage of them. 
Both academically and professionally, the School of Journal- 
ism has justified in its ten years of completed work the courage 
and foresight of the authorities who made it part of the Colum- 
bia University organization. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. W. CUNLIFFE, 

Director 
June so, 1023 



BARNARD COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
condition and progress of Barnard College during the aca- 
demic year 1922- 1923. 

The enrollment in our four regular classes has been as fol- 
lows: 

1921-1922 1922-1923 

Seniors 71 94 

Juniors 203 219 

Sophomores 173 168 

Freshmen 220 270 

667 751 

In addition to these regular students, we have also had 37 
unclassified students and 34 non-matriculated students, mak- 
ing a total of 822 primarily registered in Barnard College, an 
increase of 88 as compared with last year. Besides these, we 
have had 42 students from Teachers College and 61 from other 
parts of the University taking some courses at Barnard. The 
total registration has been 925, 98 greater than in the year 
1921-1922. This is about as many students as we can accom- 
modate in our present buildings. Not much further increase 
should be permitted until we can erect a new academic build- 
ing. 

Last autumn, for the first time, students with an unusually 
good school record were permitted to enter by the Psychologi- 
cal Test alone, without further examinations. Thirty-two 
were admitted in this way, besides 21 on combinations of 



BARNARD COLLEGE I49 

Psychological Test and certain College Entrance Examina- 
tions. It is too soon, of course, to judge of the success of this 
new plan of admission, but so far the results seem very promis- 
ing and we are inclined to believe that it has brought us a 
number of excellent freshmen. On the whole, the students 
have seemed this year to be of unusually good quality. The 
careful selection of the Committee on Admissions is apparently 
producing very satisfactory results. 

Early in the year Professor William T. Brewster expressed 
his desire to give up the administrative duties which he has 
carried so long and so devotedly and confine himself in future 
to his work as Professor of English. He accordingly offered 
his resignation from the office of Provost, which was accepted, 
and takes effect on June 30. The Faculty, at its last meeting 
of the year, fittingly expressed the gratitude of the College 
to Professor Brewster in the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted : 

WHEREAS, At the close of the present academic year Professor William 
Tenney Brewster relinquishes the office of Provost of Barnard College, 
which he has held since 1910, following his services of three years as Act- 
ing Dean, and 

WHEREAS, Throughout this period, as Provost and as Chairman of the 
Committee on Instruction, with unswerving regard to the standards of 
the curriculum he has dealt with the details of his exacting routine duties 
always actuated by a deep and sincere interest in the welfare of Barnard 
College, be it 

RESOLVED, That the Faculty of Barnard College formally record their 
appreciation of the devoted services of Professor William Tenney Brewster 
during his tenure of the administrative post from which he is soon to retire. 

As it is generally agreed that the office of Provost is no 
longer necessary, this position has been abolished by the Trus- 
tees. The closer relation with other parts of the University 
which the Provost has in the past helped to bring about is now 
secured through the membership of the Dean of Barnard 
College on the Advisory Committee on Educational Policy, 
to which she was appointed last autumn. Through the con- 
ferences of this Committee Barnard is kept informed of the 
plans and policies of all parts of the University, so that our 



150 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

work may be co-ordinated in the most helpful manner with 
that of the other Faculties, and we may obtain the best advice 
in the University on our own educational problems. As one 
outcome of this new arrangement there has been some change 
in the plan of co-ordination reported by the Provost last year, 
the Advisory Committee on Educational Policy having been 
substituted for the Joint Committee on Graduate Instruction 
as adviser on our promotions to the grades of Associate Pro- 
fessor and Professor. 

During the year Professor W. A. Braun has been on leave 
of absence for the Winter Session, Professor Marie Reimer 
for the Spring Session, and Professor Bird Larson for both 
Sessions. 

Two very valuable members of the Faculty have been pro- 
moted for next year from the grade of Assistant Professor to 
that of Associate Professor, — Dr. Gertrude M. Hirst in the 
Department of Greek and Latin, and Dr. George W. Mullins 
in the Department of Mathematics. 

Three new appointments to the Faculty have been made 
for next year; Dr. Raymond Moley, now Director of the 
Cleveland Foundation, as Associate Professor of Government; 
Dr. Ernest De Wald, now Assistant Professor at Rutgers 
College, as Assistant Professor of Fine Arts; and Mile Mar- 
guerite Mespoulet, of the Lycee Victor Hugo in Paris, as 
Visiting Lecturer in French Literature for the second semester, 
with a seat on the Faculty. 

On Commencement Day 157 candidates were recommended 
by Barnard College for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Of 
these 6 received the degree with Special Honors, in the new 
Special Honors Course. This is the first year when any stu- 
dents have been graduated in this course. It was established 
with the purpose of giving to some of our very best students 
who desired to do fairly intensive work in one field an oppor- 
tunity to develop their talents to the utmost possible extent, 
to secure a really sound knowledge of their subject, and to do 
more independent work than is generally possible for the 
student in the regular curriculum. It is no easy task to adapt 
the American college machinery to a course of this kind, which 



BARNARD COLLEGE 151 

is somewhat analogous to the honors degree of the British 
universities. We feel, however, that the experiment is very 
well worth trying and v/e think that the results so far are 
distinctly encouraging. On account of our membership in 
Columbia University we are able to make this experiment 
under particularly favorable circumstances, since it is possible 
for an able Senior to use the rich resources of the graduate 
courses in other parts of the University. 

Another important educational development has been the 
organization of the new Committee on Students' Programs, 
with Professor Louise H. Gregory as Chairman. This is 
intended to take the place of the former Committee on Ad- 
vice to New Students and the general system of Faculty 
Advisers. It is believed that the concentration of the work of 
advising students on their programs of study in this Com- 
mittee of ten will bring about more helpful relations between 
instructors and students and a more consistent system of 
advice. The Committee will be especially responsible for the 
administrative questions involved in the programs, and will 
turn the students over to the various departments for advice 
regarding their major subjects and related fields. 

Valuable advice is given to the students also by the reor- 
ganized Occupation Bureau, under the direction of Miss Kath- 
arine S. Doty, who keeps in close touch with professions and 
vocations for women and is able to inform the students regard- 
ing their qualifications for various types of work, the openings 
in these fields, and the preparation therefor. 

The work of the Physical Education Department and the 
office of the College Physician has progressed successfully 
during the year, in spite of the serious handicap of the long 
absence of Dr. Alsop, who was away from February until the 
end of the year because of a severe attack of pneumonia. In 
her absence Dr. Mary Reesor has been a very helpful substi- 
tute. On the whole the health of the student body has been 
good. 

An interesting development in the Physical Education 
Department has been the adoption of the Physical Efficiency 
Test, worked out by Professor Wayman in a form somewhat 



152 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

analogous to the Psychological Test. Freshmen and Sopho- 
mores passing this Physical Efficiency Test with a satisfactory 
rating are allowed to substitute elective work for the usual 
prescribed gymnasium work. 

The new post of Assistant to the Dean in Charge of Social 
Affairs has been occupied by Miss Mabel F. Weeks, who, in 
spite of many difficulties caused by lack of adequate assistance 
and space, has demonstrated how valuable to the College the 
work of this office can be. As Secretary and Executive Officer 
of the Faculty Committee on Student Affairs, she has had 
general supervision over all student organizations. She has 
also been in charge of all the social life of the College, the 
entertaining of visitors, the arranging of lectures and similar 
functions. As a connecting link in such matters between the 
Faculty and the students she has been very helpful. It has 
been of especial advantage to have in this position one so 
familiar with the educational as well as the social side of 
Barnard life and so conversant with the Faculty point of view 
and the best traditions of the College. 

The chief problem of the year has been that of residence. 
The amalgamation of the two residence halls, Brooks and John 
Jay, under the capable direction of Miss Helen P. Abbott and 
her four assistants, and the feeding of all these students, about 
240 in number, at the Commons in Students Hall have, on the 
whole, worked well. The abolition of the Brooks Hall dining 
room has had fewer bad effects than we expected. The food 
provided in Students Hall has been excellent, thanks to the 
exceptional ability of our dietitian, Mrs. Jameson. Probably 
no college enjoys better food than Barnard. Another good 
result of the change has been the use of the former dining 
room in Brooks Hall as an attractive and spacious drawing- 
room available for the students of both halls. 

On the other hand, it is generally agreed in all colleges that 
the handling of resident students in very large groups is un- 
desirable, and that it is much better to break them up into 
fairly small groups for social and community purposes. We 
can never, under the conditions at Barnard College, have our 
students in as small groups as is possible at some of the country 



BARNARD COLLEGE 153 

colleges, but we hope, when the wings to Brooks Hall are con- 
structed, to give up our present temporary arrangements and 
return to the division into different groups for meals and to 
some extent for other forms of community life. 

The most serious difficulty of the year has been the use of 
John Jay Hall for residence. Though this is an admirable 
building of its kind, no apartment house can be really satis- 
factory as a college dormitory. The physical difficulties and 
the impossibility of obtaining, in scattered and isolated apart- 
ment groups, the right kind of general community spirit, 
have made the problems of the director somewhat perplexing. 
Next year we are going to provide additional social rooms on 
the first floor of John Jay, and we hope that these will con- 
siderably improve the situation. 

Our curriculum for next year has been enriched in several 
very important respects. Since we first began our instruction 
in Government, with the generous aid of Professor Charles A. 
Beard, we have depended on the part time of some professor 
from Columbia, but we have long intended to establish ulti- 
mately our own chair of Government and to secure someone 
who would give his whole time to this important field of work. 
We are happy in being able to announce the appointment of 
Dr. Raymond Moley as Associate Professor of Government. 
Through his experience at Western Reserve University, as 
Director of the Cleveland Foundation, and as Educational 
Adviser of the National League of Women Voters, he has 
become deeply interested in the education of women in 
politics. Besides offering courses for our regular students he 
will get in touch with the various women's organizations in 
New York City and will develop plans for making Barnard 
a useful center of instruction in this very important new field 
for women. With the co-operation of University Extension it 
is hoped that special courses of lectures may be organized, 
adapted to the needs of various groups of women in the city. 
Towards the expenses of this work we are using the income of 
the fund established in memory of Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, 
and we hope that this department will prove a worthy memo- 
rial to so great a pioneer. 



154 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Another definite step forward has been taken in the field of 
Fine Arts. For some years our plans for developing this sub- 
ject have been delayed, but at last we are able to announce 
several courses to be given by Professor Butler Murray, of the 
Department of Fine Arts of Columbia University, and Profes- 
sor Ernest De Wald, newly appointed on the Barnard Founda- 
tion. We shall have the advantage of the resources of the 
Avery Library of Columbia and the great riches of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, with which we are co-operating. As 
there sometimes seems to be danger that the aesthetic side of 
education may be neglected nowadays, it is particularly grati- 
fying that we are able to begin at last under such favorable 
circumstances regular instruction in a subject so important in 
any college of liberal arts. 

We are also improving for next year our offering in the field 
of economics and social science. The most important addition 
here is a course on "Forms of Social Work" to be given by Dr. 
Thomas J. Riley, General Secretary of the Brooklyn Bureau of 
Charities. This is a field in which many of our students are 
much interested and in which Barnard, because of its situa- 
tion in New York, can afford great advantages. 

We are able to resume next year the practice of inviting 
lecturers from abroad to give courses in Barnard, inaugurated 
so successfully in 1920-1921 by Professor Caroline F. E. Spur- 
geon, of the University of London. Next year a course on 
"Contemporary Movements in Italian Literature" will be given 
during the Winter Session by Donna Santa Borghese, Doctor 
of Philosophy of the University of Bologna; and during the 
Spring Session Mile Marguerite Mespoulet, mentioned above 
as a new member of the Faculty, will give a course on "Contem- 
porary Movements in French Literature" and another for more 
advanced students on "Special Studies in French Literature." 

The expenses of these special courses by foreign visitors are 
being met through gifts. Other gifts which we have received 
during the year include a library of about 1,100 volumes from 
Miss Emily Howland Hoppin, most of which is well adapted to 
the needs of the College ; a new stage curtain and window hang- 
ings for Brinckerhoff Theatre, as the decennial gift of the Class 



BARNARD COLLEGE 155 

of 1913; lighting equipment for the Theatre from Wigs and 
Cues ; stands for spectators in the gymnasium from the Greek 
Games Committee; a contribution of $605 to the Scholarship 
Funds from the Class of 1912; and four urns for the steps of 
Students Hall from the Class of 1923. We have also received 
$15,000 from Mrs. Willard D. Straight in payment of her 
pledge toward our Endowment Fund. 

The total sum received in money gifts during the year has 
been about $21,000, which is comparatively a very small 
amount for the College. However, we have been able to live 
within our income during the past year, and our financial con- 
dition is fairly good. 

The most pressing need of the College is the Claremont Ave- 
nue wing to Brooks Hall. This would accommodate about 250 
students, over 100 more than we now have in John Jay Hall, 
which we could then vacate, and it would also provide dining 
rooms for the residents of the old Brooks Hall as well as the 
new wing. We urgently need the additional accommoda- 
tions, as well as better quarters for the girls now inconven- 
iently lodged in John Jay. The Board of Trustees have author- 
ized the Committee on Buildings and Grounds to have com- 
plete plans for the wing drawn up by Messrs. McKim, Mead 
and White. It is hoped that some generous donor may be 
found to provide the $600,000 necessary for this building, or 
some considerable part thereof; or that perhaps, if conditions 
in the building trades greatly improve, it may be found possi- 
ble to invest in the residence hall some of the corporate funds 
of the College. 

Besides the provision of better and more extensive residence 
accommodations, we need also additional furniture and equip- 
ment for Students Hall, particularly for the social rooms, in 
order that this admirable building may serve more adequately 
its great purpose as center for the social life of the College, 
especially for the non-resident students. 

As we have now attained almost the limit of the capacity of 
our present academic buildings, but could probably care for a 
few hundred more students if we had additional rooms, we 
ought to plan in the very near future for a new hall, to contain 



I56 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

class rooms and instructors' offices, and to be erected on Clare- 
mont Avenue just north of Students Hall. 

Another desirable addition to our equipment would be a 
camp in the country near New York, to which our under- 
graduates might go for week-end parties during the academic 
year and our alumnae in the summer. Several camping par- 
ties, organized by the Department of Physical Education, 
which passed most successful week-ends in the Interstate Park 
at Bear Mountain during the past winter, proved how much 
such a camp might do for our health and social life. We could 
carry out the plan much more successfully if we had a camp 
belonging to the College. The cost of this would not be great. 
Possibly our alumnae, who so successfully investigated and 
established the co-operative dormitory and other projects in 
the past, might make a study of this interesting problem and 
see whether such a camp could not be secured in the near 
future. 

The Board of Trustees has adopted in principle the policy 
inaugurated by Columbia University of establishing a certain 
number of professorships at comparatively high salaries. We 
should have at Barnard, in proportion to the number in the 
rest of the University, at least one professorship at $10,000 and 
three at $7,500. Of these we have at present only two at $7,500. 
As soon as the finances of the College permit, additional ones 
will be established. It is to be hoped that this may be done in 
the near future, for no need of Barnard is of more importance 
than the adequate recognition and compensation of the 
scholarship and teaching of its professors, on whom the whole 
value of the institution depends. 

On the whole the year has been a good one. Though there 
are some difficult problems to face, especially that of residence, 
our prospects for the future seem at the moment bright. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Virginia C. Gildersleeve, 

Dean 

Jiwe 30, IQ2J 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University and 
the Trustees of Teachers College, 

Sirs: 

I have the honor to present herewith the annual reports of 
the Directors of the several Schools of the College, the Insti- 
tute of Educational Research, Extramural Courses, the 
Bureaus of Educational Service and Publications, the Li- 
brarian, the Registrar, and the Controller. 

It is a pleasure to record that, despite all hindrances due to 
building operations, there has been hearty cooperation and 
abundant good will exhibited by the entire staff and student 
body. The psychological effect of seeing more room and 
greater conveniences actually in prospect has tended to 
preserve the morale of the group. I can not otherwise account 
for the fine spirit maintained throughout a year of exceptional 
physical discomfort. 

The resignation of Professor Monroe as Director of the 
School of Education would be a severe loss were it not that 
we shall have his cooperation in a closely associated adminis- 
trative post. For twenty-five years he has given invaluable 
service as teacher, and since 191 5 he has been the executive 
head of the School of Education. His interests in comparative 
education and his personal relations with our students from 
other lands have finally swerved him from the historical field, 
in which he has made a world-wide reputation, and fully 
justify his acceptance of the new task. His successor by ap- 
pointment of the Trustees on April 12, 1923, is Dr. Robert J. 
Leonard, who comes to us from the University of California, 
where he was Professor of Education and closely associated 
with the President of the University in an administrative 
capacity. 



1 58 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

By action of the Faculty of Practical Arts, concurred in by 
the University Council and approved by the Trustees of Teach- 
ers College, the minimum requirement for matriculation for 
the B.S. degree in the School of Practical Arts, on and after 
July i, 1923, will be graduation from an approved high school 
with required entrance credits, and in addition, the successful 
completion of one year of study in a recognized college or 
technical school. On and after July 1, 1924, two years of study 
elsewhere, after high-school graduation, will be required for 
admission. The effect of this action is to limit the under- 
graduate curriculum in the School of Practical Arts, as now 
in the School of Education, to the junior and senior years. 
The loss of the two lower classes presents a serious financial 
problem, as I pointed out a year ago in my annual report, 
but the educational advantages appear to outweigh all 
other considerations. 

The action of the Trustees in naming the senior professorship 
in nursing in honor of Mrs. Helen Hartley Jenkins and appoint- 
ing Miss Nutting its first incumbent, is a tribute to two emi- 
nent pioneers in the field of nursing education. Each has 
made in her own way a contribution unique in character and 
of lasting merit. At the same time the establishment of a 
fellowship in honor of Mrs. Hunter Robb, by gifts from the 
National League of Nursing Education, is a splendid memorial 
to another great leader in the same cause. 

The work of the Institute of Educational Research, as may 
be seen from the reports of the Directors, is a striking testi- 
mony to the scientific interests of the staff. In the Division 
of Educational Psychology, Professor Thorndike has directed 
five investigations under grants from The Commonwealth 
Fund, the American Classical League, and the Carnegie 
Corporation of New York. Reports of the results of these 
studies — all of them of permanent scientific value— will be 
available, as they appear, through the Bureau of Publications 
of Teachers College. 

The Division of Field Studies has carried on surveys of 
the public schools of Stamford, Conn., and of Augusta, Ga., 
and of the educational work of the Young Men's Christian 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 159 

Association in New York City. A form for reporting fiscal 
statistics has been supplied to all cities in the United States 
of between 30,000 and 100,000 population, and 78 of these 
cities have made returns, which the Institute has tabulated 
and made available for comparative study. Professor Strayer 
has given his time during the year to the Educational Finance 
Inquiry, undertaken by the Educational Finance Inquiry 
Commission of which he is chairman and director. The 
headquarters staff, located at the College, has prepared and 
sent to press six volumes dealing with educational finance in 
a more exhaustive and scientific way than has ever before 
been attempted. 

The Division of School Experimentation, under the direction 
of Professor Caldwell, has continued to conduct the one- 
teacher rural school at Allamuchy, N. J., supported by a 
grant from Mr. Felix M. Warburg, which has supplied valuable 
materials for our staff and students in rural education. Grants 
have been made by the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial 
for the experimental conduct of a class of highly gifted children 
in a near-by public school, and for a study of the extra-school 
activities of children and of the influences surrounding them. 

The Lincoln School is more than meeting expectations as 
a laboratory of educational experimentation. Teachers and 
pupils conspire to make its institutional life wholesome and 
stimulating. The studies in mathematics and in the social 
sciences have enlisted the cooperation of many teachers in 
other schools. The notable contribution is in the method of 
arriving at suitable materials for instruction in particular 
subjects to pupils of a particular grade. The ideal is to combine 
the wisdom of the scholar with the insight of the psychologist 
in arriving experimentally at what children can best learn of 
a subject at different stages of advancement. Practically, it 
is a new way of writing textbooks and courses of study. 

The notable contribution of the Horace Mann Schools is in 
demonstrating acceptable methods of teaching and in testing 
out materials and means suggested for betterment. Under the 
direction of Professor Gates, some valuable studies are being 
made of the ways in which children learn, and particularly of 



l6o COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the difficulties which some children have in doing ordinary 
tasks. Incidentally, in helping individual pupils to overcome 
their faults, the scientific investigator is providing the best of 
materials for the professional training of teachers. 

The chief business of Teachers College, as I have always 
understood it, is the professional training of teachers for 
leadership in public education. A professional school is 
bound to look forward. Its faculty needs both the insight and 
the zeal of the prophet. To the limit of its ability, it must fit 
its students for the work that lies ahead of them. Old things 
must be renewed and new things utilized in practical service. 
Hence the need in our field of continuous and persistent study 
of school curricula, courses of study, methods of instruction, 
and systems of administration, in order to make the best 
possible use of the materials of instruction and the influences 
needed in the character-building of future American 
citizens. 

While our chief task is the training of leaders in American 
education, we may not neglect the special needs of our foreign 
students who now number hundreds in each academic year. 
It is fitting, therefore, to record in most appreciative terms the 
pledge of the International Education Board of the munificent 
grant of $100,000.00 a year for ten years, to aid us in giving 
special attention to foreign students and also in conducting 
investigations and research in education in foreign countries. 
In order to develop this program without undue draft upon our 
existing Schools or Faculties, the Trustees have established an 
International Institute under the control of a special Adminis- 
trative Board. The officers of the International Institute 
appointed up to the present time are Professor Monroe, 
Director; Professor W. F. Russell, Associate Director; and 
Professors I. L. Kandel and Lester McL. Wilson, Associates. 
Professors Kandel and Wilson have been in residence during 
the second semester, and have already demonstrated the worth 
of their services. Professor Monroe has spent the greater part 
of the semester pursuing, by governmental invitation, studies 
of educational conditions in Poland, in the Balkan States, 
and in certain Central European countries, particularly 



TEACHERS COLLEGE l6l 

Czechoslovakia. Professor Russell has visited Bulgaria on a 
similar mission. 

The building program of the year has advanced with 
hesitation. The Library, promised for occupancy in Septem- 
ber, will not be completed before mid-year, even if no more 
strikes are called on the work. The addition to Dodge Hall, 
made possible by the completion of our two million dollar fund 
for buildings, thus insuring the receipt of another million 
dollars from the General Education Board, will provide not 
only generous space for advanced work in the household 
arts, but will give us the greatly needed space for a College 
Commons, with ample kitchens and accessory equipment. 
These dining rooms, located on the ground floor and directly 
accessible from 121st Street, will afford a central meeting 
place for residents in Bancroft and Seth Low Halls and for 
other students of the neighborhood. With no rental costs to 
meet, it should be possible to give students better food at 
less expense than they can now get in the little restaurants in 
the locality. I am confident that no provision for students' 
welfare will be more welcome than the new commons. 

I know not how to express our sense of loss by death during 
the year of the many members of our staff. The only relief is 
the memory of their devotion to professional service and the 
satisfaction of knowing that each one has built a substantial 
part of the institution we know as Teachers College : 

Miss Fanny Morton, housekeeper of the College for more 
years than my memory serves, died on September 5, 1922. 
She was known to thousands of students who will never again 
feel quite the same in our halls. Faithful to every trust, loyal 
in the highest degree, she literally wore out her life in our 
service. 

Mr. Kenneth Vincent Carman was Instructor in Industrial 
Arts for three years, and his professional equipment and his 
skill as teacher led us to expect much from his work. He was 
slated for promotion when he was taken from us on July 17, 
1922. 

Mr. Eli Witwer Weaver had given us during several years 
the benefit of his rich experience in vocational guidance. 



162 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Students found him a mine of information on industrial 
occupations and received from him the most painstaking 
instruction. His death on November I, 1922, leaves a gap in 
our staff that will be difficult to fill. 

Professor Arthur Wesley Dow, who died on December 13, 
1922, leaves behind him no successor. He stood pre-eminent 
among all teachers of art in public education. A landscape 
painter of superior ability, a leading critic of art form, and 
exceptionally competent in the art of Oriental peoples, his 
greatest contribution to his particular field was in his command 
of design and composition related to the everyday life of human 
beings. Great as he was as a teacher and artist, he was 
greatest as a man. In him the Christ-like qualities of meekness 
and gentleness were raised to a power that controlled the 
affections and secured the allegiance of all who came in 
contact with him. He was a leader of men by virtue of the 
sheer nobility of his character. 

Professor Stephen S. Colvin, who passed away without 
warning on July 15, 1923, had served us barely half a year as 
resident officer, but in Summer Sessions since 191 5, while a 
professor in Brown University, he had given us the best he 
had to offer from his great store of learning in psychology and 
education. Our students had come to regard him as one of 
our foremost teachers. His scholarship, his rich experience 
with educational affairs, and his forceful personality made him 
an ideal instructor in the normal school field to which we had 
called him. The loss to Teachers College, and to teacher- 
training everywhere, may not be easily reckoned. 

The announcement of the sudden death of Mrs. Mary Clark 
Thompson on July 28, 1923, brought sorrow to the many 
individual institutions and philanthropic agencies that had 
been the recipients of her counsel and help. A Trustee of 
Teachers College since 1902, when she took the place vacated 
by the death of her husband, Frederick Ferris Thompson, she 
was constant in her attention to our interests. She had an 
intuitive knowledge of human nature, a keen intellect, and a 
forceful personality — these qualities, dominated by abounding 
common sense, made her a most valuable counselor in every 



TEACHERS COLLEGE I63 

emergency. Her faith in Teachers College is shown by her 
works. Thompson Hall, our gymnasium and physical educa- 
tion plant, is a memorial to her husband, whose solicitous care 
for the personal welfare of our students she thus lovingly 
perpetuated. A generous supporter in the days when annual 
deficits were made up privately by our Trustees, she gave 
liberally to every project for improving our plant. She was 
one of the largest donors to our Library Fund, and at her 
death she left us a princely legacy. To the record of her 
benefactions I beg leave to add a personal tribute. Much as 
I have profited from the advice of other members of the 
Board of Trustees, I got from Mrs. Thompson what few 
others could give — a view of life wholesome and uplifting, an 
understanding of woman's work and needs invaluable in an 
institution so largely devoted to women's interests, and the 
encouragement to advance even when the way could be but 
dimly seen. Her optimism was contagious, and to it Teachers 
College owes a great share of its prosperity. Her example 
is a challenge to our best endeavor, and her life a benediction 
upon our accomplishment. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James E. Russell, 
Dean 

July, I Q2 j 



SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
REPORT OF THE ACTING DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

Jo the Dean of Teachers College, 
Sir: 

I submit herewith my report for the School of Education for 
the academic year 1922-1923. 

The total number of students enrolled in the School of 
Education has been 2,290 (not including graduate students 
with majors in Practical Arts), as compared with 1,976 for the 
preceding year. In Practical Arts there were 344 graduate stu- 
dents as against 262 in 1 921-1922. The matriculated students 
of both schools in the Summer Session of 1922, not in atten- 
dance during the regular year, numbered 3,243. Of the total 
number of graduate students in the School of Education during 
the academic year, 16 were enrolled as unclassified students 
and 1,286* indicated their desire to become candidates for the 
Master's or Doctor's degree. In addition there were 988 
matriculated unclassified students of whom 509 signified their 
intention to apply for the degree of Bachelor of Science. In 
the preceding year there were 1 ,033 candidates for the degree 
of Master of Arts or Doctor of Philosophy and 30 unclassified 
graduate students. 

During the year the degree of Doctor of Philosophy was con- 
ferred upon 14 students, 12 of whom had taken the Master's 
degree at Columbia. In the preceding year 19 doctorates were 
awarded; in 1920-1921, 7; 1919-1920, 23; 1918-1919, 9; 
1917-1918, 19; 1916-1917, 9. For the academic year 1922- 
1923, 677 students in Teachers College received the degree of 
Master of Arts, 14 the degree of Master of Science, and 467 
the degree of Bachelor of Science. 

* 1,630 including graduate students with Practical Arts majors. 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 165 

The total number of Teachers College professional diplomas 
granted during the regular academic year was 663. These 
diplomas are granted only in connection with a degree. 

Of the 1,646 graduate students, 170 held the Master of Arts 
degree from Columbia University ; 246 students held the degree 
of Bachelor of Science from Columbia University. Other col- 
leges and universities were represented as follows: Hunter 
College, 94; College of the City of New York, 63; University 
of Chicago, 50; Wellesley College, 36; Vassar College, 33; 
University of Missouri, 28; University of Wisconsin, 27; Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 25 ; Cornell University, 25 ; Smith College, 
25; Syracuse University, 24; Mount Holyoke College, 24; 
Adelphi College, 22; Oberlin College, 20; University of Cali- 
fornia, 20; New York University, 19; Harvard University, 18; 
University of Illinois, 18; University of Minnesota, 16; Col- 
gate University, 15; University of Indiana, 15; Goucher 
College, 14; University of Washington, 14; Ohio State Univer- 
sity, 13; Ohio Wesleyan University, 13; Princeton University, 
12; University of Pennsylvania, 11 ; New York State Teachers 
College, 11; Ohio University, 11; Bryn Mawr College, 11; 
University of Iowa, 11; Dickinson College, 10; Bucknell 
College, 10; Lafayette College, 10; University of Ver- 
mont, 9; University of Nebraska, 9; University of Colorado, 
9; Yale University, 9; Radcliffe College, 8; Rutgers College, 
8; Simmons College, 8; University of Cincinnati, 8; Colorado 
State Teachers College, 8. 

The total number of institutions represented was 285. 

In the choice of subjects other than Education pursued by 
Teachers College students in other parts of the University, the 
following departments proved most attractive: English, 550; 
History, 296; Psychology, 153; Sociology, 136; French, 108; 
Spanish, 81; Philosophy, 63; Economics, 58; Business, 55; 
Mathematics, 51; Chemistry, 44; Comparative Literature, 44; 
Architecture, 37; Music, 34; Government, 24; Fine Arts, 21; 
Neurology, 19; Astronomy, 19; Italian, 18; German, 17; Bo- 
tany, 15; Physics, 15; Latin, 14; Zoology, 12; Geology, 10; 
Textiles, 10; Physiology, 9; Statistics, 9; Typewriting, 8; 34 
other subjects were chosen by a smaller number of students. 



1 66 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

A total of 1,930 class registrations represents the interest of 
Teachers College students in other phases of University work. 

Nothing so well indicates the extent of the influence of 
Teachers College as the number and distribution of students 
from foreign lands. During the year 1918-1919 they num- 
bered 126; in 1919-1920, 203; in 1920-1921, 214; in 1921- 
1922, 245; and in 1922-1923, 263. The special needs of these 
foreign students will now be adequately met through the estab- 
lishment of the International Institute. 

During the academic year three meetings of the Executive 
Committee have been held. Sixty-nine new courses have been 
approved. Most of these courses were to provide for our in- 
creased attendance during the Summer Session, for students 
from foreign lands who are studying under the direction of the 
International Institute, and for advanced students interested 
in college and normal school administration. In the field of 
religious education arrangements have been made for closer co- 
operation during the next academic year with the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary and for an increase in the number of courses. 

During the winter a special study was made by the entire 
staff of all courses of instruction in the School of Education 
with the aim of dividing these courses into new groups accord- 
ing to the professional aims of students. Such a grouping has 
been approved by the Faculty and appears for the first time in 
the Announcement of the School of Education for 1923-1924. 
By this arrangement special groups of professional courses are 
provided for school superintendents, high-school teachers, 
school psychologists, teachers and supervisors of history, etc. 

The following new Teachers College diplomas were author- 
ized by the Executive Committee on recommendation of the 
respective departments: Supervisor of Kindergarten — First- 
Grade, Supervisor of Kindergarten and Primary Grades, 
Teacher and Supervisor of Public Health Nursing. 

There has been some discussion during the year of the ques- 
tion of fellowships and scholarships with the aim of studying 
the ways and means by which the appropriations available for 
this purpose may be used to the benefit of the greatest number 
pf students. No action has as yet been taken in this matter and 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 167 

for the coming year scholarships have been awarded on the 
same basis as formerly. A special study of this problem has 
been made by Dr. Lida B. Earhart, one of our alumni Trustees, 
the results of whose study have been presented to the Trustees 
of Teachers College in a report which is printed in the Teachers 
College Record for September, 1923. This question deserves 
further consideration; it will be possible, no doubt, in the 
course of a few years to improve materially our methods of 
handling this matter. 

At the end of the Winter Session, Professor Paul Monroe re- 
signed from the directorship of the School of Education to or- 
ganize and direct the International Institute recently estab- 
lished at Teachers College. He has been the leader of the 
School of Education since 1915, and has enjoyed the fullest 
support and appreciation of the Faculty throughout that entire 
period. Professor Clifford B. Upton, Provost of the College, 
was appointed Acting Director of the School for the remainder 
of the academic year. 

The establishment of the International Institute of Teachers 
College has materially broadened the offering in courses of the 
School of Education. Whereas, administratively, the work of 
the International Institute is under the direction of its own 
Board, so far as instruction is concerned its work is in the 
Faculty of Education; for that reason the officers of the 
International Institute are given professorial rank in the 
Faculty of Education. The entire staff appreciates the action 
of the Trustees in appointing the officers of the Institute to 
seats in the Faculty of Education as follows : 

William F. Russell, Ph.D., Professor of Education 

Isaac L. Kandel, Ph.D., Professor of Education 

Lester McL. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education 

It is a pleasure to record the following additional appoint- 
ments and promotions made by the Trustees during the year: 

NEW APPOINTMENTS 

Stephen S. Colvin,* Ph.D., Professor of Education. From 
February I, 1923. 

♦Deceased July 15. 1923. 



168 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

George A. Coe, Ph.D., Professor of Education. From Sep- 
tember 20, 1922. 

Albert Shiels, L.H.D., Professor of Education. From July 1, 
1922. 

From and after July 1, 1923: 

Robert J. Leonard, Ph.D., Professor of Education and 
Director of the School of Education. 

Godfrey H. Thomson, Ph.D. (Armstrong College, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, England), Visiting Professor of Education. 

Sarah M. Sturtevant, M.A., Associate Professor of Educa- 
tion. 

Charles C. Tillinghast, M.A., Associate Professor of Edu- 
cation. 

James R. McGaughy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Educa- 
tion. 

Rollo G. Reynolds, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Educa- 
tion. 

PROMOTIONS 

Anna M. Cooley, B.S., from Associate Professor to Professor 
of Household Arts Education. 

Edward S. Evenden, Ph.D., from Associate Professor to 
Professor of Education. 

Henry C. Pearson, A.B., from Assistant Professor to 
Professor of Education. 

Elbert K. Fretwell, Ph.D., from Assistant Professor to 
Associate Professor of Education. 

J. Montgomery Gambrill, M.A., from Assistant Professor 
to Associate Professor of History. 

Albert A. Meras, Ph.D., from Assistant Professor to 
Associate Professor of French. 

Dr. John F. Woodhull, Professor of Physical Science from 
1888 to 1 92 1, has been appointed Emeritus Professor by the 
Trustees. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Clifford B. Upton, 
June 30, 1023 Acting Director 



SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL ARTS 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the Dean of Teachers College, 
Sir: 

I submit herewith my annual report as Director of the School 
of Practical Arts for the academic year ending June 30, 1923. 

The total registration of regular students in the School of 
Practical Arts from September, 1922, to June, 1923, was 2,052, 
an increase of 99 over last year. These regular students were 
grouped as follows: graduate students, 344; junior-senior 
professional students, 653; unclassified professional students 
taking junior-senior courses, 689; freshmen and sophomores, 
366. In addition, 582 extension students, most of whom were 
teachers in service, were admitted to sections of technical 
courses for which their preparation was equivalent to that of 
matriculated students in the same courses; and 100 women, 
who enrolled as extension students, were members of non- 
credit classes for home-makers. The total number of students 
in regular credit courses was 2,634, making a grand total of 
2,734. Cards of admission were secured by 900 auditors, not 
classified as students, who attended extension special series of 
popular lectures and lessons in physical training conducted by 
the departments of the School in cooperation with the Institute 
of Arts and Sciences of Columbia University. 

The departmental distribution of graduate students in 
Practical Arts is shown in the following table: 

1921-1922 1922-1923 

Household Arts 91 147 

Fine Arts 53 55 

Industrial Arts Education 13 6 

Music Education 14 16 

Nursing Education 17 23 

Physical Education 33 57 

Practical Science 41 40 



1 70 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

In October, February and June, 1922-23, the Bachelor's 
and Master's degrees were conferred by the University on 462 
students whose major interest was in Practical Arts. The 
figures in parentheses are those of 1921-22. Of 297 (301) who 
received the Bachelor's degree, 282 (291) were women and 15 
(10) were men. The Master of Arts degree was conferred on 
H3 (78) women and on 8 (10) men. The Master of Science 
degree was conferred on 13 (10) women and on 1 (o) man. 

The number of Teachers College diplomas in Practical Arts 
conferred in 1922-23 was 214 (218 in 1921-22), 151 (167) to 
holders of the Bachelor's degree and 63 (51) to holders of the 
Master's degree. 208 (206) of the diplomas were educational 
(for teaching or supervision) and 6 (12) were technical. The 
distribution of the educational diplomas in Practical Arts by 
departments was as follows : 

1921-1922 1922-1923 

Household Arts 

Fine Arts 

Industrial Arts Education 

Music Education 

Nursing Education 

Physical Education 

Practical Science 

The most important event of the year was the recommenda- 
tion by the Faculty of Practical Arts and by the University 
Council, and the approval by the Trustees of Teachers College 
of a resolution providing for the omission of the freshman and 
sophomore classes at an early date. Accordingly, the School 
will admit no freshmen and but a limited number of selected 
sophomores in September, 1923; and after July 1, 1924, the 
minimum requirement for matriculation for the Bachelor of 
Science degree will be two years of approved study in college, 
normal school or technical school. In short, the School will 
abandon its general curriculum which it has conducted for 
freshmen and sophomores during the past eleven years, and 
will offer only professional work for juniors, seniors, graduates 
and unclassified advanced students. 

The Division of Practical Arts of Teachers College has 



95 


88 


28 


30 


9 


11 


13 


12 


30 


21 


3i 


40 




6 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 171 

during the eleven years of its existence developed from a 
general college, beginning with a curriculum planned for four 
years of combined cultural and practical education, into an 
advanced professional school for the training of teachers and 
educational leaders in various lines of Household Arts, Fine 
Arts, Industrial Arts, Music Education, Nursing Education, 
Health Education, Physical Education and Practical Science. 
The freshman-sophomore group, with which the School 
started in September, 1912, has come to be less than one-sixth 
of the total student body in the School, and four-fifths of 
recent graduating classes, averaging over 300 students, have 
entered with two or three years of advanced credit. There 
were in this college year more than 2,000 professional students 
(344 of them graduate students) in the courses offered for 
juniors, seniors and graduates. With few exceptions, the 
professional students in Practical Arts are going into or 
returning to educational work. In short, the interests of the 
students attracted to our departments have determined that 
the School shall be henceforth a school of technical education, 
that is, a division of Teachers College concerned with the 
training of leaders in the fields of education in which technology 
based on neuro-muscular skill plays a characteristic part. 

The Faculty of Practical Arts has authorized some important 
changes in several of the professional major programs which 
are required for the degree of Bachelor of Science and for 
teachers' diplomas. These changes allow greater flexibility in 
adjusting the work of students who have completed two or 
three years of satisfactory courses at other colleges. The 
most important of these changes are in Fine Arts, Household 
Arts, Music Education and Physical Education. 

In several reports of former years I have called attention to 
the need of more floor space in order to provide advanced 
work for the professional students in Household Arts, Practical 
Science and Nursing Education. This need will be met by the 
addition to the Grace Dodge Hall which is now under construc- 
tion. This additional building will provide more than twenty- 
seven thousand square feet for nursing education, cookery, 
clothing, household management, nutrition, physiological 



172 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

chemistry and household engineering. In addition, two of the 
seven floors will be devoted to a Teachers College Commons 
that will be important for the practical work of advanced 
students of household arts who, as teachers or as managers, 
will need training in the practical work of institutional food 
departments. 

It is with sadness that I must record the death of two 
members of the staff: Mr. Kenneth V. Carman on July 17, 
1922, and Professor Arthur Wesley Dow on December 13, 
1922. Mr. Carman had been for several years a very successful 
teacher of both technical and education courses in industrial 
arts. Professor Dow came to Teachers College as Professor 
of Fine Arts in 1904, and had been a member of both Faculties 
of Teachers College since the organization of the Faculty of 
Practical Arts in 191 2. Professor Dow contributed to American 
fine arts an extensive series of prints and paintings; but 
probably his greatest work is his theory of art structure and 
composition, which is leading to fundamental changes in fine 
arts education. 

It is my pleasure to record the following new appointments 
and promotions in the Faculty of Practical Arts: Laura I. 
Baldt, from Instructor in Household Arts to Assistant Profes- 
sor of Household Arts; Gertrude K. Colby, from Instructor 
in Physical Education to Assistant Professor of Physical 
Education; George J. Cox, from Instructor in Fine Arts to 
Assistant Professor of Fine Arts; Katharine A. Fisher, from 
Instructor in Household Arts to Assistant Professor of House- 
hold Arts; Lillian A. Hudson, from Instructor in Nursing 
Education to Assistant Professor of Nursing Education; 
Anna M. Cooley, from Associate Professor to Professor of 
Household Arts Education; Walter H. Eddy, from Associate 
Professor to Professor of Physiological Chemistry; Mary S. 
Rose, from Associate Professor of Household Arts to Professor 
of Nutrition; May B. Van Arsdale, from Associate Professor 
to Professor of Household Arts; Jesse F. Williams, from 
Associate Professor to Professor of Physical Education ; Cora 
M. Winchell, from Assistant Professor to Professor of House- 
hold Arts Education; Benjamin R. Andrews, from Assistant 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 173 

Professor of Household Arts to Associate Professor of House- 
hold Economics; Jean Broadhurst, from Assistant Professor 
to Associate Professor of Biology; Charles J. Martin, from 
Assistant Professor to Associate Professor of Fine Arts; 
Isabel M. Stewart, from Assistant Professor to Associate 
Professor of Nursing Education; and M. Adelaide Nutting, 
from Professor of Nursing Education to Professor of Nursing 
Education on the Helen Hartley Foundation. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. A. Bigelow, 
Director 
June 30, 1923 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 
REPORT OF THE DEAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor of submitting the following report of the 
College of Pharmacy for the year 1 922-1923. 

This academic year will be remembered for its phenomenal 
demand for pharmaceutical instruction, a demand far beyond 
the ability of American schools to satisfy. The causes for this 
great interest, concerning which there has been much con- 
jecture, are doubtless complex. Public interest in matters 
pharmaceutical has shown a steady growth during recent years, 
with the result that the pharmacy curriculum has been 
brought more generally to the attention of students in our 
secondary schools. The higher salaries, shorter hours and 
improved conditions of pharmacy clerks have proved attrac- 
tive, as have the improved instruction and the better type 
of students in attendance. The influence of prohibition in 
increasing the demand for pharmaceutical service is difficult 
to estimate, and is poorly understood. It is generally assumed 
that this increase is in the interest of illegitimate requirements. 
While it cannot be denied that there is much illegality in the 
supplying of alcoholic beverages by some pharmacists, there 
are other and equally important aspects to the situation. 
The pharmacist is the only accredited agent for the legitimate 
supply of alcoholic preparations and this demand is very 
large. The great majority of rational, unprejudiced and 
competent physicians regard alcohol as a very useful and 
important medicine, and they will never permit any form of 
legislation to cripple their professional service. Prohibition has 
vastly increased the prescribing of alcohol by this class of 
physicians. The great amount of detail imposed by statutory 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 1 75 

regulations upon the pharmacist in filling such prescriptions 
has necessitated the employment, in the aggregate, of many 
additional clerks. 

Of greater importance perhaps, than all other causes com- 
bined, in increasing attendance at pharmacy schools is the 
general substitution of a school education and training for 
the apprenticeship method of entering the profession that has 
largely predominated in the past. Even in those states where 
school training is not legally compulsory, custom and public 
opinion are effecting the same result. The effect of all these 
influences has come to cause an actual scarcity of pharmacy 
assistants in most of our populous centers. 

While the pressure for admission has been general through- 
out the country, it has probably been stronger at our own 
school than at any other, nearly three hundred applicants for 
the past session having been turned away. Our efforts to 
accommodate the largest possible number led to a slight over- 
crowding, so that, although the results of the year's work 
were satisfactory, they were attained at the cost of much 
inconvenience and considerable strain on both officers and 
students. When it became apparent that this pressure would 
continue for at least several years to come, the project of 
increasing our accommodations was taken up. An adjoining 
vacant lot proved admirably adapted to our needs. This was 
purchased and a commodious building, now nearly complete, 
has been erected upon it. 

Since all of our regular income is needed for meeting main- 
tenance expenses, we were obliged to depend upon voluntary 
contributions for the $300,000 required for building and 
equipment. As this form of benevolence has been relatively 
little practiced in pharmaceutical education, the task has 
proved difficult. Although responses to our appeal have been 
general and generous, we are likely to be some time in securing 
the entire amount. A most excellent spirit was manifested 
toward the project by our students, those actually in atten- 
dance having subscribed some $28,000. 

Had no other object than that of providing for more students 
been in view, it is doubtful if this great liability would have 



1 76 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

been assumed. A far more important object was that of 
affording better instruction and training, especially for our 
higher classes. While everything humanly possible, under 
existing conditions, has been done for the members of our 
third, fourth and graduate classes, we have appreciated the 
fact that their facilities, due to inadequate space, were im- 
perfect. It is a natural result that these classes have re- 
mained very small, their total membership having ordinarily 
been not more than twenty-five or thirty. With the present 
assurance of adequate space and equipment, and an enlarged 
faculty, we have a promise of nearly two hundred members 
in our next third-year class, with at least a dozen taking the 
four-year course, a result that more than meets our expecta- 
tions. 

Coincident with other changes, we increased our entrance 
requirement for all students, to the equivalent of high school 
graduation, this being one year more than is required by the 
State Education Department or by any other pharmacy 
school in this State. It is very gratifying to find that this 
advance has been met by applications for admission which 
again are in excess of our accommodations, although these 
have been increased by some fifty per cent. While we are not 
assured that the present large matriculation in pharmacy 
schools generally will be maintained, we have no doubt that 
the distribution of our students among so many classes will 
result in the maintenance of a customary "waiting list," and 
will also enable us to select the best from among our applicants, 
a process which has, in fact, been instituted for the coming year. 

A very important consideration that has been kept in mind 
in planning the new building, is that of providing facilities 
for research work by both faculty and graduate students. 
Each laboratory has been furnished with a room in which 
such work can be carried on without interference. Important 
changes, also, have been made in the library for facilitating 
this class of work. In the construction and arrangement of 
our new library room, aesthetic considerations have occupied 
a large place, so that it is likely to prove very attractive, as 
well as highly serviceable to students and visitors. Our 



COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 177 

general herbarium, which has, perforce, been stored in a 
place difficult of access, is given light and commodious quar- 
ters in the Museum room, where general instruction work 
will no longer be carried on. 

The most important improvement under our reorganization 
is a large addition to our teaching staff which, in addition to 
increasing our individual attention to students, will enable 
the members of the faculty to find more time for study and 
original investigation. By this addition, also, we are enabled 
to have an elected member of the University Council, in 
addition to the Dean. 

Cooperation between the University and this school has 
been strengthened by the establishment of a special course, in 
association with the School of Business, designed as a prepara- 
tion for executive and administrative work in large pharma- 
ceutical establishments. 

Among the events of the year that are specially gratifying 
to us have been the election of our Professor Amy to the 
presidency of the American Pharmaceutical Association and 
the award to a member of our Faculty, for the second succes- 
sive year, of the Remington Honor Medal for distinguished 
service in Pharmacy. 

It seems appropriate, at this time, to direct attention to 
one of the greatest difficulties encountered by this, as well as 
other pharmacy schools of the country, that of obtaining and 
retaining properly qualified teachers. Pharmacy teaching 
requires special technical knowledge and training that can be 
secured only at a pharmacy school or in professional practice, 
and which should be based on collegiate training, yet it is 
rare that one with an academic degree is willing to take up 
these professional studies. Compensation in pharmacy 
teaching is fairly liberal, and the work never fails to interest 
the good teacher, and it is to be hoped that more students of 
pedagogy may turn their attention in this direction. 

Henry H. Rusby, 

Dean 

Jlltt? 30, IQ2J 



SUMMER SESSION 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE SUMMER SESSION OF I923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As Director of the Summer Session I have the honor to sub- 
mit the following report of the twenty-fourth Summer Session 
of the University which opened July 9 and closed August 
17, 1923. 

The report of the Registrar includes the statistical record of 
the Session. (See pages 350-356). Outstanding figures are: 
(1) the enrollment of 12,675 students, which is the largest in 
the history of the Summer Session (against 12,567 for the at- 
tendance of 1922); (2) the percentage of men and women, 
32.52 and 6748 respectively; (3) the wide territorial distribu- 
tion with 8,528 students from outside of New York State, and 
with 1,675 (!3- 21 P er cent) from the South Atlantic Division 
(Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia) and 
311 students from foreign countries. Of the students in atten- 
dance 46.45 per cent had taken work at the University previ- 
ously. Studies of the distribution of previous years indicate 
clearly that the percentage of students from outside New York 
State is constantly increasing. 

In the summer of 1923, attendance at twenty-eight univer- 
sities showed the total figure to be .29 per cent advance over 
the total figure for 1922. 



SUMMER SESSION 
COMPARISON IN ATTENDANCE 

SUMMER SESSIONS 1922,1923 



179 



Institution 



Attend. 
1922 



Attend. 
1923 



Net 
Gain 



Net 

Loss 



Boston 

California .... 

Chicago 

Colorado .... 
Columbia .... 

Cornell 

George Washington 

Harvard 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Johns Hopkins . . 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Minnesota .... 

Missouri 

Nebraska .... 
New York .... 
Northwestern . . . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma .... 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania . . 
Syracuse .... 

Toronto 

Virginia 

Washington . . . 
Wisconsin .... 



964 
9,698 
6,470 
3.138 
12,567 
2,148 
1,261 
2,380 
2,165 
1,858 
2,065 
785 
1,643 
2,803 

3.174 
1,224 
2,400 
1,813 
i,58i 
1,870 
2,130 
832 
i,977 

H 775 

B x 94 
2,664 
1,960 

4,724 
77,263 



992 

8,133 

6,375 

2,757 

12,675 

1.934 
1.425 
2,292 
2,098 

i,697 
2,604 

753 
i,53i 
3.054 
3,800 
1,163 

2,569 
2,066 
1,650 

2,404 

2,154 

830 
2,024 

903 

114 

2,581 

2,200 

4.7IQ 
77,488 



28 

108 
164 

539 



251 
626 

169 

253 
69 

534 
24 

47 
128 



240 



1.565 

95 

381 

214 



67 
161 

32 
112 



61 



80 

83 

14 



In considering the table, increases at Minnesota and Ohio 
should be associated with a change to the four-quarter basis, 
while Iowa increased materially with no change in its annual 
calendar. It is interesting to note that in 1923, 16.3 per cent of 
the students in twenty-eight summer sessions were at Colum- 



l8o COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

bia. In the University of Iowa and in certain other state uni- 
versities growing attention is given to all graduate courses and 
particularly to the graduate work in education. From each of 
such states we shall probably find the number of registrants in 
our own Summer Session decreasing; as, for instance, from 
Iowa from which Columbia received 142 in the 1922 Summer 
Session and in 1923, 106. Such figures are gratifying as they 
show an increasing number of distinguished educational cen- 
ters in the country. 

Other interesting figures of the Summer Session of 1923 are: 
494 instructors — 346 men and 148 women, with the addition 
of 93 assistants — 47 men and 46 women ; in the Demonstration 
School there were 3 High School teachers and 17 Elementary 
teachers. The composition of the instructing staff was marked 
by the attendance of nine instructors from foreign countries. 
There was a total of 176 instructors from outside the Univer- 
sity. 

A total of 787 courses was offered. In addition to the regular 
courses there were 92 lectures given as recorded in the Weekly 
Bulletins of the Summer Session. A total of 19 public confer- 
ences on subjects in mathematics, and psychology were given; 
and a series of five conferences on the Education of the Adult 
Immigrant in which the University of the State of New York 
participated. Excursions were conducted in and about New 
York City with a total of 13,416 participants. The West 
Point excursion included 1,958 students, and 8 10 were taken to 
Atlantic City. 

Music, as always, held a prominent place in the Summer 
Session. For five years, beginning in the Summer Session of 
191 8, the Goldman Concert Band gave concerts in the Grove. 
Expansion of the University building program necessitated the 
discontinuance of such use of the Grove and in 1923 the Gold- 
man Band transferred its concerts to the Mall, Central Park. 
In the Summer Session of 1923, four instrumental and vocal 
concerts were given in the Gymnasium; and four organ reci- 
tals and the usual music festival, with chorus and symphony 
orchestra, were given. In addition to the musical program, 
the Shakespeare Playhouse presented Shakespearian and mod- 
ern drama for one week. 



SUMMER SESSION l8l 

The special feature of the Summer Session of 1923 was the 
inclusion in our program of a special group of courses in 
French, arranged largely by Dr. Bernard Fay. There came 
to us, as a group, six of the most eminent scholars of France 
who gave individual courses in their specialties and cooper- 
ated in a general course on French Civilization. The instruc- 
tors and their courses were as follows : 

Joseph Bedier, D. es L., Professeur de Langue et Litterature Fiangaise 
du Moyen Age, College de France, Paris, France; Membre de l'Acade- 
mie Frangaise. Medieval French Literature. 

Raoul Blanchard, Assesseur du Doyen de la Faculte des Lettres; Pro- 
fesseur de Geographie, Universite de Grenoble, Grenoble, France. 
The Geography of France. 

Smile Bourgeois, D. es L., Professeur d'Histoire Politique et Diplo- 
matique des Temps Modernes, Universite de Paris, Paris, France; 
Membre de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. European 
History in the Nineteenth Century. 

Bernard Fay, Agrege des Lettres; Sometime Victor Chapman Fellow at 
Harvard University and Instructor of Modern French Literature at 
Columbia University. Literature of Contemporary France. 

Paul Hazard, D. es L., Maitre de Conferences de Litterature Frangaise 
a La Sorbonne, Universite de Paris, Paris, France. The Romantic 
Movement and Its Influence. 

Edouard LeRoy, D.es L., Professeur de Philosophic Moderne, College de 
France, Paris, France. The Philosophy of Bergson. 

The general course in French Civilization included the fol- 
lowing sections: 

1. Geographical Influences on French History. Professor Blanchard 

2. Classical Influences in French Literature. Professor Bedier 

3. France and Continental Literary Movements. Professor Hazard 

4. French and American Literary Cross Currents. M. Fay 

5. Contemporary Philosophical Movements in France. Professor 

LeRoy 

6. French National Traditions. Professor Bourgeois 

Another feature of the Summer Session was the inclusion 
within its offering of an Institute of Government and Politics 
given in conjunction with the National League of Women 
Voters, July 16 to July 27. Some fifty students were in at- 
tendance from some thirteen states. The work was divided 
under the headings of Insistent Problems in Popular Govern- 



1 82 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ment, Efficient Law Making, City Government, Aids to Effi- 
cient Government, Popularizing the Teaching of Government. 

I should like to call attention again to the need for the de- 
velopment of an annual program in the teaching of library 
economy. This should include a close connection between 
Home Study and the Summer Session. Courses in commercial 
education are also in need of a more consecutive and inte- 
grated program. 

With the completion of Russell Hall and the School of 
Business the Summer Session will find its library and class 
room problems materially lessened. The women's dormitory, 
when completed, will also improve the housing conditions, but 
the residence problem will be by no means solved by the 
addition of five hundred lodgings to our dormitory facilities. 
In the Summer Session we could use a considerably larger 
number of rooms both for women and for men since the Uni- 
versity can furnish better and cheaper lodgings than can be 
had in private houses. It is encouraging, however, to note 
that 25.5 per cent of the students from outside New York City 
are now accommodated in University dormitories. 

The appended table showing housing conditions in 1921, 1922, 
and 1923, still indicates a marked difference in the dormitory 
rates for men and r or women. The average charge for men in 
the dormitories is $5.41 per week, in the Barnard dormitories 
for women, $8.19, and in the Columbia dormitories for women 
$7-17- 



SUMMER SESSION 

HOUSING— DORMITORY ACCOMMODATIONS 
SUMMER SESSION 
Men's Dormitories 



183 





Number of Students 


Room rent per week 




accommodated 


on six weeks' basis 










1921 1922 




192 1 


1922 


1923 


Approximately 


1923 


Hartley 


307 


314 


317 


$6.00 


$6.00 


$5-41 


Livingston 


290 


308 


3H 


6.00 


6.00 


5-41 


Morris 


80 






6.00 






Tompkins 




115 






6.00 




Furnald 






296 






5-41 


Total Men 


677 


737 


927 









Women's Dormitories 



Bancroft 1 


186 


239 


232 




$7-70 


$9-17 


Seth Low 1 


270 


292 


351 




7.12 


7.17 


Emerson 


89 


89 


92 j 


Board 






Lowell 


28 


28 


30 > 


and 


14-33 


14 -33 


Whittier 


345 
918 


347 
995 


353 j 
1058 


Room 






Brooks 


102 


109 


116 


$7-50 


$8.18 


$8.19 


John Jay 


102 


117 
226 


138 

254 


7-5o 


8.18 


8.19 


Furnald 


278 


278 




$6.00 


$6.00 




Tompkins 


88 




142 


6.00 




*7-i7 


Morris 


366 


102 
380 


137 
279 




6.00 


7.17 



Total Women 1,386 


1,601 


Total men and 




women in 




dormitories 2,063 


2,338 



1,591 



2,518 



•'Six weeks' rental at this figure entitles to eight weeks' occupancy. 



1 84 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
Off-Campus Rooms 



Women . 
Men 



Total Summer Session enrollment 

Number of students from outside N. Y. C 

Percentage of students from outside N. Y. C. 
accommodated in dormitories 




11,809 
9,366 

22.03% 



12,675 
9,872 

25.5% 



It is a source of great satisfaction to be able to report that 
the past Summer Session presented practically no disciplinary 
problems among the students and was marked by the greatest 
of cordiality within the instructing and administrative group. 

In closing this annual report, I should like to quote a para- 
graph from the description of the Summer Session written by 
Professor Paul Hazard, one of the visiting French professors, 
and published in the October Revue Des Deux Mondes, since 
it gives a refreshing interpretation by an observing outsider. 

"But how can one explain, finally, this surprising variety which baffles 
our customs and upsets our hierarchies? In a country still full of youthful 
ardor, and ever eager for development, there is a thirst for knowledge; and 
it is a universal cult which includes no dissenters. Everything implies 
contrast and variety: religious sects, political parties, nationalities, races; 
one thing alone can unite souls, faith in the progress that science will 
create. By science, interpreted as education, the heterogeneous constituents 
are welded; the uncertain foreign elements which the tumultuous flood of 
American civilization carries forward in its course, are to be clarified and 
purified; people aspire to a higher morality which they themselves will 
have conquered through their own will-power. Some may find excessive, 
perhaps, such a keen desire for knowledge, which resembles a craving 
appetite; interpreted as the goal to be reached quickly, by the knowledge 
of truth and beauty, it is most impressive." 



Respectfully submitted, 



John J. Coss, 

Director 



November 12, iQ2j 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 92 3 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present herewith the report of Univer- 
sity Extension for the academic year 1 922-1 923. 

In previous reports I have indicated the various divisions 
into which the educational work of University Extension may 
readily be classified. The simplest classification, however, ap- 
pears to be threefold. The principal division is class instruction 
subdivided into Resident, Extramural and Special; the second 
is Home Study, and the third is the Institute of Arts and 
Sciences. The section designated as Resident includes all class 
exercises in the University buildings at Morningside Heights. 
This statement immediately suggests the question as to the 
particulars in which these classes differ from other class exer- 
cises. They are given at hours which are not as a general rule 
employed by the schools of the University, for example in the 
late afternoon and evening. Duplication at the same or usual 
hours of lectures or recitations is carefully avoided as wasteful. 
The rule as to the hours of University Extension classes is vio- 
lated only when the subjects are not given in other courses or 
at the request of administrative officers who desire hours con- 
venient for the students under their care. This class instruc- 
tion is characteristic of University Extension at Columbia and 
stamps it as entirely different from Extension Teaching in 
many other universities. The standards of these courses are 
as safely guarded as to discipline, personnel of instructing 
force, departmental supervision and general administrative 
guidance as other courses in the institution. Great difficulty 
has been experienced in convincing the university public at 
Columbia and elsewhere of the truth of the statement just 



l86 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

made. The word Extension is not commonly associated with 
class exercises but is understood as applying to short lecture 
courses, the lyceum or to correspondence courses of study. 
General incredulity greets the announcement that about 
twelve thousand students attended class instruction in Uni- 
versity Extension in the academic year 1 922-1 923 in the 
buildings at Morningside. The astonishment is not lessened 
when it becomes clear that many of these courses are given in 
such a manner as to justify the granting of credit toward the 
degrees to those who have worthily completed the work. All 
this is very gratifying and we believe thoroughly in the stand- 
ardization of extension courses and the recognition of the work 
as giving credit for those who prove to be qualified. Neverthe- 
less we must not forget the fundamental purpose of University 
Extension and must keep continually in mind that the peculiar 
glory and strength of this extension endeavor rests in the fact 
that the majority of its students are pursuing knowledge for its 
own sake. As the new building affords increased classroom 
space we should remember that our duty is to provide for the 
adult population of the city non-credit courses vitally related 
to its tastes and needs. 

In what I have just stated rests the real problem of class in- 
struction in University Extension. Proper educational stand- 
ards must be maintained, especially in credit courses, although 
not all students even in these courses are looking forward to a 
degree. It is wise to grant credit to a course, if it is justified, 
as claiming and receiving greater respect on the part of the 
instructor and student alike. Here is the inherent difficulty 
in instructing Extension classes in which are gathered students 
who seek knowledge for knowledge sake while others are also 
ambitious academically and look forward to the degree as a 
reward and recognition. We are frankly stating this problem 
and are just as seriously facing it, confident because of experi- 
ence that the final result will justify our generous recognition 
of the needs of these students. Our purpose is to assist in his 
desire for an education the student who gives some eviden ce 
that such help will be appreciated and not misplaced even 
though the outlook at first may be discouraging. The student 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 187 

who comes to the University handicapped by his peculiar 
circumstances deserves our interest and, if worthy, our educa- 
tional help. We do not. conduct an educational hospital but 
we do desire to encourage deserving students who long for an 
education. While they are under our care they receive our ad- 
vice and guardianship. When we can recommend them as 
worthy students we encourage them to enter the appropriate 
school. In this way we have straightened many a "bruised 
reed," helping to make imperfect records complete and passing 
these students on in good educational health to the career 
which they may choose and for which they are fitted. Thus 
last February sixty-five students entered Columbia College 
from University Extension with advanced standing and showed 
by their careers that they well deserved the recommendation. 
The interesting cases are very numerous but I should like to 
call your attention to one or two as illustrating what I have 
said above. A lady of mature years with a family of boys had 
failed in her youth to obtain even a high school education. 
When she became interested in the education of her sons, she 
recognized her own lack of training and the possibility of being 
outdistanced by her own children. She has entered University 
Extension and is preparing for college and expects to receive 
her degree by the time her oldest son graduates from college. 
Another instance will illustrate the usefulness of our special 
courses. An English gentleman, a graduate of Oxford, wrote to 
us from England about courses in Short Story Writing. He 
came to this country and is taking the various courses we offer 
in this subject. His first story has been accepted for publica- 
tion in The Atlantic Monthly. May I refer to another illus- 
tration entirely different from those just given. A boy of fif- 
teen years of age, Serbian by birth, with little knowledge of 
English, was eagerly looking for an education. He was em- 
ployed as a barber's assistant and could give only limited time 
to his studies. He obtained advice and encouragement in our 
office and through the assistance of one of our officers found 
employment near Columbia. He began his education in night 
courses in University Extension and finally was prepared for 
Columbia College and entered on a scholarship. He is now in 



188 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the School of Law and will graduate in the coming year after 
his training of nine years. 

Because of the possibility of aiding all such students we state 
in our announcement that University Extension classes are 
planned primarily for first, mature students whose chief inter- 
est may be outside the University and who have leisure to 
pursue a few courses in the late hours of the day; second, those 
who desire to take complete programs, who must be at least 
eighteen years of age and as a rule only those over twenty-four 
years are admitted to courses other than preparatory unless 
possessing a high school education. 

These regulations enforced with reason after careful consul- 
tation with the student have served to maintain standards and 
yet have kept the path wide enough and open enough for 
those who are deserving and give promise of a future which 
will reward the broad spirit of the University in thus offering 
its privileges to the public in general. This important work of 
consultation and advice is entrusted to three assistants of pro- 
fessorial grade who are immediately responsible to the Director 
but who are given complete authority in their special service. 
As the number of students in important departments (Chemis- 
try, English, Government, History, Mathematics, Romance 
Languages) is very large we have found it necessary to appoint 
representatives of these departments, who with the approval 
and cooperation of the department study the interests of these 
students and advise as to the personnel of the teaching staff. 
The enthusiastic cooperation of these representatives and of 
the departments to which they belong and in fact of all de- 
partments has been of great service in maintaining the stand- 
ard of instruction in all parts of University Extension. 

In all this broad and generous expansion of the University 
offering, Columbia has set an example which is followed by 
other important institutions in New York. In some instances 
courses are given, as in the municipal institutions, without 
charge or for a very low fee so that the people of New York 
and surrounding cities and towns have at their command un- 
rivalled opportunities for obtaining higher education. Not- 
withstanding the very large number of courses offered in the 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 1 89 

great institutions of the city to the general student, the num- 
bers attending Columbia in University Extension classes at 
Morningside have increased from 6,213 in 1918-1919 to 12,096, 
in 1922-1923. 

Through recent action by the Faculty of Columbia College a 
student who has been one year in residence and who has 94 
undergraduate credits, can enter a professional school of recog- 
nized standing and after a year's professional work may receive 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. This privilege of professional 
option should also be granted, with suitable restrictions, to 
students who are now classed as University Undergraduates. 
Thus Columbia University is conducting under its exact super- 
vision and instruction pre-medical courses in the buildings of 
the Long Island College Hospital in Brooklyn. These students 
are in full standing in the University and receive credit toward 
the undergraduate degrees. If the work of these two years were 
supplemented by courses of the Summer Session and one year 
in a recognized professional school, the. students should be 
granted the degree of Bachelor of Science in General Studies. 
Other University Extension students are not at present granted 
this privilege of professional option. They may enter the pro- 
fessional schools after receiving 94 points but they cannot 
count their year of professional study toward the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in General Studies, and therefore do not 
have the same opportunity as other undergraduates. 

There is abundant evidence that many students are pre- 
vented from taking advantage of the opportunities offered by 
University Extension because of financial difficulties. The 
University might well consider in what legitimate manner, 
with due regard for the effect upon the students, help might be 
rendered in this crucial time in the career of these young 
people. There are various methods by which this could be 
accomplished either through the establishment of a loan fund 
of at least $10,000 to be used with judgment and after a study 
of the needs of those applying, or a system of partial payments 
which would be appreciated by the students who are wage- 
earners and who are paid by the month. 

Extramural courses are given outside of Manhattan Borough 



I90 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

in Brooklyn and chiefly outside of New York State as far afield 
as Fall River and Washington in twenty-eight cities. The 
number of students in 1921-1922 was 1,931; in 1922-1923, 
3,244. This increase is largely due to the interest which 
Teachers College is taking at this time in this branch of Exten- 
sion work under the guidance of Professor James F. Hosic. 
Students in these centers generally request professional courses 
in Education as their attendance on such courses is uniformly 
approved and rewarded by school authorities. It is a matter 
of regret that these Boards of Education and Superintendents 
of Schools do not insist upon advanced work in the subject 
matter as in English and History. 

The section of class instruction which we designate as Special 
includes casual courses for which no academic credit is allowed. 
Students registered in such courses are exempt from the pay- 
ment of the University fee and in the Registrar's records are 
enumerated in a separate division. 

The Institute of Arts and Sciences shows a membership of 
2,492. Home Study has on its roll 831 students for 1922-1923 
as against 232 in 1921-1922. These figures of the non-academic 
divisions are eloquent and indicate their importance especially 
as neither Home Study nor the Institute have academic recog- 
nition. The total number of students enrolled in University 
Extension in 1922-1923 was 17,543. To this if we add the 
membership of the Institute of Arts and Sciences we have a 
grand total of 20,035 persons who are brought under the in- 
fluence of Columbia as an educational institution through the 
agency of University Extension. 

Residence conditions especially as affecting women students 
have caused us some anxiety and we are looking forward with 
great eagerness to the new dormitory and dining room for 
women. The younger women students are now required to 
take their meals in Students Hall and therefore no longer rely 
upon the restaurants which are not under University control. 

Fifty young women are on our rolls as candidates for the 
degree of Bachelor of Science in General Studies. Four of 
these have been granted this status by the special committee 
in charge. The others must show by their standing that they 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 191 

are worthy of this classification. They certainly form a body 
of students whom the University may regard with great 
satisfaction. 

In conformity with the desires of the State Department of 
Education we are offering a year course for women in Oral Hy- 
giene. These young women are in demand for service in den- 
tists' offices and become licensed dental hygienists. For the 
coming year the requirements for admission are the same as 
those demanded for entrance to college. In the past year fifty- 
four students were crowded into the little Jarvie Infirmary at 
59th Street but in the coming year, owing to the merger of the 
School of Dentistry with the College of Dental and Oral Sur- 
gery, abundant space will enable us to care for a larger class 
furnished with suitable equipment. The class of this year 
treated in various clinics and at the Presbyterian Hospital and 
Jarvie Infirmary seventeen thousand patients who were com- 
forted and helped through the efforts of these young women. 
The new quarters of the School of Dentistry will also be at the 
service of the classes for practitioners which have been con- 
ducted by University Extension in cooperation with the 
School. 

The Courses in Optics and Optometry in Columbia Univer- 
sity were inaugurated thirteen years ago, and during that time 
they have grown steadily in favor and in significance. The 
qualifications for admission have been raised, the program of 
studies has been intensified and extended, and the facilities for 
instruction have been enlarged. Nevertheless, our resources of 
space, particularly for laboratory and clinical instruction, are 
far from adequate for what we desire to do. 

From time to time numerous valuable gifts of apparatus and 
machinery have been made by optical societies, manufacturers 
and private individuals who are interested in the development 
of this work. The equipment of the shops and laboratories 
and the clinical facilities are extraordinarily fine, but for the 
reason above stated these things cannot at the present time be 
used to the best advantage. 

During the past summer a complete set of the most modern 
machinery for edging, polishing, grinding, etc., has been in- 



K)2 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

stalled by the Bausch and Lomb Optical Company of Roches- 
ter, New York; in addition to which Mr. Adolph Lomb himself 
made a present consisting of a handsome collection of costly 
apparatus and optical instruments intended especially for in- 
struction and research work in the wide domain of physiological 
optics. Probably there is no other institution in the United 
States which possesses such facilities as these. 

Our ambition for the future is as boundless as hitherto par- 
ticularly in view of the additional room which will be available 
when the new building of the School of Business is finished in 
the coming spring. We have many plans for developing our 
work and our opportunities for service seem almost unlimited. 

By combining certain courses in University Extension with 
selected courses in the College of Pharmacy, adequate training 
has been furnished for men and women who look forward to 
executive positions in the large drug stores or other pharma- 
ceutical establishments such as wholesale houses or manufac- 
tories. Women who are considering a business career may thus 
be trained in a new field of endeavor. 

The question has been asked whether we regard vocational 
instruction as appropriate to a university course of study. In 
University Extension we believe that vocational courses are 
legitimate if they are furnished for mature students. There 
are many reasons why the University could have a very salu- 
tary effect upon education of this character particularly be- 
cause of the close association with scientific departments which 
are engaged in collegiate and university work. 

The School of Medicine in the Spring and Summer Sessions 
offered, through cooperation with University Extension, ad- 
vanced courses for graduates in medicine. Additional courses 
will be given in the coming academic year. This is a most in- 
teresting step in the building up of graduate courses in medi- 
cine in New York and is unique in the history of medical 
education. Many courses are planned which will be under the 
close supervision and direction of prominent professors and 
heads of departments in the School of Medicine. Those already 
offered are: a series of neurological and psychiatric clinical 
courses; a course in general surgery; a course on the treatment 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION I93 

of Diabetes Mellitus by means of dietary regulation and the 
use of Insulin, and two courses in internal medicine at the Pres- 
byterian Hospital. These are offered without restriction to 
qualified students, graduates in medicine. University Exten- 
sion is interested in this development as giving some hope and 
promise of the general unified operation of graduate courses 
in which all the medical schools and hospitals of the city should 
share. This is the ideal cooperative plan toward which those 
interested should look and the successful accomplishment of 
this plan will be an achievement which might well stir the am- 
bitions of those who are interested in developing medical edu- 
cation at Columbia. 

During the spring of the past academic year, arrangements 
were consummated whereby Columbia University can co- 
operate with the American Academy of Dramatic Arts so that 
courses covering practically the entire field of the art of the 
theater shall be offered to students desiring them. In 1899 
Columbia established the first chair of drama in the English 
speaking world. Because of lack of equipment it has not 
been possible to offer adequate technical training in any of the 
arts relating to the theater except playwriting and dramatic 
criticism and even in these the laboratory method could not be 
employed. For this reason we have united in a cooperative 
scheme with the American Academy of Dramatic Arts which 
aims to prepare students for the stage. The American Acad- 
emy of Dramatic Arts founded in 1884 combined the system 
of a college with the discipline and executive management of 
the theater. The moving spirit of this enterprise was Franklin 
H. Sargent, the President whose recent untimely death we are 
lamenting. He joined heartily in the plan of cooperation with 
Columbia recognizing what the University could bring to the 
Academy and also the need in the University which his own 
institution could supply. 

The subject of stenography, designated shorthand in its 
more complete and advanced form, has become most important 
for secretarial students and for many in the School of Business 
and the School of Journalism. The subject should be ap- 
proached in a manner befitting University training and as 



194 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

shorthand reporting should be directed by a university trained 
man possessing scholarly attainment which would justify an 
appointment as professor. The National Shorthand Reporters 
Association is planning to establish a professional course which 
will bring into their field in greater numbers cultivated men 
with collegiate training. University Extension furnishes an 
opportunity for experimenting with the four year program pro- 
posed by this Association. 

Home Study is developing in a satisfactory manner and has 
on its roll about one thousand students. This gain of seven 
hundred in the year has been made in spite of difficulties which 
would seem almost unsurmountable. In established educa- 
tional institutions which conduct home study courses with 
great success academic credit is given but Columbia does not 
grant such credit. The purely commercial organizations are 
selling subjects which Columbia is either unwilling or unable 
at the present time to add to its offering. Experience has 
shown, however, that many desire the carefully conducted 
courses of the Columbia standard even without credit and 
hence the opportunities for service in this field are almost 
boundless. Officers in charge of Home Study have been com- 
pelled to build up an elaborate staff of assistants and clerks to 
bring before the student what they have prepared and to 
promote the whole scheme in the presence of a disinterested if 
not hostile university public. Nevertheless, no course has been 
organized and placed in the Home Study list which did not 
have the approval of the department concerned. The same is 
true of the force of instructors. Constant efforts to arouse the 
interest and secure the help of officers of many departments 
have met with such unsatisfactory results that the addition of 
new subjects and courses has been accomplished with great 
difficulty. Our purpose is to present subjects which can be 
adequately treated in Home Study, the range of which is very 
wide. Here there is a great difference of opinion so that those 
who are unwilling must be convinced of the feasibility of the 
presentation of a subject through Home Study before affording 
the slightest sympathy or help. The preliminary announce- 
ment contained the description of fifty courses but the current 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION I95 

bulletin offers one hundred and fifty-six courses, all but a few 
of which are immediately available for students. One method 
of expanding our work is to make contacts with outside organi- 
zations. This year we have associated ourselves with the Boy 
Scouts of America, the Merchant Marine Officers, educational 
officers in prison service, and for the development of education 
by radio, the American Telegraph and Telephone Company. 
All of these organizations and many others such as prominent 
business houses are desirous of carrying on their education 
work in cooperation with an established educational institu- 
tion. Community study whereby five or more individuals 
study as a club at reduced rates is another method of aiding 
students through Home Study. We are now completing the 
series of courses for preparation for college. Many who have 
about completed their preparation are unable to finish their work 
in class instruction. One of the students in Home Study took 
the College Entrance Examinations in Mathematics and re- 
ceived a mark indicating that he had presented a perfect paper. 

The publication of books giving surveys of such sub- 
jects as history, fine arts, science helpful to those persons 
who desire to increase their general culture by reading is 
an important part of Home Study service. Cooperation 
with the University Press will render it possible to issue 
material already prepared by Home Study in a distinctive and 
attractive form which might be known as the Columbia 
Home Study Series. 

The granting of credit for Home Study courses is always 
a delicate subject to discuss. We do not favor granting the 
usual academic credit but we do look forward to the time when 
a special degree will be given to students who complete with 
high grade a series of courses in Home Study. We are well 
aware of the fact that correspondence courses, no matter how 
carefully prepared or how faithfully completed, are not in good 
repute. We should remember the hostility with which Summer 
Schools and Extension classes were received. They have final- 
ly and fully proved their value in education. Home Study 
has a similar future and we ask for the sympathetic interest 
and help of those who always welcome any effort which gives 
new educational opportunities to the greater number. 



I96 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The Institute of Arts and Sciences is just closing its first 
decade. An elaborate report with important statistics has 
been prepared by Mr. Milton J. Davies who has charge of this 
branch of University Extension. During the ten years the 
Institute has held 3,136 meetings which were attended by 917,- 
164 people and the membership has increased from 1,248 to 
2,492. For four years the enrolment has been closed at the be- 
ginning of the season owing to the limitation in size of present 
auditoriums. The completion of the auditorium seating 1,400 
persons in the new building of the School of Business will 
enable the Institute to enlarge its membership. The program 
of 1 922-1 923 consisted of 210 meetings including lectures on 
social, economic and political questions and weekly concerts 
and dramatic recitals. An important feature of the Institute's 
work is its cooperation with other departments of the Univer- 
sity and with outside organizations. Among notable events 
were a series of lectures on the Canadian Constitution by the 
Hon. William Renwick Riddell; lectures on the League of 
Nations by Lord Robert Cecil ; intercollegiate debates opening 
with a debate with Oxford University (England); meetings 
commemorating the centenary of Louis Pasteur, the 450th 
anniversary of the birth of Copernicus. An important feature 
of the musical season was the performance of The Redemption 
in Carnegie Hall by the Columbia University Chorus, con- 
ducted by Professor Walter Henry Hall. 

As I bring this report to a close, I must refer again as in 
former years to the desire which officers of University Exten- 
sion have to help the labor unions in their ambitions for the 
education of their members. Although our efforts have not 
been met with the response desired, we are nevertheless just as 
eager to give assistance to those in the labor unions who are 
interested in workers' education. It is true that the University 
trains many workers who come as individuals. A feeling of sus- 
picion on the part of the unions toward the University still 
exists although we are ready to cooperate with the labor organ- 
izations in the most liberal way but apparently the time is not 
ripe for the realization of our desires. 

The record which is set forth in this report should relieve the 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 197 

anxiety of those who are solicitous as to the success of institu- 
tions of higher learning in training and guiding their students 
and accomplishing the purpose for which they exist. The opin- 
ion exists in the minds of many that colleges throughout the 
country are being regarded by students and by people in general 
as athletic and social clubs primarily and not as educational 
institutions. The students in University Extension attend for 
the purpose of obtaining an education and are not drawn aside 
from this goal by the allurement of athletic sports or social 
engagements. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Egbert, 

Director 
June 30, 1Q23 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

I desire to present herewith the annual report of the School 
of Business for the academic year 1922- 1923. 

To understand and appreciate the development of the 
School of Business as it is portrayed in the events of the year, 
it will be useful for us to recall certain facts of its organization 
and existence as one of the schools of the University. 

The evening courses in business as established by University 
Extension and eagerly elected by many students served to 
bring clearly before the University public the importance of 
business as a subject of study in the curriculum of a modern 
university and led to the organization of the School of Busi- 
ness. A close relationship therefore exists between this School 
and the evening courses. In fact the School which owes its 
existence to University Extension now in turn holds itself 
responsible for the character of the work as it is given in 
the evening. In a reciprocal manner University Extension 
furnishes for the School of Business a convenient means 
of supplying courses which are desirable for students of special 
branches but which are not suitable as forming part of the 
curriculum of the School. Again University Extension must 
rely upon the School for advice and countenance in any branch 
of its service although such service may not assume the form 
of courses in business leading to a degree but rather of non- 
academic education as Home Study or the Institute of Arts 
and Sciences. Certainly each school and department must be 
responsible for its own subject or subjects when presented in 
University Extension. This is especially true of the School 
of Business which should feel its responsibility in this regard 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS I99 

and follow the example of other parts of the University which 
find in University Extension an opportunity for exploiting and 
building up the subject with which they are concerned. 

Nevertheless there is and must be a sharp distinction be- 
tween the fully established professional school which confers 
degrees and the courses which are intended for those who can 
give only haphazard attendance and who are interested in the 
pursuit of knowledge without any intention of obtaining a 
degree. In other words, the School of Business must bear to 
University Extension a relationship similar to that existing 
with the other professional schools. These grant recognition 
whenever such action is consistent with the attainment of the 
purpose for which the school exists and with the standards of 
a professional school granting degrees. With all this in mind 
the Administrative Board of the School has been carefully 
studying questions which naturally arise because of this dis- 
tinction, and in its legislation has laid emphasis upon the fact 
that the School is professional in character and must maintain 
in full degree the best traditions of the University as shown in 
the history of other professional schools. In calling attention 
to the professional character of the School, we desire to em- 
phasize the fact that it is not of the vocational type. We do 
not depreciate the value of vocational training and would 
gladly see it developed for mature students in University 
Extension. We do not, however, regard instruction in the 
selling of bonds, or the marketing of goods or any other form of 
training fitting a man specifically for a particular job as the 
function of this School. We desire to have our students thor- 
oughly grounded in the fundamentals of business science, so 
that they may be ready for any field in the business world 
rather than prepared for any particular type of trade or 
industry. 

The School of Business also naturally has close relationship 
with the College. At the time of organization the Committee 
purposely selected the plan of two undergraduate years pre- 
ceded by two years of cultural study. A four year course 
parallel to the four years of the College was rejected as leading 
to a rival undergraduate school, inappropriate and inconsistent 



200 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

with the development of university education at Columbia. 
The experience of the past six years in the life of the School 
has proved conclusively that the decision was correct. The 
courses of the School of Business do not therefore form a part 
of the cultural offering of a collegiate career and are definitely 
professional in character. This fact is recognized and accepted 
by the Dean of the College and its Committee on Instruction, 
and suitable regulations have been passed especially in the 
past year so that students in their choice of electives may 
keep this always in mind. 

The Administrative Board has adopted certain rules which 
protect the individuality and independence of the School 
notwithstanding its intimate relationship with University 
Extension and the College. Thus the School will not grant 
credit for courses in business taken before the completion of 
the sixty academic points required for admission. This implies 
the completion of the cultural training before a student enters 
upon the professional courses in business if he intends to claim 
credit in the School toward a degree. This rule is thoroughly 
sound in principle particularly if we regard the courses of the 
School as professional in character. Other regulations looking 
to the same end were adopted by the Administrative Board, 
whereby students are required to complete in the School a 
minimum of thirty-six points in regular and established courses 
of the School. Beyond this in the year immediately preceding 
the granting of the Bachelor of Science degree the student 
must complete as a residence requirement a minimum of twelve 
points at each session. 

Another interesting and important development of the past 
year is the extension and further recognition of the graduate 
character of the School. In the original plan of organization a 
third, a graduate year, was added to the two undergraduate 
years. This graduate year open to those who have completed 
a course of study equivalent to that of the two undergraduate 
years leads to the degree of Master of Science. No provision, 
however, was made for the student who had completed a 
college career and received the degree of Bachelor of Arts and 
who desired to enter upon courses in business as a graduate 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 201 

student. During the past year college graduates possessing 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts have been allowed to enter upon 
a course of study in business of two years leading to the degree 
of Master of Science. These students are required to take in 
their first year fundamental courses and in the second year 
may elect graduate courses appropriate for those qualified to 
enter upon the one year course. A number of students have 
already taken advantage of this opportunity. The figures of 
registration given below will indicate the usefulness of this 
arrangement and the appreciation with which it has been 
received. The graduate character of the School was still 
further recognized by the action of the University Council at 
its meeting on April 17, 1923. At that time the Joint Com- 
mittee on Graduate Instruction was given authority to 
matriculate students as candidates for the Degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy and admit them to final examinations no 
matter under what University faculty they may have enrolled ; 
also to authorize the matriculation and admission to final 
examination of candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philoso- 
phy not only in subjects now comprised within the depart- 
mental offerings of the three graduate faculties and the 
Faculty of Law but also in such other subjects as the said 
Joint Committee on Graduate Instruction may approve. 
Thus the suggestion made in my last report that students, 
candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, be per- 
mitted to register for the degree in the School of Business, 
has been carried into effect by the action of the Council. 

In my last report I called attention to the necessity of finding 
through experience the proper line of educational development 
of schools of business inasmuch as they are in the formative 
stage. Appreciating this fact, the Administrative Board and 
the Staff have studied the requirements for admission and the 
course of study. As a result of this examination in the light of 
the experience of the past six years changes have been made 
which deserve recording in this report. For admission, as 
hitherto, the completion of two full years of study in an 
approved college is required. The specific requirements which 
determined rather exactly the character of the cultural years 



202 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

have been restricted to English (two years) and modern 
foreign language (two years). Economic Geography and 
Business Administration may be presented at time of entrance 
and this is preferred. If not offered on admission these 
subjects must be included in the program of study of the 
School. Hitherto in addition to the subjects named above, 
Mathematics, History and Economic Geography were speci- 
fied. This modification in requirements for admission gives 
greater flexibility and opens the way to those who have had 
a general collegiate training of two years and are thus quali- 
fied to become students of the School although they may not 
have completed certain specific subjects of study. Emphasis 
is placed upon English, and students who show that they are 
deficient in this subject will be required to enroll in a course 
which will correct this deficiency. 

The Administrative Board has made modifications in the 
list of required subjects of the first year seeking to determine 
and place in that year the essential and fundamental courses. 
To Accounting, Banking and Business, and Business Law, they 
have added Corporation Finance and Statistics. Elements of 
Business Administration and Economic Geography are called 
for if not offered at entrance. A modern foreign language is 
required for admission but not as one of the subjects of the 
course. Students are advised to elect a modern language 
whenever it is consistent with the special field of business 
chosen and must show facility in speaking and writing this 
language before they receive their degrees. 

I desire to report the following changes in the personnel of 
the Staff of the School. On the nomination of the Administra- 
tive Board the Trustees have promoted Assistant Professor 
Ralph H. Blanchard to be Associate Professor of Insurance; 
Assistant Professor James C. Bonbright to be Associate Pro- 
fessor of Finance and Assistant Professor Frederick C. Mills to 
be Associate Professor of Statistics. The promotions were 
made on the same principle which has prevailed since the or- 
ganization of the School whereby in the building up of the Staff 
the important professorial positions have been filled from the 
ranks of the younger men who have been promoted when 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 203 

their attainment as scholars and teachers has been demon- 
strated. On the request of the Administrative Board Assistant 
Professor Brissenden was transferred from University Exten- 
sion to the School of Business with the title of Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Economics. By this transfer the courses in Personnel 
Management will be cared for as it is expected that Professor 
Brissenden will cooperate with the Committee on the Employ- 
ment of Students whose service is of special importance to the 
School of Business. It is at this point that the School may 
establish contact with the business world so that the practical 
side of business education may be placed within reach of our 
students. Many engage in remunerative employment during 
their connection with the School in the summer and during 
the academic year. This custom should be studied and regu- 
lated so that the experience may form part of the training of 
the student under the supervision of the appropriate member 
of the Staff and therefore may be encouraged or restricted 
with the best interests of the student in view. I do not know 
of a more important question than this and Professor Brissen- 
den has an unusual opportunity for performing unique service 
in guiding us in the consideration of this subject of the prac- 
tical side of education in business. 

We have lost from our Staff by resignation two men whose 
presence served to add to the reputation of the School for 
scholarship and attainment on the part of its instructors. I 
refer to Professor Asher Hobson, Associate Professor of 
Economic Agriculture, who resigned to accept the position of 
American representative on the International Commission on 
Agriculture, and Professor George W. Edwards who has been 
appointed to a professorship in New York University. 

Certain features of registration deserve attention in this re- 
port. At the Commencement in June 1923, 114 students re- 
ceived the degree of Bachelor of Science, 20 received the degree 
of Master of Science and 8 were awarded the Secretarial Cer- 
tificate. The total number of students in the School, 1922- 
1923, was 355 with 114 in the first year and 99 in the second 
year of the undergraduate course. Candidates for the degree 
of Master of Science numbered 56. Beyond these the non- 



204 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

matriculated students and the candidates for the Secretarial 
Certificate were 86 in number. The number of graduate stu- 
dents has increased beyond those of 1921-1922. Of the stu- 
dents enrolled in the School 70 were women; of these 6 were 
candidates for the Master of Science degree and 26 for the 
Secretarial Certificate and 38 for the degree of Bachelor of 
Science. These figures do not indicate the entire number of 
students who are under the instruction of members of the 
Staff of the School. The Registrar estimates these to be at 
least 800 in number. This is important as indicating how 
wide is the influence of the School of Business in the Uni- 
versity and how active are the members of the staff in giving 
instruction outside the exact limits of the School. We recog- 
nize as of primary importance the contact of the instructor 
with the student in class exercises and through individual 
consultation. Nevertheless the members of the staff are con- 
tinually engaged in scholarly investigation and are in demand 
for various forms of public service. During the year numerous 
books of more than usual value have been published by the 
instructors of the School of which I may mention "The Fed- 
eral Reserve System" by H. Parker Willis; "Auditing Princi- 
ples and Income Tax Procedure" by Robert H. Montgomery; 
"New Fundamentals of Accounting, Volume II" by Roy B. 
Kester, and "Foreign Commercial Credits" by George W. 
Edwards. 

Through the generosity of Mr. Marvyn L. Scudder the 
School of Business was the recipient during the year of a 
most valuable and unique financial library. This is the most 
complete collection of reports, mortgages and documents 
relating to corporations in existence, and places in the posses- 
sion of the School a mass of material invaluable for study and 
research. Many of the documents cannot be obtained else- 
where. We are greatly indebted to Mr. Scudder for this 
library which will bear his name and to the Trustees who 
have made suitable provision for its care and maintenance. 

When I prepared my report for the preceding year there 
was very slight prospect of the erection of our new building. 
The past year, therefore, has been epochal in the realization 



SCHOOL OF BUSINESS 205 

of our hopes for a suitable home for the School and we are 
now looking forward to the completion of the building before 
the beginning of another academic year. I doubt if any of us 
realize all that this means to the School where students and 
instructors have been compelled to flit about from one build- 
ing to another. The development of the School as such has 
been almost impossible as there has existed no center of ad- 
ministration or control. The library has been crowded into 
a small room and little reading space has been available. 
We shall now enter a building carefully planned for a school 
of this character with its library, accounting and statistical 
laboratories, seminar rooms and administrative offices. 
Truly we have a goodly heritage. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James C. Egbert, 

Director 
June 30, 102J 



SCHOOL OF DENTAL AND ORAL SURGERY 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to present the following report on the work 
of the School of Dentistry for the academic year 1922-1923. 
The registration for the year was as follows : 

Freshmen 7 Juniors 3 

Sophomores 5 Seniors 4 

These students with one exception have been very success- 
ful in their work. Unfortunately, we were obliged to drop a 
young man of the Junior class because of a second failure. His 
physical condition was such that we made every effort to have 
him withdraw at the end of the first semester, but his family 
insisted upon his finishing the year. Four members of the 
Sophomore class had obtained a Bachelor's degree prior to their 
registration in the dental course, and three members of the 
class received the Bachelor of Science degree from Columbia, 
June, 1923. This class has shown exceptional ability in both 
mental and manual work. The Juniors and Seniors also passed 
their practical work with a high average, and the four Seniors 
received their degrees of Doctor of Dental Surgery, June 1923. 
All have since passed their State Board Examinations success- 
fully which gives us a rating of 100% for the year. 

We were disappointed in not having a full Freshman class, 
but realize that it was because of the high standard of our pre- 
requisites, and the fact that all other University schools are 
requiring but one year of college for matriculation. It has been 
a question for some time as to the practicability of the present 
two year predental curricula. The large majority of the 



SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY 207 

schools throughout the country seem to feel that it is a barrier 
rather than a help in dental education. Prof. E. T. Darby in an 
address before the Illinois State Dental Society says, "It may 
be regarded as still unproven that a degree in art or letters or 
its equivalent in education is prerequisite to the making of a 
successful practitioner in dentistry." Prof. Darby does not 
depreciate the value of the higher standard for the dental stu- 
dent, but with many others believes that the two year require- 
ment should be perfected to the end that prospective students 
may demonstrate their ability as artisans to follow the prac- 
tice of dentistry. There are many instances where these latent 
talents could be developed better in a predental rather than a 
regular course. Because of the influences of environment, many 
young men are led to declare a predilection for their future that 
often leads to failure and might be avoided by a proper pre- 
dental provision. The present minimum requirements of the 
State University for the first year provide for 670 hours of prac- 
tical work, that is to say, work that is done by hand, against 
330 didactic conference and quizz hours; the second, 640 to 
360; the third, 720 to 280, and the fourth, 760 to 240. Thus, 
in 4000 hours 2790 are given to practical work, from which it 
can be seen that a student lacking ability in a digital dexterity 
is at a great disadvantage, and, while he may succeed in passing 
his examination, he is not the type of dentist that Columbia 
should graduate. We feel that such deficiencies should be de- 
tected early enough to conserve the student's time, which is in 
no wise a plea to reduce the standard. If anything, it should be 
raised to meet the condition. 

The survey of dental education by the Carnegie Foundation 
and the reorganization and unification of the educational bod- 
ies of the United States, particularly that of the Educational 
Council, are producing radical changes in all of the schools, 
especially those of the proprietary class, and, as a result, a large 
majority of these schools are seeking University affiliation. 
Some of those in the Middle West are furnishing endowment 
with a gift of the school to the University. The College of 
Dental and Oral Surgery of New York began negotiations with 
the School of Dentistry, Columbia University, early in March 



208 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

of the current year, for a merger which was consummated by 
the signing of a contract on June 30th for the transfer of all 
properties of said College to Columbia University. One of the 
conditions in the contract makes it necessary to change the 
title from the School of Dentistry to the School of Dental and 
Oral Surgery, and we find ourselves starting the new year with 
a large student body, the care of which is a very serious matter 
for our present faculty. We are confident, however, that we 
shall be able to meet the conditions and render a report next 
year satisfactory to all. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank T. Van Woert, 

Director 
June 30, 1023 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

I have the honor to submit the following report for the 
academic year ending June 30, 1923: 

Important changes in requirements for admission have been 
made in the past year by the School of Business, the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering and Chemistry, and the School of Practical 
Arts. The amount of previous college training required for 
admission to the Schools of Business and of Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry remains the same, but there has been a change 
in the amount of prescribed work included in the requirements. 
In each case the amount of prescribed work has been reduced. 
The School of Business now prescribes only two years of college 
English, one year of college work in introductory economics, 
and two years of college work or the equivalent in French, 
Spanish or German. Formerly the prescribed subjects in- 
cluded also a year of college mathematics or its equivalent, a 
year of commercial geography, a year of history, and for the 
past year a course in business organization as well. While the 
two last named are still prescribed for the degree, it will be 
possible hereafter for those who have not included these sub- 
jects in their preliminary college preparation to study them as 
a part of the work to be taken in the School of Business. 

The Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry have 
reduced the amount of prescribed work in the requirement of 
three years of college work for admission by omitting differen- 
tial equations, the second session's work in qualitative analy- 
sis, and a little more than a third of the former requirement in 
advanced physics. Formerly the student who entered Colum- 
bia College with credit for entrance physics, entrance chem- 



210 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

istry, and advanced entrance mathematics was required to do 
more than two-thirds of his minimum college work in these 
three subjects and drawing. If he had omitted any of these 
subjects in school a still larger proportion of his college work 
must be devoted to science, and the completion of the full 
requirements in three years was practically impossible. Now 
only slightly more than half of his work need be taken in those 
sciences. It is possible for him to meet the requirements in 
three years even if he should not offer upon admission to col- 
lege all the science and mathematics recommended. 

While it is no doubt highly desirable that the subjects no 
longer prescribed be included in the preparation of candidates 
for admission, there are two excellent reasons for ceasing to 
make them obligatory. The first of these is the fact that their 
inclusion in the preliminary college work, by limiting the 
amount of work which may be chosen from other fields, tends 
to narrow the preliminary training and thus to defeat one of 
the primary purposes of the schools in requiring college work 
for admission, the purpose, namely, of providing for a broad 
preliminary training. This was particularly true of the former 
requirements for admission to the Schools of Mines, Engineer- 
ing and Chemistry. The total amount of prescribed work was 
so great that the opportunity for the election of other courses 
was practically negligible. 

The second reason for decreasing the amount of prescribed 
work was the fact that aside from those preparing in Columbia 
College, applicants were usually unable to include in their 
college years all the work that was prescribed. This meant in 
the School of Business that those entering from other colleges 
almost invariably entered with deficiencies, a very unsatisfac- 
tory situation. In the Schools of Mines, Engineering and 
Chemistry, where the subjects which have been removed from 
the list of prescribed subjects were held to be absolutely pre- 
requisite to the work of the schools, with the curriculum which 
they then provided, it meant that students who had prepared 
in colleges other than Columbia were in the great majority of 
instances unable to enter without additional college prepara- 
tion. With rare exceptions such students gave up entirely 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 211 

their plans of entering our Schools of Mines, Engineering and 
Chemistry and went to schools where the requirements were 
less exacting. In consequence the student body in our engi- 
neering schools was more and more recruited from Columbia 
College alone. Moreover, the rigidity of the requirements was 
resulting in a rapid and steady decrease in the number of 
Columbia College students preparing for the Schools of Mines, 
Engineering and Chemistry. The change in requirements will 
undoubtedly improve the situation, but it is highly probable 
that improvement will be slow for a time, since the new re- 
quirements will not become generally known at once. The 
results should be evident, however, in the course of two or 
three years. The number of students entering the Schools of 
Mines, Engineering and Chemistry last September was very 
little greater than in 1922. The number of undergraduates en- 
tering the School of Business was slightly smaller than in the 
preceding year. The new requirements and the new buildings 
which have been begun or are to be provided later will change 
that situation. The modification in the requirements for ad- 
mission to candidacy for the M. S. in Business undoubtedly 
played its part in bringing about a largely increased registration 
of graduate students in the School of Business. It was for- 
merly necessary for a candidate for the degree of M. S. in 
Business to present a record showing the completion of a 
course substantially identical with that required for our B. S. 
in Business. Last September a new provision became operative 
whereby a graduate of a recognized college who had not special- 
ized as an undergraduate in business subjects might qualify for 
the M. S. in Business by two years of graduate work here, 
instead of being required to make up two undergraduate years 
of work in order to be accepted as a candidate for the M. S. in 
Business with the privilege of qualifying for that degree in one 
additional year. In other words, the graduate of an accepta- 
ble college who has not specialized in business subjects may 
now qualify for the degree of M.S. in Business in two years 
instead of being required to take three as was formerly the 
case. The results of the change are entirely satisfactory. 
A most important change has been made in the entrance re- 



212 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

quirements of the School of Practical Arts. In the past that 
School has offered a four-year program of studies based upon 
secondary school training and leading to a bachelor's degree. 
The curriculum has included both professional courses and 
non-professional courses. The school has been most successful. 
The number of students has grown so great that there is no 
longer room for the non-professional work. Hereafter there 
will be a two-year professional course presupposing for admis- 
sion the completion of two years of standard non-professional 
college work including certain specified subjects. In 1923 the 
former first year will be discontinued: in 1924 what has so far 
been the second year will be discontinued. The new require- 
ments will go fully into effect at that time. The School of 
Practical Arts will then take its place with all the other profes- 
sional schools except the College of Pharmacy, in requiring 
college work for admission and will leave Columbia College and 
Barnard College as the only schools of the University (aside 
from Pharmacy) whose work is based upon the secondary 
schools. Within a period of less than fifteen years the present 
policy has replaced one in which all the professional schools 
then in existence, except the Law School, admitted students 
directly from the secondary schools. 

In Columbia College and in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, in both of which the number of students has been as 
great as could well be adequately cared for, the number of new 
students admitted has been strictly limited. The number of 
applicants whose records would have been accepted as entitling 
them to admission a few years ago, or in other words the 
number of eligible applicants, was much greater last Septem- 
ber than could be admitted. From among these the 
number who could be cared for was selected in accordance 
with the system of admission established a few years 
ago. The results have been highly satisfactory. The 
candidates admitted to the Freshman Class in Columbia 
College were distinctly superior in native ability, as measured 
by the psychological examination, to the preceding class, which 
was in turn decidedly superior to its immediate predecessor. 
All the evidence available goes to show that the students who 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 213 

are now being admitted to Columbia College stand much 
higher in native ability than those admitted to any other 
college for which there are comparable measures of ability. 
The general geographical distribution of the student body in 
the College remains substantially the same as last year, 
though there are of course minor changes. 

Barnard College employed the psychological examination 
for the first time as a part of its system of admission, with 
gratifying results so far as quality is concerned. The entering 
class was also larger by 49 than in the preceding year, the total 
being 229. A more flexible system of requirements for stu- 
dents entering with advanced standing from other colleges has 
encouraged an increase in the number of such candidates. The 
total number of new students in September, 1922, was 341 as 
compared with 257 in 1921 and 233 in 1920. 1919 witnessed 
the admission of what was for that time an unusually large 
number of new students, viz., 287. Aside from that year and 
the year 191 1, when 249 were admitted, the number of new 
students did not reach 240 until 192 1. 

The number of new students in other schools shows a healthy 
increase. The growth is greatest in the Schools of Law, the 
Schools of Political Science, Philosophy and Pure Science, and 
Teachers College. 

One important change has been made in the past practice of 
the University regarding entrance examinations. For many 
years a regular series of examinations has been given in Janu- 
ary. Concurrent action by the faculties concerned has led to 
the discontinuance of the regular series of subject matter 
entrance examinations in January. Candidates who are other- 
wise ready for admission and whose records seem to show ade- 
quate preparation may be given special examinations at that 
time in case such are needed for the completion of entrance 
requirements, but in most cases their records and the psycho- 
logical examination which will be given at that time will suffice. 
The Januaiy entrance examinations had come to be used very 
largely by students inadequately prepared, in many cases by 
those who were actually candidates for admission to other 
colleges. They placed a great and unwelcome burden upon 



214 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

members of the faculty who were exceedingly busy with other 
duties at that time, and they were of small advantage to the 
candidates, most of whom failed to pass. 

Two additions have been made to the list of subjects which 
may be offered for admission to Columbia College and Barnard 
College, or rather additional units in two subjects which have 
previously been accepted. The additions are advanced Span- 
ish, covered usually in the fourth year of secondary school 
preparation in that subject, and intermediate or third year 
Italian. While the instruction in these subjects in the schools is 
not yet so thorough as it should be, the reasons for accepting 
the subjects themselves seem to be as good as those for accept- 
ing similar preparation in French and German. Adequacy of 
preparation will be tested by the usual methods. 

It is perhaps in order at this time to review briefly the prin- 
ciples which underlie the requirements for admission to each 
and every school of the University. They are found every- 
where, but it is fair to say that in many institutions tradition 
has played a much larger part than with us, though it natu- 
rally and necessarily plays its part here also. 

At least two principles are recognized. One is the require- 
ment of a certain general level of education: the other is need 
for preparation in certain specific subjects or fields, with which 
it is necessary for the student to be acquainted in order to do 
the work of the school which he desires to enter. Needless to 
say, the application of these principles varies greatly in dif- 
ferent schools. The requirements for admission to the colleges 
of liberal arts call for the general level of education presum- 
ably attained by the completion of the work of the secondary 
school. It is obvious that this does not mean the same in all 
cases — or indeed in any two cases. But roughly it does mark 
definitely a stage in education. Partly as a means for provid- 
ing a certain content in general education but more consciously 
as a means for insuring necessary preparation in subject matter 
prerequisite to college work, all candidates for admission must 
offer, a prescribed minimum in English and Mathematics. For 
the same reasons foreign language is required. Students looking 
forward to medicine or engineering are urged to offer Physics, 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 215 

Chemistry and advanced Mathematics. Barnard College re- 
quires more in foreign language than does Columbia College, 
presumably for the first of the reasons specified above, though 
doubtless in part for the second, and perhaps still more for 
reasons which are not very well defined. In some indirect way 
the tradition that young women should know foreign languages 
or that they excel in them may have been influential. For 
admission to Columbia College the student who offers four 
units in Latin (or three in Greek) may elect his remaining en- 
trance subjects — aside from English and Elementary Mathe- 
matics: otherwise he must offer History and either Physics or 
Chemistry. The requirement in science was determined in 
part by the belief that these were solid subjects whose mastery 
was evidence of ability and character, and in part perhaps by 
reasons which are the counterpart of those which led to the 
larger requirement in foreign languages by the Barnard College 
Faculty. 

The requirement of the Law School that the candidate must 
offer an acceptable college degree or at least three years of 
college work, including English History, American History and 
Economics, was obviously based almost wholly upon the first 
principle, namely, that the candidate must have reached a 
certain definite level of education. 

The minimum requirement of somewhat more than two 
years of college work for admission to the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons includes prescribed courses in English and either 
French or German, besides not less than two years of Chem- 
istry and one year each of Physics and Biology. The require- 
ments in science are based primarily upon the principle that 
knowledge of these sciences is essential for the work of the 
curriculum, but the other principle plays a large part in the 
total requirement. As a matter of fact, it plays a larger part in 
the actual selection of students than would appear upon the 
surface. Among the applicants for admission, those who 
have completed a full college course or even three years 
of college work are admitted in preference to those who 
offer only the minimum requirements, unless the latter should 
excel greatly in some very important particular. 



216 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The requirements for admission to the Schools of Mines, 
Engineering and Chemistry likewise illustrate the application 
of both principles, though until the recent change in the con- 
tent of the requirements, the specified amount of work in sci- 
ences deemed prerequisite for the work of the schools was so 
great that there was too small an opportunity for the candi- 
date to raise the general level of his training in the three college 
years except in science. The School of Architecture, with a 
two-year college requirement including as prescribed subjects 
only French and Mathematics, has been influenced chiefly by 
the first principle. The Schools of Journalism, Business, and 
(beginning in 1924) Practical Arts, each offering a two-year 
professional program for a bachelor's degree, require two years 
of college work for admission, with differences in the subjects 
prescribed but with relatively flexible requirements so far as 
subject matter is concerned. Both principles are exemplified 
as well as the further consideration that no bachelor's degree 
should be granted for work representing less than four full 
years beyond the secondary school course. 

In the graduate schools the basic requirement is a baccalau- 
reate degree in arts, letters, philosophy or science, or an engi- 
neering degree, from an approved institution. In addition to 
this the several departments and even the several faculties 
may, and in some cases they do, require that in order to be 
accepted as a candidate for a higher degree in the fields which 
they represent, the student shall have included in his earlier 
study certain specified subjects regarded as prerequisite for 
the work conducted by the department or faculty in question. 
For admission to graduate standing in the University there is 
thus a common requirement for all students. But in order to 
be accepted as a student prepared to specialize in a given field 
there may be an additional requirement determined by the 
department in charge of that field. Likewise, the professional 
schools which offer higher degrees ordinarily require that in 
order to be eligible to candidacy for a higher degree the 
applicant must have completed previously a course which 
both in quantity and in subject matter is substantially equiva- 
lent to that required for the bachelor's degree in his chosen 



UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS 217 

field by Columbia University. To be eligible to candidacy for 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy the candidate must have 
completed at least one year of graduate work beyond a stand- 
ard baccalaureate degree and must have satisfied the depart- 
ment of his major subject of his preparation to undertake re- 
searches under its direction; again illustrating the two princi- 
ples found throughout. 

In the graduate schools the requirements for admission, so 
far as the general level of education required is concerned, are 
the same for all and are administered through the Office of 
University Admissions. The requirements for preparation in 
specific subject matter, where there are such, are administered 
by the departments making the requirement. This division of 
function is not universal in the universities of the country, but 
its advantages are obvious. 

Another principle which should be carefully considered in 
determining entrance requirements and which should be one of 
the controlling factors in determining what general level of 
education should be required, and which should be borne in 
mind also in the organization of a curriculum, in so far as its 
content calls for preparation in specific subjects, is this: the 
formal requirements should not be so great in amount or so 
rigid in content as to exclude automatically all except a num- 
ber so small as to be barely enough to make full use of the 
resources of the school. Otherwise stated, whenever possible, 
consistent with high standards, the minimum formal require- 
ments should be within the compass of a sufficient number of 
students to make necessary the selection from among them of 
those who give evidence of special ability or of special fitness 
for the work of the school. No system has yet been devised 
which can select automatically and mechanically the candi- 
date best fitted for the work to be done. Room should be left 
for the exercise of the judgment of those in charge of the ad- 
ministration of entrance requirements. Reference to this has 
been made in earlier reports and also to the fact that the policy 
advocated has given excellent results in Columbia College and 
in the College of Physicians and Surgeons. The need for estab- 
lishing higher standards than those generally current may 



2l8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

warrant a different policy in some cases, but in the long run 
and as a basis for a permanent policy the principle is a sound 
one. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Adam Leroy Jones, 

Director of University Admissions 
June jo, iQ2j 



REPORT OF THE UNIVERSITY 
MEDICAL OFFICER 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As University Medical Officer, I have the honor to submit 
the following report for the academic year ending June 30, 
1923. 

The year just closed has been a satisfactory one from the 
standpoint of community health. The number of students 
reporting for medical treatment was greater than during any 
previous year since the organization of systematic medical 
supervision ; but the records show that we have been free from 
epidemics and that for the most part the illnesses have been 
such that in the aggregate the actual loss of time due to sick- 
ness has been less than usual. Twenty-six thousand and 
twenty-four medical conferences have been held during the 
year, making a daily average of about one hundred seventeen 
patients. 

CONSULTATIONS 

At the University Office Men Women Total 

Summer Session, 1922 1,096 

September 265 

October 1,382 

November 1,227 

December - 767 

January 1,452 

February 1,444 

March 1,637 

April 1,431 

May 1,342 

June 128 



2,114 


3,210 


113 


378 


647 


2,029 


776 


2,003 


374 


1,141 


692 


2,144 


827 


2,271 


826 


2,463 


856 


2,287 


761 


2,103 


86 


214 



Total 12,171 8,072 20,243 



220 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

At Barnard College 

Winter Session 3.185 

Spring Session 2,606 



Total 5,791 5.791 



Grand Total 26,034 

The distribution of student patients from the several schools 
of the University would indicate that no one class of students 
is more susceptible to illness than any other. It would seem, 
however, that certain courses demanding a sustained effort 
of speed and accuracy during a laboratory period of two or 
more hours, do tend to develop in some students latent nervous 
reactions which, if continued, result in loss of morale and in 
some cases actual ill health. If future investigations sustain 
the correctness of this observation it may seem advisable to 
require candidates for these courses to undergo special medical 
examinations before permitting them to register for these 
particular courses. We frequently find that ill health is due 
to the fact that the student is attempting to gain university 
credit in a department for which he is not fitted. The resultant 
mental strain and the lack of a stimulating interest in the 
subject matter are directly responsible for the nervous condi- 
tion from which these students suffer. In such cases a change 
in program is often all that is necessary to bring about a per- 
fectly normal physical condition and to remove the trouble- 
some symptom complex of sleeplessness, lack of concentration, 
loss of appetite, etc. The nervous effort on the part of the 
student to maintain a satisfactory grade in a subject for which 
he has been poorly prepared or for which he has no adaptability 
is apt to result in a break that may be serious in the matter of 
health and future constructive efficiency. 

The main function of the university is to conserve, advance 
and disseminate knowledge — its obligations are primarily con- 
cerned with teaching and research; but the university must 
also, as an institution for social betterment, assume a further 
obligation and responsibility: that of selecting the most prom- 
ising candidates to receive its gifts and further to make sure 



UNIVERSITY MEDICAL OFFICER 221 

that these candidates elect fields of study and research that 
will not be detrimental to health in the fullest interpretation 
of the term. We are not justified as an educational institution 
in permitting students to invest in programs of study that 
reap for them ill health and unhappiness. The staff of the 
University Medical Officer has during the past year made 
every effort to assist the students in the important matter of 
proper adjustment of student work and physical capacity. 
We feel confident that our methods of dealing with these and 
similar problems at Columbia are effective and that each 
year our added experience and increasing interest in our health 
campaign have lessened the number who leave the University 
in poorer condition than when they came to us. In the or- 
ganization of the student medical service we have endeavored 
with this branch of health supervision in mind to develop the 
work along lines that permit of the greatest elasticity in dealing 
with individual problems rather than to sacrifice the individual 
to a system. Each patient is given as much time as his case 
demands, with the realization that the value of our advice and 
treatment is directly proportionate to the accuracy of our 
diagnosis. 

It would be of little value at this juncture to enumerate all 
of the varied conditions of physical ill health and disease that 
we have met with in our office service this past year. We may, 
however, state that because our students come from every 
part of the world and are of all ages, our cases cover a large 
field in the diseases of both men and women, from the latter 
part of the second to the fifth and sixth decades of life. The 
disturbances of the respiratory system have been perhaps the 
most numerous among the diseases treated, especially those 
of the upper respiratory tract. During the late winter and 
early spring we had many patients who suffered from infections 
of the sinuses of the head and from inflammation of the middle 
ear. The usual number of mild gastro-intestinal cases was met 
with throughout the entire year; but for some reason we had 
more cases of acute and chronic gall bladder trouble, gastric 
and duodenal ulcers and appendicitis than usual. The early 
spring brought to our attention several cases of acute pul- 



222 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

monary tuberculosis, probably made active as the result of 
grippe attacks during the winter. We have had numerous 
cases of toxic and metabolic disturbances, functional and 
organic diseases of the nervous system, skin diseases and 
diseases of eye and ear. 

The surgical service was especially busy with various types 
of infections, dislocations and fractures. We had many small 
accidents giving rise to skin and muscle wounds, acid and 
alkaline burns of various parts of the body, most commonly of 
the hands, face or eyes. This busy service is not surprising, 
however, when we consider that our University Campus is a 
community with a population of more than thirty thousand 
citizens. 

The students are given the best service possible with the 
present staff organization and when we deem it necessary or 
when it is requested, the experience of a specialist is sought. 
An effort is constantly made to give the health service at 
Columbia an educational value as well as to gain for it a repu- 
tation for quality of service. Experience would indicate that 
the specialist we need most today in the field of medicine is 
the one who can treat the body as a whole and who is wise 
enough to enlist the services of the practitioner in a specific 
field of medicine when expert opinion in that field is needed. 
We endeavor not to lose the value of the scientifically but per- 
sonally interested approach of the family physician. 

We are called upon not only to treat disease but also to 
measure physical efficiency and to prognosticate as to the fit- 
ness of candidates for positions of importance at home and in 
foreign lands. 

The many types of medical service rendered in the office of 
the University Medical Officer require a most complete equip- 
ment for diagnostic purposes. We have added new equip- 
ment each year until we have now accumulated many of the 
important instruments for routine and specialized diagnostic 
work. We still lack, however, certain equipment that would 
facilitate accuracy and speed in our work. 

We feel a sense of regret and still of satisfaction in reporting 
that our present quarters are fast approaching their maximum 



UNIVERSITY MEDICAL OFFICER 223 

capacity and if the coming year increases substantially the 
demands upon the office much above the present year, we shall 
be compelled to seek new avenues for growth in our present 
building or to find a larger house in which to work. We must 
as a department grow until our service has reached its full 
capacity. 

Health makes possible clearness and accuracy of thought 
and action. It gives to one happiness and assists the trained 
and untrained mind to see with less distorted vision that 
which is worth while in life. Health is that which men need 
most today in their efforts to solve the difficult problems of 
citizenship at home and abroad. It is essential in helping men 
to appreciate the value of home and state and their personal 
responsibility to the social and physical fiber of the future 
generation. There are few fields where progressive construc- 
tive medical work counts for so much as in a University. If 
this work at Columbia could be made a permanent growing 
department by an endowment large enough to permit it to 
develop along the lines which we have so often presented, we 
feel that it would be one of the most useful departments of the 
University. We hope that in the not distant future we may 
be able through some gift or gifts to secure quarters where we 
may be able to combine under the same roof our busy office 
practice and our increasing bedside service. 

Our central infirmary has been a great comfort during the 
year, but its separation from the office adds to the expense of 
maintenance, to the inconvenience of the patient and to the 
loss of time by the staff. We wish to emphasize that part of 
the report of 1921-1922 which deals with the infirmary prob- 
lem. We need an infirmary large enough to permit us not only 
to care for the sick who reside in our residence halls but also 
to cover the demands of our fraternity houses, and the most 
urgent cases living in boarding houses in the vicinity of the 
University. The central kitchen has added much this year 
to the efficiency of the infirmary service and to the comfort 
of our patients. The infirmary has become a place where the 
students are quite willing to go when ill, for we give them ade- 
quate care and see that their food is carefully prepared and 



224 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

attractively served. Until one has had the unfortunate experi- 
ence of being ill away from home one cannot estimate the 
place that a well-ordered infirmary plays in the life of our sick 
students. This service is not a luxury but an essential part of 
our responsibility to the student and to his family. 

Our records show the following number of men and women 
patients cared for in our central infirmary during the past 
year. There were 196 women patients with a total number of 
infirmary days amounting to 733, making an average of 3.74 
days of illness for each patient. There were 131 men patients 
with a total of 635 days, making an average of 4.85 days of 
illness for each man treated in the infirmary. 

The number of ambulatory cases treated by the nurses 
at the women's infirmary was 710. The visiting nurse made 
799 house calls on patients ill in bed outside of the infirmary, 
and 632 telephone calls to patients living too far from the 
University to make visiting practical. Every effort was made 
to see that no patient was neglected because of lack of funds 
to pay for service or lack of friends to see that the necessary 
comforts were provided. 

The boys entering the freshman class at Columbia College 
last fall were on the whole an excellent group from the stand- 
point of health and good physical development for boys of 
college age. The following is a summary of their histories of 
past illnesses and state of health at the time they entered the 
college : 

Eyestrain • • • 9 

Trachoma 1 

Ear diseases 26 

Defective hearing n 

Nose and throat diseases and abnormalities 81 

Dental defects 22 

Enlarged cervical glands 6 

Cardiac disease 75 

Nervous diseases 4 

Orthopedic diseases and defects 39 

Abnormalities due to injuries 15 

Subject to coughs and colds 104 

headache 14 

gastro-intestinal disturbances 21 



UNIVERSITY MEDICAL OFFICER 225 

History of measles 477 

whooping cough 181 

chickenpox 179 

mumps 150 

scarlet fever 112 

diphtheria 63 

rheumatism 33 

fainting spells 2 

malaria 23 

typhoid fever 26 

surgical operations 321 

an illness of more than one week's duration within the past 

two years 32 

discontinuance of study for a period owing to illness ... 54 
limitations placed upon amount and character of physical 

exercise 81 

typhoid immunizations 108 

successful vaccinations 602 

smallpox 6 

Of the 680 students all but three were in good health. The 
conditions as shown in the preceding summary were not such 
as to affect the present health of the candidate, but many- 
students showed incipient defects that, if permitted to develop, 
would doubtless be detrimental to their health at some future 
time. Each candidate admitted to Columbia College showing 
abnormalities or tendencies toward disease was placed under 
supervision and required to undergo proper medical or sur- 
gical treatment. 

It is not our plan to make any changes in the present staff 
of the University Medical Officer. The same physicians and 
nurses who have so faithfully served us during the past year 
will be on duty this coming year. The successful year's work 
has been due to the spirit of loyalty on the part of the staff 
toward the institution and toward one another. I wish to 
take this opportunity to praise their loyalty and to give recog- 
nition to their efficiency in their respective fields of service. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William H. McCastline, 
June 30, 1Q23 University Medical Officer 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I beg to hand you herewith my report for the year ending 
June 30, 1923. 

Following the success of the British-American Conference 
held at the University of London in 1920, the Committees 
of British and American scholars then designated approved 
plans for a similar Conference to be held in the United 
States in 1923. The suggestion of Columbia University that 
the Conference be held in New York was accepted both by the 
British Committee and by the American Committee. 

Accordingly, upon the invitation of President Butler, the 
Conference was called to meet at Columbia University on 
June 13, 14, and 15, 1923. The formal program, together with 
the list of delegates and the institutions represented, will be 
found in Appendix. 

The Conference was opened by a dinner tendered to the dele- 
gates by the Trustees and Faculties of the University on the 
evening of Tuesday, June 12, at Faculty House. On the 
evening of Wednesday, June 13, the delegates were enter- 
tained by the Chancellor of New York University at the Gould 
Memorial Library. On Thursday, June 14, the British and 
Canadian delegates were entertained at luncheon at the Bank- 
ers Club by the Executive Committee of The Pilgrims, and on 
that same afternoon all of the delegates were taken by motor 
for a visit to Sleepy Hollow, the Washington Irving country, 
and were entertained at dinner at the Sleepy Hollow Country 
Club. On Friday, June 15, the British and Canadian delegates 
were entertained at luncheon at the Hotel Astor by the Eng- 
lish-Speaking Union. The Conference closed with an informal 
dinner at the Men's Faculty Club on the evening of Friday, 
June 15. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 227 

The minutes of the business meeting of the Conference and 
the program of the sessions will be found in Appendix. 

The Hamilton Hall secretarial office has now been in opera- 
tion long enough to have proved its usefulness. The office was 
started as an attempt to solve the very difficult problem of 
clerical assistance for members of the several departments of 
instruction. It goes without saying that officers of instruction 
would be greatly helped in their work and relieved of consider- 
able burden if they had access to clerical assistance. It is just 
as clear that the supplying of individual assistance to the great 
number of officers on the Columbia staff is not practical from 
the financial point of view. 

While recognizing quite clearly that a central office in each 
building cannot take the place of a private secretary, it was 
hoped that such an office, would, with economy to the institu- 
tion, render a real service to the officers. With this end in view 
two clerks and a mimeograph were installed in Hamilton Hall 
in 1919. The satisfaction derived from this organization has, 
from the testimony of the officers concerned, been very great 
indeed. Maybe judgment of the office can best be had from a 
summary of the work that has passed through it during the 
year 1922-23. 

During that period there were 600 jobs of mimeograph work 
completed, 3,617 stencils cut, from which 477,606 impressions 
were made. The jobs ranged in size from one stencil each to 
over 300 stencils each and of these stencils 25 to 1000 copies 
were printed. This work, if charged at the standard price for 
such type of printing, would cost about $5,169. The office has 
also done a great deal of secretarial work, such as the taking of 
dictation of letters and articles, the typing of examination pa- 
pers, notices and the like. From an incomplete record of the 
typing done for the year, it would seem that something in the 
neighborhood of 1300 letters were taken in dictation and typed, 
1200 pages of manuscript typed, each page having from two to 
four carbons. Besides which the office staff posts on cards for 
the departments of Mathematics and German the mid-term 
and final grades of all students taking those subjects. This 
record does not include the addressing of envelopes for letters, 
notices, or circular letters. 



228 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

It is not to be thought that the Hamilton Hall office has 
reached its maximum service, either in variety or quantity of 
work. It has, however, firmly established itself as a part of the 
building's activity. The starting of the office in Hamilton Hall 
was an easy matter because there were no private or depart- 
mental secretaries in that building, outside of the Dean's office, 
and while the organization might very well serve as a model to 
be copied in other buildings, it is very difficult to see how to 
proceed unless some of the departments which now have secre- 
taries can be induced to pool their interests in a central office. 

In his report to the Trustees for the year 1921-1922, the 
President of the University in discussing the provisions for the 
retirement of officers of the University, expressed the fear that 
many officers who do not fall clearly under the provisions of 
Section 67 of the Statutes are not taking advantage of the pro- 
visions of Section 68. 

To provide a basis for the consideration of this matter, and 
to fix definitely the status of each individual now holding ap- 
pointment from the University under the several provisions 
for retiring allowances, the list of officers has been divided into 
a series of groups. From this grouping it is quite evident that 
there is real basis for the President's fears: 

I. Those persons eligible for retirement under Section 67 of the Statutes 
and so accepted by the Carnegie Foundation. At the time the study 
was made, this group numbered 250. 

II. Those persons appointed between November 17, 1915, and July I, 
191 7, the so-called twilight zone for which the University has by 
statute made itself responsible on the same basis as the Carnegie Foun- 
dation is responsible for those in Group I. This group numbers 22. 

III. Those persons whose cases have become confused through change of 
title, questioned relevancy of title, and like considerations. This group 
numbers 13 and calls for action on the part of the Trustees themselves. 

IV. Those persons clearly not eligible for retirement under either Section 
67 or Section 68. This group numbers 498 and consists almost entirely 
of officers holding part time appointments. 

V. Those persons now participating in the cooperative annuity plan. 
This group numbers 36. 
VI. Those persons clearly eligible for retirement under Section 68 of the 
Statutes, but not now participating in the cooperative annuity plan. 
This group numbers 250 and is the group concerning which the Presi- 
dent is anxious. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 229 

With a view to improving the life in the University residence 
halls and to realizing more fully the opportunities for helpful 
influence which the relationships of dormitory life offer, action 
was taken by the Trustees during the past year which gives 
the educational side of the University's work real functions in 
the administration of the residence halls. The Director of Earl 
Hall was asked to assume the duties incident to the assignment 
of rooms in the residence halls for men, and the Adviser to 
Women Graduate Students was assigned like duties in connec- 
tion with the residence halls for women. 

The action touches the Office of the Secretary in two partic- 
ulars. It throws into the office the responsibility of receiving 
and acknowledging the Residence Hall correspondence ; and it 
makes possible the linking of the work of the Residence Bureau 
with the Residence Hall assignments, so that the whole housing 
problem is worked out under a single policy. The Residence 
Bureau, which is organized under the supervision of the Sec- 
retary of the University, is concerned entirely with assisting 
students who do not secure accommodations in the residence 
halls to find suitable rooms off the Campus. The Bureau lists 
and investigates rooming houses in the neighborhood of the 
University. 

Columbia University began to give serious attention to the 
organization of a student employment office about the year 
1900. The work started as a part of the activity of the Office of 
the Secretary of the University, the employment secretary 
being one of the clerks on the Secretary's staff, and part of his 
time was given to other than employment work. In 191 2 the 
employment secretary was given an office by himself with inde- 
pendent, though small, appropriations for office expenses. The 
University's obligations in many other directions made it im- 
possible to support the employment work in a way that made 
aggressive development possible, but the time seems to have 
come when a study of the employment and appointments work 
is desirable in order that serious plans may be made for the 
future. if i 

To this end the Secretary of the University asked Assistant 
Professor Paul F. Brissenden to examine into and report on the 



230 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Appointments Office as to its present organization and also as 
to its future possibilities and opportunities. Professor Bres- 
senden's report which is most helpful is printed as an appendix 
to this report. 

An examination of the student employment situation at the 
present time is particularly opportune because of the interest 
which the Association of the Alumni of Columbia College is 
now taking in this problem. The standing Committee of this 
Association has formally memorialized the Trustees of the 
University urging the development of the appointments work 
and offering all possible cooperation. 

Professor Brissenden finds the work of the Office as at present 
organized and financed to be very effective. It is not easy al- 
ways to estimate correctly the effectiveness of an office of this 
sort. To be reassured therefore that Miss Breed and her as- 
sistants are carrying on so successfully is most gratifying. 

The work of the Appointments Office falls into two parts : (i) 
part-time employment for students seeking to earn some or all 
of their college expenses, and (2) the placing in permanent posi- 
tions of graduates, not only of Columbia College but of the 
several non-professional and professional schools. 

In regard to the former it has been the constant endeavor of 
the University, whenever possible, to place self-supporting stu- 
dents in positions that continue through the entire academic 
year and which will provide the necessary income to meet their 
college expenses. Many spasmodic and inconsequential calls 
for help come to the Office from employers who have only a 
few hours' or a few days' employment to offer. Students will 
sometimes be able to go from one job to another in quick suc- 
cession, but the anxiety, as well as the expenditure of nervous 
energy which accompanies this sort of constant change, is a 
burden which it is our desire to eliminate, as far as possible. If 
Professor Brissenden 's proposal for the appointment of a full- 
time man of at least Assistant Professor grade were carried into 
effect, undoubtedly a thorough-going scheme of all-year- 
'round, or at least seasonal, part-time employment could be 
worked out. The second part of the appointment's work has 
been very little developed largely because the time of the staff 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 23I 

has been pretty fully occupied in trying to help the self-sup- 
porting student. There is a tendency among university ap- 
pointments offices to feel a responsibility for placing and re- 
placing alumni years after graduation. The Columbia office 
feels that it has done its full duty if it assists the young gradu- 
ate in finding his first position. As opportunity presents the of- 
fice is glad to help alumni to advance themselves but to make 
that natural desire a principal activity would incur great ex- 
pense and would seem to lead the University rather far afield. 

In order to be really effective in the part-time employment 
or in permanent placement work a scheme of rigid discipline is 
indispensable. It is of utmost importance to make students 
understand clearly that if the University is to accomplish any- 
thing in the way of employment work, they carry a heavy re- 
sponsibility for cooperation and fair dealing. It is not uncom- 
mon for students who apply for help to ignore or delay in fol- 
lowing up opportunities brought to their attention or to pass 
the opportunity on to someone else without consulting the 
Employment Office. There is also a tendency on the part of 
students who may have secured a profitable position through 
the Appointments Office, to fill that position with some friend 
who may or may not be competent. Employers, too, need 
some education in regard to matters of this kind. 

Professor Brissenden discusses at some length the oppor- 
tunities which a well organized Appointments Office gives to a 
University for useful work in vocational guidance, in adjust- 
ment of entrance tests, and in planning programs of study. 
Surely it will be a gain of no mean importance if the University 
can help its graduates to fit quickly into some field for which 
they are adapted without spending years in floundering about. 

Professor Brissenden devotes much space to a discussion of 
centralization and cooperation within the University, a matter 
of real importance, if a successful Appointments Office is to be 
set up. In some respects the Appointments Office will be merely 
an office of record of positions filled by some other University 
agency, but it should be at least that. No argument is required 
to establish the fact that for certain positions the recommenda- 
tion of an individual professor or other officer means more to 



232 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the employer than the recommendation of an Appointments 
Office, but this fact does not necessitate the multiplying of 
employment offices within the University. A practical working 
arrangement can surely be found which will make the Appoint- 
ments Office the one clearing-house on employment matters. 
The Secretary of Appointments would, himself, be anxious to 
retain the strength which the interest of members of the staff 
in individual students would give to the whole work of the 
Office. 

It is my purpose to bring forward in the budget proposals for 
the year 1924-1925, recommendations that if accepted, will put 
Professor Brissenden's suggestions into effect. 

I cannot close this report without expressing the pleasure I 
find in trying to serve the University with the assistance of the 
very willing and helpful staff organized under Assistant Secre- 
tary Hayden's leadership. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank D. Fackenthal, 
Secretary of the University 
June 30, IQ23 



APPENDIX I 

STATISTICS REGARDING THE TEACHING AND 

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF FOR THE 

ACADEMIC YEAR 1922-1923 

Summary of Officers 
[See p. 28] 

Vacancies 

By Death, Resignation, Retirement, or Expiration of Term of Appoint- 
ment, occurring, unless otherwise indicated, on June 30, 1923 



Louis S. Aronson, M.D., Instructor in Neurology 

Henry A. Bancel, M.D., Instructor in Medicine 

Lucius W. Bannister, LL.B., Lecturer in Law 

Mrs. Ruth F. Benedict, Ph.D., Assistant in Anthropology in Barnard 

College 
Charles F. Boots, A.B., Assistant in Legislation 

[January 1, 1923] 
Edwin M. Borchard, Ph.D., Lecturer in International Law 
William T. Brewster, A.M., Provost of Barnard College 
William M. Brown, A.M., Assistant in Psychology 
Dorothy Burne, A.M., Assistant in History in Barnard College 
Russell Burton-Opitz, M.D., Associate Professor of Physiology 
Edwin A. Burtt, A.B., B.D., Instructor in Philosophy 
Charles K. Cabeen, M.S., Assistant in Mineralogy 

Marion E. Canfield, Instructor in Physical Education in Barnard College 
Jean-Marie Carre, Litt.D., Professor of French Literature 
Beverly L. Clark, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry 
Helen Clark, B.S., Assistant in Chemistry in Barnard College 
John B. Clark, LL.D., Professor of Political Economy 
Thomas P. Clendenin, E.M., Instructor in Mineralogy 
Oral S. Coad, Ph.D., Instructor in English 
Arnold M. Collins, A.M., Assistant in Chemistry 
Stephen S. Colvin, Ph.D., Professor of Education in Teachers College 

[Died July 15, 1923] 
Helen C. Coombs, Ph.D., Instructor in Physiology 

[April 1, 1923] 
Robert T. Corry, M.D., Instructor in Anatomy 



234 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Lawrence H. Cotter, M.D., Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecology 
Mrs. Mary S. Coutant, A.M., Instructor in Botany in Barnard College 
John H. Cover, A.M., Instructor in Economics 
Grace A. Day, A.M., Assistant Professor of Elementary Education in 

Teachers College 
Arthur D. Dean, B.S., Professor of Education in Teachers College 
George Dean, B.S., Assistant in Physics 
Carl C. Dickey, B.Lit., Associate in Journalism 
Lt. Ignatius L. Donnelly, Assistant Professor of Military Science and 

Tactics 
Arthur W. Dow, Professor of Fine Arts in Teachers College 

[Died December 13, 1922] 
William B. Dunning, D.D.S., Associate Director of the School of Den- 
tistry 
Walter P. Eaton, A.M., Associate in Journalism 

[February 1, 1923] 
George W. Edwards, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Banking 
James H. English, A.B., Lecturer in French 
Sawyer Falk, A.M., Instructor in English 
Rocco Fanelli, Ph.D., Assistant in Chemistry 
Richard S. Farr, M.D., Instructor in Orthopedic Surgery 
Bruno Fedter, Ph.D., Lecturer in German 
Frederick B. Flinn, A.B., Instructor in Physiology 
Alfred C. Fones, D.D.S., Professor of Preventive Dentistry 
Major William C. Foote, Assistant Professor of Military Science and 

Tactics 
Alexander Frieden, A.M., Assistant in Chemistry 

[February 1, 1923] 
Casimir Funk, D.Sc, Associate in Biological Chemistry 
Lulu 0. Gaiser, A.M., Assistant in Botany in Barnard College 
John G. Gazley, A.M., Instructor in History 
Alexander Gershoy, B.S., Assistant in Botany 
Stanley H. Gill, Chem.E., Assistant in Physics 
Garrard Glenn, LL.B., Associate in Law 

Annie W. Goodrich, Assistant Professor of Nursing in Teachers College 
Elmer D. Graper, Ph.D., Instructor in Government 
Ralph H. Graves, A.M., Associate in Journalism 

[February 1, 1923] 
Charles H. Gray, A.B., Assistant in English 
Cyril W. Greenland, A.M., Instructor in Mineralogy 
William A. Guess, B.Sc, Assistant in Electrical Engineering 

[December 20, 1922] 
Leo J. Hahn, M.D., Instructor in Surgery 
James B. Hallam, M.D., Instructor in Anatomy 
Fowler Hammel, E.E., Assistant in Electrical Engineering 



APPENDIX I 235 

Evelyn L. Haring, A.M., Instructor in Physical Education in Barnard 

College 
Malcolm M. Haring, A.M., Assistant in Chemistry 
George A. Harrop, Jr., M.D., Associate in Medicine 

[Oct. 1, 1923] 
Mrs. Juliana Haskell, Ph.D., Lecturer in Germanic Languages and 

Literatures in Barnard College 
Charles C. Hatley, A.M., Lecturer in Physics 
Edward K. Hayt, Assistant Registrar and Assistant Bursar at the College 

of Physicans and Surgeons (Retired) 

[Died January 21, 1923] 
James H. Heyl, Jr., M.D., Instructor in Surgery 
Asher Hobson, A.M., Associate Professor of Economic Agriculture 
L. Emmett Holt, M.D., LL.D., Sc.D., Clinical Professor of Diseases of 

Children 
Robert E. Humphries, M.D., Instructor in Orthopedic Surgery 
Charles J. Imperatori, M.D., Instructor in Laryngology and Otology 

[April 1, 1923] 
Frederic B. Jennings, Jr., M.D., Instructor in Pathology 
Edgar Johnson, A.B., Lecturer in English 

[February 1, 1923] 
H. Herbert Johnson, A.M., Assistant in Zoology 
John L. Kantor, M.D., Assistant in Medicine 
Benjamin B. Kendrick, Ph.D., Associate Professor of History 
Louis G. Kennedy, A.B., Lecturer in Physics 
Israel E. Koral, A.B., Assistant in Physics 
Ann G. Kuttner, Ph.D., Instructor in Bacteriology 

[February 1, 1923] 
James B. Lackey, A.M., Assistant in Zoology 
Gustave E. Landt, Ph.D., Assistant in Chemistry 

[April 1, 1923] 
John H. Larkin, M.D., Assistant Professor of Pathology 

[Died January 17, 1923] 
Bird Larson, B.S., Assistant Professor of Physical Education in Barnard 

College 
John Leshure, M.D., Instructor in Laryngology and Otology 

[February 7, 1923] 
Clarence I. Lewis, Ph.D., Visiting Professor of Philosophy 
William E. Lingelbach, Ph.D., Lecturer in History 
Robert F. Loeb, M.D., Instructor in Medicine 
Ella L. McCollum, A.M., Research Assistant in Food Chemistry 
Mary S. MacDougall, M.S., Assistant in Zoology in Barnard College 
Orrin K. McMurray, LL.B., Visiting Professor of Law 
Emmanuel de Margerie, D. es S., Visiting Professor in Engineering 
Gilbert W. Mead, A.M., Instructor in English 



236 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Nelson P. Mead, Ph.D., Lecturer in History 
Lewis B. Miller, Ph.D., Assistant in Chemistry 

[February 1, 1923] 
J. Howard Mueller, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Bacteriology 
Cecil D. Murray, A.B., Instructor in Physiology 
Catherine Needham, A.M., Lecturer in English 
Frank B. Orr, M.D., Assistant in Diseases of Children 
Frederic Parker, Jr., M.D., Assistant Professor of Bacteriology 
Julia B. Paton, Ph.D., Associate in Biological Chemistry 
Louis G. Pooler, A.M., Assistant in Physics 

[January 1, 1923] 
Philip C. Potter, M.D., Instructor in Anatomy 
Emil L. Post, Ph.D., Instructor in Mathematics 

[December 31, 1922] 
Edward L. Pratt, M.D., Instructor in Laryngology and Otology 
Elizabeth Reynard, A.B., Assistant in Geology in Barnard College 
Erwin W. E. Roessler, Ph.D., Lecturer in German 
David Seegal, Assistant in Medicine 
Robert N. Severance, M.D., Instructor in Urology 
James J. Short, M.D., Assistant in Medicine 
Charles H. Sloan, Assistant in Chemistry 
William F. Spafford, A.M., Lecturer in Banking 
Walter E. Spahr, A.M., Instructor in Economics 
Nathaniel W. Stephenson, A.B., Lecturer in History 
Marcus E. Stites, M.D., Instructor in Pathology 
Capt. Horace Stringellow, Jr., Assistant Professor of Military Science 

and Tactics 
George H. Taylor, M.D., Instructor in Orthopedic Surgery 
Alan H. Temple, B.Lit., Associate in Journalism 
Henry C. Thacher, M.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine 
Frederick A. Vanderburgh, Ph.D., Lecturer in Semitic Languages 

[Died Oct. 29, 1923] 
S. Welling Van Saun, D.D.S., Associate Professor of Operative Dentistry 

[June 1, 1923] 
Schuyler C. Wallace, A.M., Instructor in Government 
Mabel F. Weeks, A.B., Associate in English in Barnard College 
Louis Weisner, Ph.D., Assistant in Mathematics 
William C. White, M.D., Instructor in Surgery 
Hans Zinsser, M.D., Professor of Bacteriology 



APPENDIX I 

Promotions 
To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July i, 
Name From To 



Benjamin R. Andrews, Ph.D. 



Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 



Raymond C. Atkinson, A.B. Lecturer Instructor 

Benjamin H. Beckhart, A.M. Lecturer Instructor 

Rev. Hugh Black, D.D., Litt.D. Lecturer Associate 



Ralph H. Blanchard, Ph.D. 
James C. Bonbright, Ph.D. 
Dorothy Brewster, Ph.D. 
Jean Broadhurst, Ph.D. 



George F. Cahill, M.D. 
Cornelia L. Carey, Ph.D. 

Clifford D. Carpenter, Ph.D. 

John M. Chapman, Ph.D. 

Rev. George A. Coe, Ph.D., LL.D. 



Anna M. Cooley, B.S. 

Donald H. Davenport, A.M. 
Mrs. Mary R. Davis, Ph.D. 

Edward M. Earle, Ph.D. 



Assistant 
Professor 
Assistant 
Professor 
Lecturer 

Assistant 
Professor 



Associate 
Professor 
Associate 
Professor 
Assistant 
Professor 
Associate 
Professor 



Instructor Associate 
Lecturer Instructor 

Assistant Associate 

Professor Professor 

Lecturer Instructor 

Lecturer Associate 



Associate Professor 
Professor 



Assistant Instructor 

Associate Professor 
Professor 

Lecturer Assistant 
Professor 



237 



1923 

Subject 

Household 
Economics 
(Teachers 
College) 
Government 
Banking 
Religious In- 
struction 
(Barnard Col- 
lege) 
Insurance 

Finance 

English 

Biology 
(Teachers 
College) 
Urology 
Botany (Bar- 
nard College) 
Chemistry 

Banking 
Religious In- 
struction 
(Barnard 
College) 
Household 
Arts Educa- 
tion (Teach- 
ers College) 
Business 
Statistics 
Nutrition 
(Teachers 
College) 
History 



238 COLUMBIA 


UNIVEB 


L S I T Y 




Name 


From 


To 


Subject 


Walter H. Eddy, Ph.D. 


Associate 


Professor 


Physiological 




Professor 




Chemistry 
(Teachers 
College) 


Clara Eliot, A.B. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Economics 

(Barnard 

College) 


Edward S. Evenden, Ph.D. 


Associate 


Professor 


Education 




Professor 




(Teachers 
College) 


Benjamin P. Farrell, M.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Orthopedic 




Professor 


Professor 


Surgery 


Hermon W. Farwell, A.M. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Physics 




Professor 


Professor 




George Filipetti, A.M. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Business Ad- 
ministration 


Colin G. Fink, Ph.D. 


Lecturer 


Associate 


Chemical En- 






Professor 


gineering 


Elbert K. Fretwell, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Education 




Professor 


Professor 


(Teachers 
College) 


J. Montgomery Gambrill, A.M. 


Assistant 


Associate 


History 




Professor 


Professor 


(Teachers 
College) 


Henry E. Garrett, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Psychology 


Mrs. Georgina S. Gates, Ph.D. 


Lecturer 


Instructor 


Psychology 
(Barnard Col 
lege) 


Gaylord W. Graves, M.D. 


Instructor Associate 


Diseases of 


[October 1, 1923] 






Children 


Louise H. Gregory, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Zoology 




Professor 


Professor 


(Barnard 
College) 


George A. Harrop, Jr., M.D. 


Instructor 


Associate 


Medicine 


Gertrude M. Hirst, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Greek and 




Professor 


Professor 


Latin 


Joseph L. Holmes, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Psychology 


Anna V. Hughes, D.M.D. 


Assistant 


Professor 


Preventive 




Professor 




Dentistry 


Helen R. Hull, Ph.B. 


Lecturer 


Assistant 
Professor 


English 


Harold T. Hyman, M.D. 


Instructor 


Assistant 


Pharmacol- 


[January 1, 1923] 




Professor 


ogy 


D. Stuart Dodge Jessup, M.D. 


Instructor 


Associate 


Clinical 
Pathology 



APPENDIX I 



239 



Name 


From 


To 


Subject 


John D. Kernan, Jr., M.D. 


Instructor 


Assistant 


Laryngology 






Professor 


and Otology 


Clinton W. Keyes, Ph.D. 


Instructor 


Assistant 


Greek and 






Professor 


Latin 


Frances Krasnow, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Biological 
Chemistry 


Charles I. Lambert, M.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Psychiatry 




Professor 


Professor 




Charles C. Lieb, M.D. 


Associate 


Professor 


Pharmacol- 




Professor 




ogy 


Rev. Eugene W. Lyman, A.M., 


D.D. Lecturer 


Associate 


Religious In- 
struction 
(Barnard 
College) 


Rev. Arthur C. McGiffert, 


Lecturer 


Associate 


Religious In- 


Ph.D., D.D. 






struction 
(Barnard 
College) 


George M. MacKee, M.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Dermatology 




Professor 


Professor 


and Syphilol- 

ogy 


Arthur W. Macmahon, Ph.D. 


Instructor 


Assistant 
Professor 


Government 


Charles J. Martin, B.S. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Fine Arts 




Professor 


Professor 


(Teachers 
College) 


Meyer M. Melicow, M.D. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Urology 


Albert A. Meras, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


French 




Professor 


Professor 


(Teachers 
College) 


Frederick C. Mills, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Business 




Professor 


Professor 


Statistics 


J. Harold Morecroft, E.E. 


Associate 


Professor 


Electrical 




Professor 




Engineering 


George W. Mullins, Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Mathematics 




Professor 


Professor 


(Barnard 
College) 


Thomas Munro, Ph.D. 


Lecturer 


Instructor 


Economics 


S. Butler Murray, Jr., Ph.D. 


Assistant 


Associate 


Fine Arts 




Professor 


Professor 




George G. Ornstein, M.D. 


Assistant 


Instructor 


Medicine 


Henry C. Pearson, A.B. 


Assistant 


Professor 


Education 




Professor 




(Teachers 
College) 



240 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Name 
Eugen P. Polushkin, Met.E. 

[January I, 1923] 
Richard R. B. Powell, LL.B. 

Thomas R. Powell, Ph.D., LL.B. 

Mark S. Reuben, M.D. 

[October 1, 1923] 
Henry A. Riley, M.D. 

Isadore Rosen, M.D. 



Dorothy Scarborough, Ph.D. 
J. Clayton Sharp, M.D. 
Mary Grace Springer, A.M. 



Albert M. Stevens, M.D. 

[October 1, 1923] 
Isabel M. Stewart, A.M. 



John Storck, A.B. 
Arthur W. Thomas, Ph.D. 

Edward D. Thurston, Mech.E. 

Vito G. Toglia, A.M. 
May B. Van Arsdale, B,S. 



Frederick T. van Beuren, Jr., 

M.D. 
Clarence T. Van Woert, D.D.S. 

William C. von Glahn, M.D. 

Harold V. Walsh, B.Arch. 

Raymond M. Weaver, A.M. 



From To Subject 

Assistant Instructor Metallurgy 



Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 
Professor Ruggles 

Professor 
Instructor Associate 

Instructor Assistant 
Professor 

Associate Assistant 
Professor 

Lecturer Assistant 
Professor 
Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 
Lecturer Instructor 



Instructor Associate 

Assistant Associate 
Professor Professor 



Lecturer 

Assistant 

Professor 

Assistant 

Professor 

Assistant 

Associate 

Professor 



Instructor 

Associate 

Professor 

Associate 

Professor 

Instructor 

Professor 



Law 

Constitu- 
tional Law 
Diseases of 
Children 

Neurology 

Dermatology 
and Syphilol- 
ogy 
English 



Dental 
Anatomy 
Zoology 
(Barnard 
College) 
Diseases 
Children 
Nursing Edu 
cation (Teach 
ers College) 
Philosophy 
Food Chem 



of 



Associate Assistant 

Professor 
Lecturer Assistant 

Professor 
Associate Assistant 

Professor 
Instructor Assistant 

Professor 
Instructor Assistant 

Professor 



istry 

Mechanical 
Engineering 
Italian 
Household 
Arts (Teach- 
ers College) 
Surgery 

Prosthetic 
Dentistry 
Pathology 

Architecture 

English 



APPENDIX I 



24I 



Name 
Albert M. Wilbor, D.D.S. 

Allen S. Will, LL.D. 

[Feb. 1, 1924] 
Jesse F. Williams, M.D. 



Robert H. Williams, A.M. 
Cora M. Winchell, B.S. 



Fred Wise, M.D. 

Samuel L. Wolff, Ph.D. 
Ben D. Wood, A.M. 



Frederick G. Yeandle, A.M. 
Hessel E. Yntema, Ph.D., S.J.D. 



J. Donald Young, A.M. 
J. Emilie Young, A.B. 



J. Enrique Zanetti, Ph.D. 



From To Subject 

Lecturer Assistant Prosthetic 
Professor Dentistry 

Associate Associate Journalism 
Professor 

Associate Professor Physical Edu- 

Professor cation 

(Teachers 
College) 

Lecturer Instructor Spanish 

Assistant Professor Household 

Professor Arts Educa- 

tion (Teach- 
ers College) 

Associate Assistant Dermatology 
Professor and Syphilol- 
ogy 

Lecturer Assistant English 
Professor 

Lecturer Assistant Collegiate 
Professor Educational 
Research 

Lecturer Instructor French 

Lecturer Assistant Roman Law 
Professor and Compara- 
tive Jurispru- 
dence 

Lecturer Instructor Fine Arts 

Assistant Instructor History 
(Barnard 
College) 

Assistant Associate Chemistry 

Professor Professor 



Changes of Title 
To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July 1, 1923 

Name From To 

Ralph S. Alexander, Ph.B. Lecturer in Business Lecturer in 

Marketing 

Mrs. Ruth R. Atterbury, Ph.D. Instructor in Anatomy Instructor in 

Histology 

Ernest Brennecke, Jr., A.M. Instructor in English Lecturer in Eng- 
lish 



242 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Name 
Paul F. Brissenden, Ph.D. 

Charles A. Elsberg, M.D. 

Robert M. Haig, Ph.D. 

Joseph Lintz, M.D. 

Carroll B. Low, LL.B. 
Frank M. McMurry, Ph.D. 

Paul Monroe, Ph.D., LL.D. 

M. Adelaide Nutting, A.M. 



From 
Assistant Professor of 
Business Organization 

Professor of Experi- 
mental Neurology 

Professor of Business 
Organization 

Assistant in Medicine 



Lecturer in Business 
Law 

Professor of Elemen- 
tary Education 



Professor of the His- 
tory of Education 



Professor of Nursing 



Frederick A. Platte 

Edward H. Raymond, Jr., D.D.S. 



Instructor in Physics 

Professor of Oral 
Pathology 



To 

Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Eco- 
nomics 
Professor of 
Neurological 
Surgery 
Professor of 
Business Ad- 
ministration 
Assistant in 
Clinical Pathol- 
ogy 
Lecturer in Law 

Professor of 
Education 
(Teachers 
College) 
Professor of 
Education 
(Teachers Col- 
lege) 

Professor of 
Nursing Educa- 
tion on the 
Helen Hartley 
Foundation 
(Teachers Col- 
lege) 

Instructor in 
Mechanics 
Professor of 
Oral Pathology 
and Bacteriol- 
ogy 



Archibald H. Stockder, A.M. Instructor in Business Instructor in 



George D. Strayer, Ph.D. 



Oliver S. Strong, Ph.D. 



Organization 

Professor of Educa- 
tional Administra- 
tion 

Instructor in Anat- 
omy 



Business Ad- 
ministration 
Professor of 
Education 
(Teachers Col- 
lege) 

Instructor in 
Histology 



APPENDIX I 



243 



Name 
Harvey S. Thatcher, M.D. 

Edward L. Thorndike, Ph.D. 
Sc.D. 

Arnold Whitridge, A.M. 



From 
Instructor in Medi- 
cine 

Professor of Educa- 
tional Psychology 



Instructor in English 



To 

Instructor in 
Physiology 
Professor of j 
Education 
(Teachers Col- 
lege) 

Lecturer in 
English (Barn- 
ard College) 



Appointments 



To take effect, unless otherwise indicated, July 1, 1923 



Name 
Raymond M. Alden, Ph.D., Litt.D. 

[February 1, 1924] 
Charles E. Allen, Ph.D. 

[February 1, 1924] 
Vernon A. Ayer, M.D. 
A. Charles Babenroth, Ph.D. 
Laura I. Baldt, A.M. 

John P. Ballantine, Ph.D. 
Edmund J. Barach, D.D.S. 
Frederick Barry, Ph.D. 

Jay F. Barth, D.D.S. 
Adolph Berger, D.D.S. 
Catharine Blood, B.S. 
Charles F. Bodecker, D.D.S. 

Santa Borghese 

Roy S. Breese, B.S. 
Arthur E. Brooks, M.D. 
Averell M. Broughton, A.B. 
Mark Butler, M.D. 
Bessie R. Callow, A.B. 
William Carr, M.D. 

Thomas F. Carter, A.B., B.D. 
Americo Castro, D.Litt. 

[February 1, 1924] 
Charles E. Caverly, M.D. 



Office 
Visiting Professor of English 

Visiting Professor of Botany 

Assistant in Medicine 
Lecturer in English 
Assistant Professor of Household Arts 
(Teachers College) 
Instructor in Mathematics 
Assistant in Operative Dentistry 
Assistant Professor of the History of 
Science 

Lecturer in Crown and Bridgework 
Assistant Professor of Oral Surgery 
Assistant in Botany (Barnard College) 
Assistant Professor of Dental Histol- 
ogy and Embryology 
Lecturer in Romance Languages (Bar- 
nard College) 
Assistant in Physics 
Assistant in Medicine 
Instructor in English 
Instructor in Pathology 
Assistant in Bacteriology 
Honorary Director of the School of 
Dental and Oral Surgery 
Instructor in Chinese 
Visiting Professor of Spanish Litera- 
ture 

Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecol 
ogy 



244 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Name 
Joseph P. Chamberlain, Ph.D. 
Ada R. Clark, A.M. 
Charles E. Clark, LL.B. 
Beverly L. Clarke, B.S. 

[April i, 1923] 
Gertrude K. Colby, B.S. 

Paul C. Colonna, M.D. 
Stephen S. Colvin, Ph.D. 

[February I, 1923] 
Calvin B. Coulter, M.D. 
George J. Cox 

Virgil Damon, M.D. 

Hugh H. Darby 

Ernest T. De Wald, Ph.D. 

Henry K. Dick, A.M. 
Mary C. Dillon 

James L. Dohr, M.S. 
Willet L. Eccles, A.B. 
George W. Edwards, Ph.D. 
Charles K. Eves 
Hoxie N. Fairchild, A.B. 
Katharine A. Fisher, A.M. 

Daniel M. Fisk, A.M. 
Charles M. Ford, A.M. 

J. Winston Fowlkes, M.D. 

Wanda Fraiken, A.M. 
Robert C. Garth, A.B. 
Frederick P. Gay, M.D. 
George H. Genzmer, A.M. 
Stanley H. Gill, Chem.E. 

[January 1, 1923] 
Julius Goebel, Jr., Ph.D. 
Robert E. Goldsby, B.S. 

Evarts B. Greene, Ph.D. 
Charles A. Gulick, Jr., A.M. 



Office 
Professor of Public Law 
Assistant in Bacteriology 
Visiting Lecturer in Law 
Assistant in Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Physical Edu- 
cation (Teachers College) 
Instructor in Anatomy 
Professor of Education (Teachers 
College) 

Associate in Bacteriology 
Assistant Professor of Fine Arts 
(Teachers College) 

Instructor in Obstetrics and Gynecol- 
ogy 

Assistant in Zoology 
Assistant Professor of Fine Arts 
(Barnard College) 
Instructor in English 
Instructor in Physical Education 
(Barnard College) 
Lecturer in Accounting 
Assistant in Chemistry 
Lecturer in Banking 
Lecturer in English 
Lecturer in English 
Assistant Professor of Household Arts 
(Teachers College) 
Instructor in History 
Associate Professor of Dental Anat- 
omy and Histology 
Instructor in Laryngology and Otol- 
ogy 

Assistant in English 
Assistant in Physics 
Professor of Bacteriology 
Instructor in English 
Assistant in Physics 



Associate in International Law 

Assistant to Acting Dean of 

Faculty 

Professor of American History 

Instructor in Economics 



Law 



APPENDIX I 



245 



Name 
James Gutmann, A.M. 
Harvey R. Halsey 
Fowler Hammel, E.E. 
[December 20, 1922] 
Whitton R. Hatfield, D.D.S. 
Edwin B. Hewes, A.M. 
Walter J. Highman, M.D. 

Carl E. Hillers, B.S. 
Albert F. Hinrichs, Ph.D. 
William J. Hoag, D.D.S. 
Edward Hodnett, A.B. 
L. Emmett Holt, M.D., Sc.D. 

Carl H. Hoover, A.M. 
Mary E. Hopper, M.S. 
Aleita Hopping, Ph.D. 

Bassett W. Hough 
Candace L. Howard 

Wioza L. Howard, M.D. 
Lillian A. Hudson, A.M. 

H. Hatcher Hughes, A.M. 
Harold A. Iddles, M.S. 
Huger W. Jervey, LL.B. 
Frederick M. Johnson, M.D. 
Isaac L. Kandel, Ph.D. 

John S. Karling, A.M. 
Orange Reo Kelley, D.D.S. 
Louis G. Kennedy, A.B. 

[February 1, 1923] 
Edwakd A. Kilinski, A.M. 

[Oct. 1, 1923] 
Thomas J. Kirwin, M.D. 
Arnold Koffler, M.D. 
S. Bernard Koopman 
Serge A. Korff, LL.D., D.CL 

John F. Landon, M.D. 

[January 1, 1923] 
Charles H. Large, D.D.S. 



Office 
Lecturer in Philosophy 
Assistant in Zoology 
Assistant in Electrical Engineering 

Lecturer in Prosthetic Dentistry 
Instructor in History 
Instructor in Dermatology and Syph- 
ilology 

Assistant in Chemistry 
Instructor in Economics 
Lecturer in Operative Dentistry 
Instructor in English 
Emeritus Professor of Diseases of 
Children 

Assistant in English 
Assistant in Botany (Barnard College) 
Instructor in Physiology and in Pub- 
lic Health Administration 
Associate in Music 

Lecturer in Physical Education (Barn- 
ard College) 
Assistant in Medicine 
Assistant Professor of Nursing Educa- 
tion (Teachers College) 
Lecturer in English 
Assistant in Chemistry 
Associate Professor of Law 
Associate Professor of Physiology 
Professor of Education (Teachers 
College) 

Assistant in Botany 
Lecturer in Prosthetic Dentistry 
Lecturer in Philosophy 

Assistant in Geology (Barnard College) 

Instructor in Histology 

Assistant in Medicine 

Lecturer in Accounting 

Professor of the History of Eastern 

Europe 

Instructor in Pharmacology 

Associate Professor of Prosthetic 
Dentistry 



246 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Name 
Robert J. Leonard, Ph.D. 



Clarence I. Lewis, Ph.D. 

[February 1, 1923] 
Hugh G. Lieber, A.B. 
Edith M. Lincoln, M.D. 
Roger Loomis 
Frederick H. Lund, A.M. 

Charles J. McCarthy, E.E. 
James R. McGaughy, A.M. 

Joseph D. McGoldrick, A.M. 
Helen P. Martin, A.B. 

Rachael V. Metcalf, A.B. 

Raymond C. Moley, Ph.D. 

Charles C. Morrison, D.D.S. 
Edwin J. Nestler, D.D.S. 

Mrs. Mary Nevin 
David Newman, M.D. 
Walter A. Nolander, D.D.S. 
Dorothy Nye 

mletchislav w. openchowski, 

M.D. 
Anders Orbeck, A.M. 
Thomas P. Peardon, M.A. 

Andrew R. Pearson, A.B. 

[February 1, 1924] 
Herbert J. Phillips, A.B. 

Hannah Pierson, M.D. 
Edward D. Pollock, D.D.S. 
Samuel R. Powers, Ph.D. 

Rosa E. Prigosen, M.D. 
Edwin J. Quinn, B.S. 



Office 
Professor of Education and Director of 
the School of Education (Teachers 
College) 
Visiting Professor of Philosophy 

Assistant in Mathematics 
Assistant in Diseases of Children 
Lecturer in English 
Assistant in Psychology (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant in Electrical Engineering 
Assistant Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 
Instructor in Government 
Assistant in Chemistry (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant in Zoology (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Associate Professor of Government 
(Barnard College) 
Instructor in Operative Dentistry 
Assistant Professor of Operative 
Dentistry 

Instructor in Bacteriology 
Instructor in Ophthalmology 
Lecturer in Prosthetic Dentistry 
Lecturer in Physical Education (Barn- 
ard College) 
Instructor in Anatomy 

Instructor in English 
Instructor in History (Barnard Col- 
lege) 
Lecturer in Economic Geography 

Lecturer in Philosophy (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant in Pathology 
Lecturer in Operative Dentistry 
Associate Professor of Natural Science 
(Teachers College) 
Assistant in Cancer Research 
Research Assistant in Food Chemis- 
try 



APPENDIX I 



247 



Name 
Gladys A. Reichard, A.M. 

Rollo G. Reynolds, Ph.D. 

Arthur W. Riley, A.B. 
Thomas J. Riley 

Janet H. Robb, A.M. 

Scott Rowley, LL.B. 
William F. Russell, Ph.D. 



WORTHINGTON S. RUSSELL, M.D. 

George J. Schreiber, D.D.S. 
David Seegal 

[March 1, 1923] 
Murray J. Shear, A.M. 

[October 1, 1924] 
Robert F. Sheldon, D.M.D. 
William A. Shoudy, M.E. 
Julius Siegler, M.D. 
Charles M. Slack 
Charles H. Sloan 

[February 1, 1923] 
Philip Smith, M.D. 
C. Travers Stepita, M.D. 
Marcus E. Stites, M.D. 

[February 1, 1923] 
Elbridge Z. Stowell, M.S. 
Eugene J. Strittmatter, A.M. 
Fortunat Strowski, D. es L. 
Sarah M. Sturtevant, A.M. 

Lucy P. Sutton, M.D. 
Horace Taylor, A.B. 

Joseph Tenenbaum, M.D. 
George A. Tracy Thompson, 

A.M. 
Holland Thompson, Ph.D. 
Godfrey H. Thomson, Ph.D., 

D.Sc. 
William J. Tiffany, M.D. 



Office 
Instructor in Anthropology (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 
Lecturer in English 
Lecturer in Economics (Barnard 
College) 

Assistant in History (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Lecturer in Business Law 
Professor of Education and Associate 
Director of the International Institute 
of Teachers College 
Associate Professor of Oral Pathology 
Lecturer in Prosthetic Dentistry 
Assistant in Medicine 

Assistant in Chemistry 

Lecturer in Prosthetic Dentistry 
Associate in Steam Engineering 
Instructor in Surgery 
Assistant in Physics 
Assistant in Chemistry 

Instructor in Psychiatry 
Instructor in Urology 
Instructor in Pathology 

Assistant in Physics 
Instructor in Greek and Latin 
Professor of French Literature 
Associate Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 
Assistant in Diseases of Children 
Lecturer in Economics (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Instructor in Urology 
Instructor in History 

Lecturer in History 

Visiting Professor of Education 

(Teachers College) 

Instructor in Psychiatry 



248 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Name 
Charles C. Tillinghast, A.M. 

Joseph Tulgan, Ph.D. 
DeLancey W. Ward, Ph.D. 

Arthur L. Washburn, M.D. 
Harry Weiss, Ph.D. 
William O. Wentworth, E.E. 
William L. Westermann, Ph.D. 
Richard J. White, M.D. 
Frank E. Williams, A.M. 
Lester McL. Wilson, Ph.D. 

Frank J. Wright, A.M. 
Charles R. Wyckoff, C.E., A.M. 
William J. Youden, Jr., A.M. 



Office 
Associate Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 
Instructor in Physiology 
Associate Professor of Biological 
Chemistry 

Assistant in Medicine 
Instructor in Bacteriology 
Instructor in Electrical Engineering 
Professor of Ancient History 
Instructor in Anatomy 
Lecturer in Economic Geography 
Associate Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 
Associate in Physiography 
Associate in Civil Engineering 
Assistant in Chemistry 



Leaves of Absence 

For the whole or part of the academic year i 922-1923 were granted to the 
following officers: 



Felix Adler, Ph.D. 
Eugene E. Agger, Ph.D. 
Anna W. Ballard, A.M. 

William A. Boring 

Wilhelm A. Braun, Ph.D. 

Russell Burton-Opitz, M.D. 
Wendell T. Bush, Ph.D. 
John B. Clark, LL.D. 
Mrs. Mary W. Coutant, A.M. 

Bergen Davis, Ph.D. 
Edward S. Elliott, M.D. 

Thomas S. Fiske, Ph.D. 

J. Montgomery Gambrill, A.M. 

Robert M. Haig, Ph.D. 
Alfred D. F. Hamlin, L.H.D. 

Charles D. Hazen, L.H.D. 



Professor of Social and Political Ethics 
Associate Professor of Economics 
Assistant Professor of French (Teach- 
ers College) 

Director of the School of Architecture 
and Professor of Design 
Associate Professor of the Germanic 
Languages and Literatures 
Associate Professor of Physiology 
Associate Professor of Philosophy 
Professor of Political Economy 
Instructor in Botany (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

Professor of Physics 
Associate Professor of Physical Edu- 
cation 

Professor of Mathematics 
Assistant Professor of History in 
Teachers College 

Professor of Business Organization 
Professor of the History of Architec- 
ture 
Professor of History 



APPENDIX I 



249 



Name 
Frederick W. J. Heuser, A.M. 

Asher Hobson, A.M. 

Douglas W. Johnson, Ph.D. 
Benjamin B. Kendrick, Ph.D. 
James Kendall, Sc.D. 
William S. Ladd, M.D. 
Victor K. LaMer, Ph.D. 
Bird Larson, B.S. 

Charles E. Lucke, Ph.D. 
Lea McI. Luquer, Ph.D. 
William A. McCall, Ph.D. 

Albert A. Meras, Ph.D. 

Frank Gardner Moore, L.H.D. 
John Bassett Moore, LL.D. 

Underhill Moore, LL.B. 
Alwin M. Pappenheimer, M.D. 
Charles Lane Poor, Ph.D. 
John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D. 
Michael I. Pupin, LL.D. 
Mrs. Emily James Putnam, A.B. 

Marie Reimer, Ph.D. 

Edwin R. A. Seligman, LL.D. 

James T. Shotwell, Ph.D. 
Munroe Smith, LL.D., J.U.D. 

Isabel M. Stewart, A.M. 

Alvan A. Tenney, Ph.D. 
Edward L. Thorndike, Ph.D. 

Samuel A. Tucker, Ph.B. 

Robert S. Woodworth, Ph.D. 



Office 
Assistant Professor of the Germanic 
Languages and Literatures 
Associate Professor of Economic Agri- 
culture 

Professor of Physiography 
Associate Professor of History 
Professor of Chemistry 
Instructor in Medicine 
Instructor in Chemistry 
Assistant Professor of Physical Edu- 
cation (Barnard College) 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering 
Associate Professor of Mineralogy 
Associate Professor of Education 
(Teachers College) 

Assistant Professor of French (Teach- 
ers College) 
Professor of Latin 

Hamilton Fish Professor of Inter- 
national Law and Diplomacy 
Professor of Law 
Associate Professor of Pathology 
Professor of Celestial Mechanics 
Professor of Slavonic Languages 
Professor of Electro-Mechanics 
Associate in Greek and Latin (Barn- 
ard College) 

Professor of Chemistry (Barnard Col- 
lege) 

McVickar Professor of Political Econ- 
omy 

Professor of History 
Bryce Professor of European Legal 
History 

Assistant Professor of Nursing (Teach- 
ers College) 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 
Professor of Educational Psychology 
(Teachers College) 

Assistant Professor of Electro-Chem- 
istry 
Professor of Psychology 



250 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Representatives of the University during 1922-1923 



At the Installations of 

President Cloyd H. Marvin, University of Ari- 
zona, Tucson, Arizona [April 23-24, 1923] 

President Bayard Dodge, American University 
of Beirut, Syria [June 28, 1923] 

President Samuel P. Capen, University of 
Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. [October 28, 1922] 

President George B. Cutten, Colgate Univer- 
sity, Hamilton, N. Y. [October 7, 1922] 

Chancellor Heber R. Harper, University of 
Denver, Denver, Colorado [February 15-16, 

1923] 

President Samuel W. Stratton, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
[June 11, 1923] 

Chancellor Charles W. Flint, Syracuse Univer- 
sity, Syracuse, N. Y. [November 17, 1922] 



Arthur Hamilton Otis, 

A.B. 1908 
Frank Pierrepont 

Graves, A.B. 1890; 

A.M. 1891; Ph.D. 1912 
Dean Pegram 

Dean Pegram 

Thomas B. Stearns, 
E.M. 1881 

Dean Pegram 
Professor D. D. Jackson 

Professor McBain 



At the Anniversary Celebrations of 



Birth of Pasteur, (100th) University of Paris 
and University of Strasbourg [May 24 and 
May 28, 1923] 

Foundation of first permanent Department of 
Education in an American university (50th), 
University of Iowa [April 27-28, 1923] 

Foundation of St. Bartholomew's Hospital and 
the Priory Church of St. Bartholomew-the- 
Great, London, England (800th) [June 5-7, 

1923] 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (100th) in 
Trinity Church, New York, May 27, 1923 



Miscellaneous 

Association of American Universities at Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. [Novem- 
ber 9-1 1, 1922] 

Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools 
of the Middle States and Maryland, at Tower 
Hill School, Wilmington, Del. [December 
1-2, 1922] 



Professor Charles Dow- 
ner Hazen 

Professor Edward L. 
Thorndike 

Dr. Stafford McLean 



Professor Henry Bed- 
inger Mitchell 

Professor Charles Sears 
Baldwin 



Provost Carpenter 
Dean Woodbridge 
Dean Hawkes 
Director Jones 
Director Jones 
Professor Steeves 
Professor Coss 



APPENDIX I 



251 



American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, at Philadelphia, Pa. [May 11-12, 

1923] 

Second National Conference on Education for 
Highway Engineering and Highway Trans- 
port, at Washington, D. C. [October 26-28, 
1922] 

Fifth International Congress of Historical 
Studies, at Brussels, Belgium [April 8-15, 

1923] 
State Examinations Board, at Albany, N. Y. 
[December 9, 1922] 



Professor Seager 
Professor Lindsay 
Professor Hayes 
Professor Lovell 



Professor Charles Dow- 
ner Hazen 

Professor Jones 



APPENDIX 2 
REPORT OF THE APPOINTMENTS OFFICE 

SEPTEMBER 25, 1922, TO SEPTEMBER 25, I923 

To the Secretary of the University 
Sir: 

It gives me pleasure to submit herewith a record of the activ- 
ities of the Appointments Office for the year from September 
25, 1922 to September 25, 1923. 

Looking backward over the past three years, it is interesting 
to compare the gain that has been made in the matter of filling 
positions and the closer connection which the Office has with 
some of the departments of the University. It is the ideal of a 
college employment bureau that it serve as a clearing house for 
all the positions which come to the notice of the departments 
as well as fill the openings which come directly. A registration 
of such positions in the Office, with the record of the students 
sent out for interviews, would give a much more complete idea 
of what the University, through its Appointments Office, is 
doing for the men and women who apply for help, and only in 
that way can the Office fulfill its mission. A special effort has 
been made in this direction this past year, and I wish to ac- 
knowledge with pleasure the efficient cooperation of Dean 
Stone of the Law School, Mr. King of the Cosmopolitan Club 
and Miss Reed of the University Commons. Each year the 
Law School appoints a Clerkship Committee which makes rec- 
ommendations for permanent positions, and this committee, 
acting under the advice of Dean Stone and Mr. Douglas Black, 
the Alumni Secretary, met in the Office twice a week, and care- 
fully made their recommendations for the various positions 
which were forwarded to the Office by Dean Stone and Mr. 
Black, and for those received in the Office by telephone or 
letter. A record was kept of all the registrants, the positions 
and the interviews, and the plan shows promise of being even 



APPENDIX 2 253 

more successful this coming year than it was last year. Mr. 
King at the Cosmopolitan Club maintains an employment 
bureau for the foreign students, which is closely connected 
with the Appointments Office. Mr. King is consulted on every 
position and recommendation which is made through the 
Office, and a list is kept of every student helped in this way. 
Miss Reed, at the head of the University Commons, also works 
in connection with the Office, and her report shows that 115 
men and 6 women obtained their three meals a day by working 
at the Commons. The effort to have all positions coming 
through any University Department referred to the Office, for 
the sake of greater efficiency, will be continued this year, and 
it is to be hoped that it will meet with further success. In the 
recommendations of teachers for colleges and universities, Pro- 
fessor Hayes of the History Department has already signified 
his willingness to thoroughly cooperate with the Office. 

The growth of the Office can be best shown by a comparison 
of the positions filled during the last three years: in 1920-21, 
1 141 part time positions for men and 180 for women, making a 
total of 1321 ; in 1921-22, 1412 part time positions for men and 
410 for women, making a total of 1822; in 1922-23, 1580 part 
time positions for men and 777 for women, making a total of 
2357, showing an increase of nearly one hundred per cent in 
three years. In the full time positions, two years ago the Office 
placed 57 men and women, a year ago 125, and this past year 
the record was 193, showing an increase of well over one hun- 
dred per cent. During the year a list was kept of all the regis- 
trants who were sent out on interviews, and 5177 cards of 
introduction were given out in this way. 

The largest increase in the part time positions filled has been 
in the women's department, which has had the assistance of 
Miss Mary Wegener. During the year, 777 women students 
obtained positions as stenographers, typists, Mother's helpers 
and tutors. The table of statistics shows the odd calls which 
came to the Office and all these positions were filled by girls 
from the School of Business, University Extension, School of 
Journalism, Barnard and the Graduate Schools. In the full 
time work for women, there is more demand for stenographic- 



254 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ally trained college women than can be supplied by the regis- 
trants from the secretarial training courses, showing that here 
is a not overcrowded field for the college girl who wishes to go 
into business. Most of the openings, even those coming under 
the head of secretarial or executive, rather than stenographic, 
require a girl who has some stenographic training. Allow me 
to take this opportunity to express my gratitude for the splen- 
did cooperation of Dr. Reiley, Dr. Glass and Mr. Harned in this 
connection. In July, by their advice, a questionnaire was sent 
out to all the graduates of the School of Business and those 
who have obtained the first and second year secretarial certifi- 
cate for the past six years ; the information obtained on these 
questionnaires will be helpful in maintaining contact with the 
graduates and making the placement work more effective. 

The statistics for the part time positions for men show a large 
variety of calls, many of which were interesting and remuner- 
ative, with a total of 1580 positions filled. The tutoring posi- 
tions were 262 for the year, as compared with 148 of the year 
before. These are the best paid and most desirable of part time 
positions. The calls are generally for college entrance work in 
Latin, Mathematics and French and demand a man who can 
do this preparation work thoroughly. During the winter in 
the list of calls for ushers there were two calls which were espe- 
cially interesting. The Committee in charge of the Polo 
Matches at Meadowbrook last October requested 33 men to 
usher during the week of the matches, and every day a bus was 
sent to the University to take the men to the field. Beside free 
transportation, they were paid five dollars an afternoon for this 
work. Also, a large musical organization in the city wanted 
ten men to act as ushers for their Saturday morning musicales 
and twenty men for the evening concerts and dances. In proc- 
toring we supply a number of men for the Municipal Civil Ser- 
vice and also the State Regents' examination. One of the big 
detective bureaus had twelve Columbia men acting as plain 
clothes men during a large convention held in one of the hotels 
for a week, and a number of department stores are sending to 
us for salesmen for extra work. While some of the calls are of 
only a temporary nature, a large number of the students ob- 



APPENDIX 2 255 

tained permanent part time work, such as post office clerks, 
tutors, stenographers, librarians, settlement workers, boy's 
club directors, recreation leaders, waiters, companions, etc. In 
addition to these, during the summer there were other part 
time positions for the students working their way through 
college, such as camp counsellors, pullman car conductors, 
resident companions and manual laborers. 

In the placing of graduates who wished permanent business 
positions the report shows that 45 men and 124 women ob- 
tained work, and there were 24 graduates who were appointed 
to teaching positions in colleges and universities. Of the 45 
men who secured business openings, there were 26 men placed 
as Law Clerks, through the Law Clerkship Committee, 5 sales- 
men, 2 office managers, 2 publicity assistants, 2 chemists, and 
one each as accountant, editorial assistant, insurance agent, 
mechanical engineer, secretary and statistician. The women 
were placed as follows: 47 stenographers, 42 secretaries, 4 
typists, 4 office assistants, 4 file clerks, 3 clerical workers, 3 
advertising assistants, 2 bookkeepers, 2 statisticians, and one 
each as personnel assistant, record clerk, laboratory technician, 
reception clerk, registrar, translator, fashion artist, cashier, 
editorial assistant, research worker, settlement worker, copy- 
writer and order clerk, making a total of 124. There were 24 
men and women who obtained teaching positions, 13 in Eng- 
lish, 5 in History, 4 in Romance Languages and one each in 
Science and Bookkeeping. 

Every year we receive many letters from prospective stu- 
dents asking what they can do in the matter of earning some of 
their expenses. This year there were approximately five hun- 
dred letters of this kind, and in order to meet this demand we 
printed an announcement which answered the questions usu- 
ally asked. Beside giving the writers some idea of the different 
opportunities, it also gave them information as to the living 
conditions in the vicinity of the University, and general advice 
about how they should proceed to obtain a position through 
the Office. 

During the academic year September 25, 1922, to May 25, 
1923, there were 794 men who registered for part time work 



256 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

and 434 women; in the summer there were 578 men and 342 
women, making a total of 2248 students who applied for work 
in order to earn a part of their college expenses. The full time 
registration for men was 254, and 314 for women, making a 
total of 568. 

In the division of the men who applied for part time winter 
work, 429 were in Columbia College, 96 in University Exten- 
sion, 102 in the graduate schools, 67 in Law School, 61 in the 
School of Business, 14 in Engineering, 10 in the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, 8 in Journalism and 7 in Architecture. 

It is to be hoped that the Office will continue its usefulness 
to the students who are working their way through college and 
to those of the graduates who can be placed in permanent 
positions, and to that end the Office sincerely appreciates and 
invites the close cooperation of all those connected with the 
University. The Office is especially indebted to Dean Hawkes, 
Dr. F. A. Patterson, Mr. Fackenthal and Mr. Brissenden for 
helpful advice and interest. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Ethel A. Breed 

In Charge 
October 1, 1Q23 



APPENDIX 2 



257 



POSITIONS FILLED BY APPOINTMENTS OFFICE 
MEN 
SEPT. 25, 1922 TO SEPT. 25, I923 



Winter and 

Spring Session 

1922-23 



Summer 
1923 



Actor 

Advertising 

Athletic Director 

Attendant 

Bank Clerk 

Bell Boy 

Blood Transfusion 

Boys' Club Leader 

Camp Counsellor 

Camp Waiter 

Canvasser 

Caretaker 

Cashier 

Chautauqua Manager 

Chauffeur 

Clerical 

Club Clerk 

Collector 

Companion 

Conductor 

Correcting exam, papers 

Custodian 

Detective 

Demonstrator 

Draftsman 

Elevator Operator 

Farm Worker 

Florist's Assistant 

Furnace Man 

Garage Assistant 

Guide 

Hospital Supt. 

Hotel Clerk 

Information Clerk 

Inspector 

Investigator 

Janitor 

Laboratory Assistant 

Lawyer 

Librarian 



5 
5 
3 

3 

58 

2 

1 

18 



12 

8 

12 

2 



2 
12 



3 
1 
6 
1 

4 
6 

4 
3 
1 

3 

1 

4 
32 



11 
2 

3 
18 



258 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



PART TIME POSITIONS FILLED $4 — CONTINUED 

MEN 





Winter and 
Spring Session 


Summer 


Life Guard 


— 


1 


Manual Labor 


19 


11 


Manual Training 
Messenger 
Minister H 


23 


1 
8 
1 


Miscellaneous 


73' 


15' 


Model 


2 


— 


Musician 


9 


5 


Paymaster 
Photographer 
Post Office Clerk 


30 
I 

65 


2 
58 


Proctor 


78 


71 


Publicity Agent 
Pullman Conductor 


I 


11 


Recreational Leader 


H 


6 


Research Worker 


3 


8 


Resident Companion 
Resident Tutor 


5 


4 

5 


Salesman 


40 


22 


Settlement Worker 


5 


2 


Statistician 


— 


1 


Stenographer 
Surveyor 

Telephone Operator 
Ticket Agent 
Traffic Counter 


16 

I 

4 
46 


4 
1 

1 


Translator 


23* 


7 


Tutor 


152* 


no 


Typist 

Umpire 

Usher 


20 

2 

129 


6 

7 


Waiter 


69* 


75 1 


Watcher at polls 


— 


19 




1002 


578 


Grand Tota 


1580 





1 Through the Cosmopolitan Club 73 

4 Through the Commons SS 

«IS 

6 fin 



APPENDIX 2 



259 



POSITIONS FILLED BY APPOINTMENTS OFFICE — WOMEN PART TIME 



Winter 
IQ22-23 



Summer 
1923 



Athletic Coach 

Attendant for Actress 

Biscuit Packer 

Camp Counsellor 

Camp Secretary 

Caretaker 

Chaperone 

Clerical 

Cloak-room Attendant 

Companion 

Dramatic Counsellor 

Editorial Asst. 

File Clerk 

Girl's Club leader 

Governess 

Hostess 

Hotel Clerk 

Investigator 

Landscape Gardener 

Messenger 

Mimeograph Operator 

Mother's Helper 

Office Asst. 

Reader 

Recreational Leader 

Research Worker 

Saleswoman 

Sales promotion Asst. 

Seamstress 

Secretary 

Soloist 

Statistician 

Stenographer 

Substitute Teacher 

Sunday-school Teacher 

Tea Room Assistant 

Tutor 

Tutor-companion 

Typist 

Usher 

Waitress 



Grand Total 777 444 



1 

109 



5 
2 

21 
1 



1 
1 

23 

1 

10 



64 
3 

5 
1 
58 
3 
119 
1 
5 1 



1 
1 
1 
1 

73 
1 

5 
2 

2 

1 
6 

1 
12 



2 

19 
5 

1 
2 
2 
4 

1 

8 
I 

2 

75 

o 
2 

26 
1 

65 



333 



'Through the Commons 



APPENDIX 3 

THE SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY APPOINTMENTS OFFICE 

By 

Paul F. Brissenden 
Assistant Professor of Economics 

A college or university appointments office is a very unique 
and specialized type of employment bureau. The clientele 
which it serves, particularly on the student, or employee side 
is of a very special character. Its relations, moreover, to its 
employer clients, as well as to its job-seeking student custom- 
ers, are different in several important respects from those of an 
ordinary employment bureau. The former are, to a consider- 
able extent, the university's own alumni. The latter are more 
than temporary job-seeking registrants to whom the university 
is responsible only as registrants. They are students first of 
all; job-seekers, only secondarily, while en route to their de- 
grees or, momentarily, at the end of their college training. 

The University Appointments Office has perhaps more points 
of resemblance to the corporation bureau of employment, or 
personnel department, than to the (public or private) employ- 
ment bureau which functions purely as a clearing house be- 
tween employer and employee. Yet it has characteristics, and 
responsibilities, in common with both of these types. The pub- 
lic employment office and the establishment bureau of employ- 
ment both are accessible to all comers, whether employers seek- 
ing help or employees looking for jobs; although not all get 
jobs, any may ask for them. The academic appointments office, 
while it aims — or should aim — to serve all employers wishing 
its services, confines its work on the supply side to a selected 
group of job-seekers: the students of the university of which 
it is a part. This selection may or may not be carefully done. It 
may be the purely natural selection involved in accepting all 



APPENDIX 3 26l 

who may desire to enter the institution. It is more likely to 
involve some more or less rigid test of entrance, which winnows 
still more the group with which the appointments office has to 
deal. It is to be noted, moreover (and here we have another 
characteristic which sets the academic appointments office 
apart from other types of employment bureaus) that the uni- 
versity employment organization has less to do with selection 
than with placement. Indeed it often, unfortunately, has noth- 
ing to do with the policy and methods of selecting students. 
This, probably, is not as it should be and the question of the part 
the Appointments Office should play in the selection of stu- 
dents, and the question of its relation to the admissions organi- 
zation, will have attention in another part of this report. It is 
enough for the present to stress the fact that the academic 
office deals with the placement problem, primarily, and only 
incidentally concerns itself with the problem of selection. 

This feature of the work of the academic office reveals a cer- 
tain similarity to the work of the public employment office, 
which also is concerned much more about placement than 
about selections, the latter problem being left to the employer 
to whom the public bureau sends its registrants. The employer 
may or may not set up an establishment employment office for 
the purpose, among other things, of making selections from 
those sent to him by public, academic, or ordinary proprietary 
employment offices. 

Although the academic office is, like the public employment 
office, a labor exchange, it is not that merely. It is also, or, if 
it is not, it should be, like the better managed establishment 
bureaus, a personnel office, concerning itself, directly or indi- 
rectly, with selection, initial and continuing tests of aptitude, 
vocational guidance, the content of the curriculum, etc. 

It seems probable, therefore, that the academic appoint- 
ments office ought to find helpful clues for its own operation ; 
clues on placement from the public and private labor ex- 
changes; clues on selection, vocational guidance, personnel, 
from the establishment employment or personnel departments. 
In view of this fact and in view of the close similarity between 
the functions and problems of the academic appointments 



262 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

office and other types of employment bureaus and personnel 
organizations it may be helpful to set down the more important 
classes of agencies now in operation in this country: 

Type of Bureau Functions 

Public: 

Civil Service Commissions Selection and placement 

Labor (or employment) Exchanges Placement 

Vocational guidance bureaus Vocational guidance and 

placement 

Semi-public: 

Employment bureaus in state universities Placement; personnel 

Employment bureaus in other universities Placement ; personnel 

Chambers of Commerce Employment Office Placement 

Y. M. C. A. Placement 

Private: 

Private (or proprietary) labor exchanges Placement 

Association bureaus of employment Placement 

Establishment bureaus of employment (or 

personnel) Selection and personnel 

The types listed above whose experience ought to be the 
most useful to those interested in the university appointments 
office are the public labor exchanges, the private establish- 
ment bureaus of employment, and the vocational guidance 
bureaus. Frequent reference is made in this report to the work 
of these organizations. 

An employment office (or "exchange") occupies a position in 
relation to dealers in labor (i.e., the buyers and sellers of labor) 
which is significantly similar to the position of a stock exchange 
in relation to the buyers and sellers of securities. It is a clear- 
ing house for the buyers and sellers of labor. It therefore has to 
deal with and serve on the one hand, employer-buyers of labor 
and, on the other employee-sellers of labor. The employer's 
needs, of course, constitute the demand; the number of persons 
desiring employment constitutes the supply. The employ- 
ment bureau's function is, as effectively as possible to match 
up demand and supply. 

The work of the university appointments office is essentially 
the same as that outlined above, despite the limited and special 



APPENDIX 3 263 

nature of its labor supply and the unique relation in which it 
stands to that supply. The academic employment office should 
not, however, be thought of as carrying on exclusively, or even 
primarily, for the benefit of the students it purposes to place. 
It has definite and important responsibilities to the employers 
whom it essays to provide with workers. 

If the college or university bureau of appointments consti- 
tutes a special phase of employment work, so does each univer- 
sity present a unique series of problems which must be solved. 
Much may be learned by the colleges from the experience of 
industrial establishments in employment and personnel work 
and from the experience of the government in the operation of 
employment offices. One college may learn much from the 
experience other colleges have had with student employment 
work. Practice which is appropriate to public or private labor 
exchanges or to establishment bureaus of employment, is not 
necessarily appropriate to collegiate employment bureaus. 
Moreover, among collegiate bureaus, such wide differences in 
conditions prevail, that each institution, in a large measure, 
has to be handled as a case by itself. 

At Columbia the case is that of a large metropolitan univer- 
sity, containing an undergraduate college, a series of graduate 
(or partially graduate) professional schools and a non-profes- 
sional graduate school. At such an institution the employment 
problem is vastly different — in some respects simpler, in some 
respects more complicated, but different throughout, from the 
problem at, say, Dartmouth, where Dean R. W. Husband 
is doing such splendid pioneer work in student personnel work. 
Dartmouth, notwithstanding the Tuck School, is simply a 
college. It is a country college. At Columbia we have a uni- 
versity in a metropolitan center. This factor has an impor- 
tant practical bearing on the problem of appointments and per- 
sonnel at Columbia. 

There are now three employment agencies at Columbia : The 
Barnard College Employment Bureau, the Bureau of Educa- 
tional Service (which has an Employment Section) at Teachers 
College and the Columbia Appointments Office. This report 
deals with the last-named agency. It makes some reference to 



264 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

the offices at Barnard and Teachers College but merely in an 
incidental way, for purposes of comparison, and in order to 
stress the need for the utmost co-operation between the three 
bureaus. 

The Appointments Office is presumed to serve as the clearing 
house for part and full-time employment for students and 
graduating seniors in all schools and departments of the Uni- 
versity except Barnard College and Teachers College. As 
such a clearing house it occupies a position, in respect to stu- 
dent job-seekers on the one hand and alumni or other employ- 
ers on the other, which is very similar, as already has been 
pointed out, to that occupied by the public employment office 
in relation, respectively, to job-seeker and employer. To this 
dual (part-time and full-time) placement work the Office has 
confined its attention. Yet it is part of an organization which 
has all of its applicants more or less continuously under its 
wing — "at the works," so to speak. And this fact throws into 
prominence the close similarity, already referred to, between 
the Appointments Office and the employment bureau of an in- 
dustrial or business establishment. Now the latter type of 
bureau is concerned with almost every phase of personnel work 
except placement. Their work comprehends selection, hiring, 
transfer, promotion, education and training, vocational guid- 
ance, etc., and (in some of the larger and more progressive con- 
cerns which have full fledged personnel departments) a whole 
host of activities relating to physical and intellectual welfare, 
recreation, housing, sanitation, safety and accidents, and so on. 
The University, then, should look for clues on placement prac- 
tice to other universities and to public and private employ- 
ment bureaus. To the extent that the university is interested 
in entering upon other aspects of personnel work, such as selec- 
tion and vocational guidance, it should turn for light to other 
educational institutions and to the more successful of employ- 
ment bureaus operated by industrial concerns. 

It is important to observe that Columbia already is doing a 
great deal of personnel work in addition to the placement work 
carried on by the Appointments Office. The work of the office 
of the Director of Admissions closely corresponds to that work 



APPENDIX 3 265 

of hiring and selection which is one of the most important tasks 
which Employment Managers of industrial establishments 
have to perform. This is particularly true of Columbia College 
where we have the well developed system of psychological 
tests for the selection of students. It is far from my thought to 
suggest that either Admissions or even the administration of 
the mental tests should be made a part of the work of the Ap- 
pointments Office. I wish, rather, to lay stress upon the close 
relation between the selecting and testing done by the Admis- 
sions Office and the placement work done by the Appointments 
Office. The work of the former office affects that of the latter 
in a very vital way. 

Columbia does still other personnel work: The provision 
made for the physical welfare of students; gymnasiums, ath- 
letic fields, etc.; medical services; the facilities of Earl Hall — 
all these involve academic personnel activity of no mean im- 
portance. One line of work, however, which has been receiving 
more and more attention in business concerns and in govern- 
mental circles as well, is vocational guidance. At Columbia 
there is no organized vocational guidance work done, either 
in the Appointments Office or in any other division of the Uni- 
versity. I believe that we should plan for the development of 
vocational guidance at Columbia and that this work might 
well be made a part of the work of the Appointments Office. 
This subject is given more extended comment in another part 
of this report. 

The Appointments Office is eleven years old. It was launched 
by "the action of the trustees of the University taken on May 
5 (1912), uniting the work of the Committee on Employment 
and the Committee on Appointments under the title of the Ap- 
pointments Office. . . ." During this decade the Office has met 
with many vicissitudes. In 19 13 its staff appears to have con- 
sisted of the secretary in charge, a stenographer-clerk and an 
office boy. In 1923 it consists of the secretary in charge, an 
assistant in charge of women's appointments and a stenog- 
rapher-clerk. The appropriations made for its maintenance are 
not clearly shown in the reports. The appropriation in addi- 
tion to salaries was $1350 in 1915-1916 and $2000 in 1922- 



266 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

1923. Salaries for the latter period, including stipend for an 
adviser, were $5200. During this first decade of the history of 
the Office it has been, successively under the direction of five 
different secretaries. During the war period 1917-1918 the 
work of the Office was almost completely demoralized, so that 
since 191 2 it has seen only 10 years of active operation. This 
means that, on the average, the secretary in charge has had a 
term of office of only two years. The activities of the office are 
by no means adequately reflected in the placement and earn- 
ings records which have accumulated in the files and annual 
reports. This is due (1) to the fact that almost with every 
change in the directing head of the office there has occurred a 
more or less important change in the methods of recording the 
activities of the office, (2) to the different interpretations, in 
succeeding administrations, given to such terms in the records 
as "number registered," "positions filled," etc., and (3) most 
important of all, to the fact that no really comprehensive sys- 
tem of records has been installed. For example, despite the 
fact that the reference of applicants to jobs constitutes one of 
the most important activities of the Appointments Office 
there has been no record kept of the number of such references. 
Fragmentary though the records be they do throw some light 
on what has been done by the Office during the period under 
review. Figures may be given separately for the two main divi- 
sions of the work of the Office: part-time and full-time em- 
ployment. In 1911-1912 with a total University enrollment 
(including Barnard and Teachers College) of 9597 the Office 
registered 1023 students for part-time work, or 10.6 per cent 
of the enrollment. From these registrants 1496 part-time jobs 
were filled. During the year 1921-1922, with a total enroll- 
ment of 30,597, 1952 students were registered for part-time 
employment, or 6.4 per cent of the enrollment. From these 
registrants 1822 part-time jobs were filled. The work with 
full-time positions for graduating seniors has had a tardier de- 
velopment. In 1912-1913 the Office registered for full-time 
jobs 293 students, or 17.6 per cent of the 1660 graduating at 
the end of the year. From these registrants the Office filled 47 
full-time positions, exclusive of the positions filled directly by 



APPENDIX 3 



267 



the various departments of the University. In 1920-1921 the 
Office registered for full-time jobs 389 students, or 16.2 per 
cent of the number graduating at the end of the year. From 
these registrants the Office filled 57 full-time positions. Such 
of the available figures as are believed to have significance are 
brought together in Tables A and B which present, respec- 
tively, the part-time and full-time data. No records were kept 
during the year 1917-1918. 



TABLE A 
Part-Time Employment Records — 1911-1922 





No. of Stu- 




Per Cent 




Fiscal 


dents registered 


Enroll- 


Registra- 


No. of Jobs 


Year 


for Part-Time 
Employment J 


ment 2 


tion is of 
Enrollment 


filled » 


1911-12 


1023 


9597 


10.6 


1496 


1912-13 


1026 


1 1207 


9.2 


1885 


1913-14 


1205 


13273 


8.9 


1433 


1914-15 


1208 


15181 


8.0 


1266 


1915-16 


1478 


16734 


8.8 


2809 


1916-17 


1629 


20267 


8.1 


2299 


1918-19 


1562 


17129 


9-1 


685 


1919-20 


1869 


27089 


6.9 


1279 


1920-21 


1964 


28693 


6.8 


1339 


1921-22 


1952 


30597 


6.4 


1822 



1 Annual Reports of the Appointments Office. 

'Annual Reports of the President to the Trustees. This figure represents total enrollment 
for (.he whole university. 



268 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE B 
Full-Time Appointments Records: 19 12-1922 





No. of Stu- 




Per Cent 








dents Reg- 


No. of 


Registra- 


Positions 


Ratio of 


Fiscal 


istered for 


Students 


tion is 


filled 


No. of Posi- 


Year 


Full-Time 


Graduating 


of No. 


Directly 


tions filled 




Employ- 


at end of 


Graduat- 


by Office 5 


to No. Reg- 




ment 1 


Year 11 


ing 




istered T 


1912-13 


293 


1660 


17.6 


47 


16 


1913-14 


633 


1532 


4i-5 


55 


9 


1914-15 


691 


1826 


37-8 


no 


16 


1915-16 


1006 


1811 


55-o 


146 


15 


1916-17 


146 1 


1994 


73-3 


69 


5 


1918-19 


292 s 


1573 


18.6 


100 


38 


1919-20 


( 2 ) 


2181 


( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 


1920-21 


389 


2408 


16.2 


57 


15 


1921-22 


206 3 


3186 


6.5 


125 


61 



1 Annual Reports of the Appointments Office. 

2 No data. 

8 Furnished by Miss Breed. 

* Annual Reports of the President. 

5 In addition there were reported as filled directly by the various departments of the Uni- 
versity: In 1914-1915 fifty-nine; in 1915-1916, one hundred and forty-seven; in 1916-1917, 
one hundred and ninety-four. 

i Not including law and engineering students of whom there appears to have been no 
record 

7 i. e., Number of positions filled per 100 registered. 



The only available figures omitted from the above summary 
tables are those purporting to show (i) "the number of students 
reporting" and (2) students' earnings, through the Office and 
otherwise. The first set of figures are accompanied in the re- 
ports by no explanation as to what they have reference to. 
Moreover, inquiry of the present secretary and of other per- 
sons acquainted with the Office brought out the fact that dif- 
ferent appointments secretaries have used and interpreted this 
term in different ways, thus depriving the figures of what value 
they might otherwise have. The data on students' earnings 
are, I believe, absolutely inconclusive. The reason for this is 



APPENDIX 3 269 

that there has been great irregularity in the proportions of 
registrants (or other students) who have reported their 
earnings. 

It will be seen that even the figures that are given in the ta- 
bles are fragmentary. I am inclined to think they should be 
taken with a good deal of salt. This surely is true of the figures 
purporting to show the number registering for employment. 
It seems probable that the relatively large numbers purporting 
to have been registered in the years just preceding the war- 
time suspension of the Office are inclusive of renewals, while 
those in the post war years are exclusive of renewals. I am 
inclined very strongly to doubt that there was any such a fall- 
ing off in the registration as is indicated on the face of the 
figures. These remarks apply to both Table A and Table B. 
Indeed it is extremely doubtful whether comparisons can be 
made safely between the later and the earlier years in any of 
the columns of either table. It would seem, also, that the fig- 
ures for the number registered have not been reported accord- 
ing to a uniform interpretation. They should refer invariably, 
of course, to active registrants. All inactive registrants should 
be weeded out at stated intervals. Thus, it would seem prob- 
able that the apparent unfavorable change from 192 1 to 1922 
in the ratio of number registered to number graduating (Table 
B) must be responsible for the apparent favorable change during 
the same period in the ratio of the number of positions filled to 
the number registered. In the earlier years of the decade there 
are similar evidences of a lack of uniformity in employment 
accounting, e. g., in the table just cited, between 1916 and 
1917. The comparisons made in the two tables between the 
registrants and students enrolled or graduating are not en- 
tirely satisfactory because there are wide differences, among 
the different schools of the University, in the proportions of 
graduating students (or graduates) who register for full-time 
work, and in the proportions of students enrolled who register 
for part-time work. Also the figures on enrollment and number 
graduating include Barnard and Teachers College, whose stu- 
dents are served only indirectly by the Columbia Appoint- 
ments Office. Nevertheless, these totals are used in the belief 



270 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



that, on the whole, they give the best general indication of 
what has been accomplished. 

The following figures, furnished by Miss Breed, show how 
the 206 full-time registrations in 1921-22 were distributed: 



School of Business 

College 

Science 

Extension .... 

Law 

Architecture . . 
Graduate Schools 

Total .... 




Per Cent of 
Those Graduating 
from each School 

35 
27 
48 
40 
2 
12 



6-5 



It is evident from the percentage figures that in Applied 
Science, University Extension, the College and the School of 
Business very satisfactory proportions of the graduating classes 
were registered. 

In the light of the figures in Tables A and B one or two com- 
parisons of some importance can be made. While the record of 
numbers of students registered for work reflects much credit 
upon the Office and upon those members of the University 
who have interested themselves in it, it would seem, none the 
less, that it should be possible in the future, gradually to bring 
about the registration of a larger proportion of the total stu- 
dent enrollment. What can be done along this line is shown in 
the experience of the Bureau of Appointments of Yale Univer- 
sity for the period 1910 to 1920. As a result of a systematic 
campaign to induce students to make greater use of the Bu- 
reau, the proportion of registrations to enrollment was in- 
creased from about 7 per cent in 1909-1910 to about 36 per 
cent in 1 921- 1922. (Report of the Director of the Yale Univer- 
sity Bureau of Appointments, 1921-1922, p. 3.) In Table B 
the ratios of the number of positions filled (placements made) 



APPENDIX 3 271 

to the number of students registered are seen to range from 19 
to 61 per cent. Corresponding ratios derived from the records 
of the British Labor Exchanges — probably the best managed 
in the world — range during the period 1911-1915 from 31 to 46 
per cent. 1 A final comparison pertains to cost of operation. 
Taking full-time and part-time positions together, there were 
filled'in 1921-1922 about 1947 casual or steady jobs. If $4200 
be taken as the regular operating appropriation for the Office, 
the per capita cost of placements would appear to be $2.16. 
The records of the Massachusetts public employment offices 
show that in that state 28,599 placements were made in 192 1 
at a per capita cost of $1.95 and that 38,919 placements were 
made in 1920 at a per capita cost of $i-35. J These are all 
rather rough comparisons, but it is believed that they will help 
to gauge the work of the Columbia Office. 

Routine procedure in handling calls from employers for 
workers and in taking care of applicants for work is, in general, 
closely similar to that followed in public and private labor 
exchanges and (though here the similarity is less close) in 
establishment employment bureaus. Students are registered 
as applicants for employment as rapidly as they may apply at 
the Office. The work of the Office is described in the an- 
nouncements of the various schools and special circulars are 
issued for the information of students and teachers, explaining 
the work of the Appointments Office. Applicants fill out reg- 
istration blanks at the time of registration. Special blanks 
are used for registrants for part-time work, and for teaching 
positions. For part-time registrants 3x5 index cards are pre- 
pared and filed. This facilitates quick reference, when a 
call for help comes in, to the available supply of candidates 
for any given sort of work. The foregoing are the chief steps 
incident to registration. The files built from registration data 
and containing the records of the Office's available supply 
of labor of different kinds are not called into use until the de- 
mand for labor expresses itself in calls from empk>yers. 

1 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 206. The British System of Labor Exchanges, 
P- 33. 

'Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Annual Report on the Public Employment Offices. 
January, 1923, p. 14. 



57^ COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

These calls put in motion the machinery of placement. They 
are received by mail, telephone and through personal visits to 
the Office. Applications for help not made in writing are 
entered on an "employers application" slip. On receipt of 
each call, files of candidates are consulted and, if they con- 
tain records of any students who appear to meet the require- 
ments and who have indicated a desire for the kind of work 
now offered, those students are immediately notified by tele- 
phone or by mail to call at the office. If and when they appear 
they are advised of the nature of the work offered and, if they 
wish to apply, arrangements are made for them to see the em- 
ployers. Candidates are further asked to inform the Office (on 
a postal card, or by telephone) as to whether or not they get 
the positions for which they apply. In the case of full-time 
jobs, especially teaching positions, the Office sends to the 
school or college officers seeking teachers confidential copies of 
letters and other statements concerning applicants who have 
been referred to school trustees or college presidents. In 
many cases the candidates are personally interviewed at 
the Office. 

In cases where the Office has no registrants qualified for the 
jobs offered, the Secretary sends a form request to some Univer- 
sity officer, or to several of them, requesting the names of 
suitable candidates. 

The Appointments Office brings its services to the attention 
of employers in various ways : Through personal visits by the 
Secretary, advertisements in the Alumni Weekly, and through 
the distribution of circulars to employers. 

With direct reference to this office procedure as such, I 
have no suggestions to offer. Certain suggestions to be made 
later about contacts with employers and cooperation with 
other parts of the University will involve, in some cases, 
quite obvious changes in procedure. Other unimportant 
changes in procedure would result from the adoption of certain 
of the suggested changes in employment records. The forms 
now in use and referred to above are, I think, adequate for 
their several purposes. 

The experience of public employment offices has directed 



APPENDIX 3 273 

attention to the importance of making clear and exact dis- 
tinctions between such expressions as the following : 

"Number of employers applying for help" 

persons applied for by employers" 
applications from employers" 

It is not at all uncommon to find in the reports of the smaller 
state bureaus of employment and even in some of the cor- 
poration bureaus, that these three concepts are hopelessly- 
confused. Under the heading "applications from employers" 
are put figures obtained by counting the number of different 
employers who have made applications, or, by counting the 
number of persons called for in the employers' applications. 
One bureau manager may put under "applications from 
employers", the "number of employers applying for help"; his 
successor may put under that same heading the "number of 
persons applied for by employers". Both have lied; and what 
makes the matter worse, they have not agreed upon the par- 
ticular kind of a lie they are to tell. The following illustration 
will give a good idea of the importance of the careful and exact 
reporting of employment bureau operations: At the A Com- 
pany, the B Company and the C Company there is one va- 
cancy each and the Appointments Office has been asked to 
supply suitable employees. Student Jones is referred to the 
job at the C Company but does not get it. He is then re- 
ferred to the position at the B Company and gets it. Student 
Smith is referred to both the A Company and the B Company 
jobs but gets neither. Student Brown is referred to the B 
Company job and gets it and Student Johnson to the A 
Company job and gets it. The Appointments Office, in this 
situation, has made 6 references to jobs to 4 students to fill 3 
positions. 

The following distinctions should be made, even though 
not all of the classifications are used in making up the Office 
records : 



274 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

1. No. of employers from whom applications were received. 

2. No. of applications from employers. 
*3. No. of persons asked for by employers. 
*4. No. of positions offered by employers. 1 
•5. No. of students applying for work. 

(a) New registrations 

(6) Renewals * 
*6. No. of references (by Office) of students to jobs.* 
7. No. of students referred to positions. 
•8. No. of positions reported filled (placements). 

The operations of one of the public employment bureaus of 
New York City for the year 191 6 were reported (U. S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics Bulletin 241, p. 92) as follows: 

Applications from employers 26,872 

Persons asked for by employers 30,276 

New registrations . . . 26,269 

Offers of positions (i.e., "References to positions") .... 39,66 1 

Positions filled 23,847 

The "summary of business done by the Massachusetts Public 
Employment Offices" (Massachusetts Industrial Review, Octo- 
ber, 1922, p. 26), takes the simple form of reporting, for each 
quarter of the year : 

(1) persons applied for 

(2) applicants referred to positions 

(3) positions reported filled 

It is sufficiently obvious from these citations to New York 
and Massachusetts employment office records that it is not 
necessary to use all of the above eight classifications in keeping 
the records of the Appointments Office. But it is important, if, 
say, four of them are used, to take every precaution that the 
figures put under the different heads refer precisely to what 
the headings say they refer to. It seems clearly desirable to use 
classifications 3, 5a, 5b, 6, 8 and probably 4 in the above list. 

1 Same as "3" except when the employer asks for more candidates than he has jobs open. 
1 Active registrations carried over (after communicating with the registrant) from pre- 
ceding year and repeated registrations during the same year. 
* Sometimes expressed as "offers of positions." 



APPENDIX 3 275 

The "number of persons asked for by employers" is undoubt- 
edly the best single index of the volume of the demand. Num- 
bers i, 2 and 4 also throw light on demand but they are of 
secondary importance. If it seems desirable to check up on the 
practice sometimes indulged in by employers of asking for 
more persons than they have jobs for, in order that they may 
pick and choose, it may be advisable to keep a record of the 
"positions offered by employers." If it is thought necessary to 
ascertain the frequency with which different employers patron- 
ize the Office, or the size of the employer-clientele, classifica- 
tions 1 and 2 would have to be used. 

The number of separate references (by the Appointments 
Office) of students to jobs, which means the number of offers 
to students, of chances to get positions, is an important sup- 
plementary index to the activity of the Office. If it is desired 
to show to what extent these "references to jobs" include a 
plural number of references in behalf of the same student 
classification number 7 should be included. 

If the Office uses the starred items in the above list of classi- 
fications it will be possible to present, annually, or at other 
intervals, 1 very definite indices of the effectiveness of its work. 
Thus it will be quite easy to report each year : 

(1) the proportion of all applying for work who are provided with work 
("8" - "5") 2 

(2) the proportion of the positions offered by employers which are filled 
by the Office ("8" -J- "4") 

(3) the proportion of successful references of students to jobs ("6" -s- 
"8") 

(4) the ratio of the number of references of students to jobs to the num- 
ber registered ("6" -f- "5"). This would indicate the average number 
of job-chances per person registered. 

In keeping the records and making reports it would seem 
desirable to keep part-time records separate from full-time and 
probably also to keep a separate record for the summer session 
and of summer jobs. At the end of the period for which reports 

1 It may be advisable to keep the records in such shape that the business of the Office can 
be compared from month to month, even though reports are not required more than once 
a year. 

2 These numbers refer to the list of items at top of p. 274. 



276 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

are made the files should be inspected, inquiries sent to all 
registrants not known to be active, and all inactive names re- 
moved to an "inactive" file. Students carried over from one 
reporting year to another should be counted under "registra- 
tions; renewals," as also should be students registering more 
than once during the period. 

At a number of academic employment bureaus the Findex 
has been installed to facilitate office procedure. Among the 
institutions making such use of the Findex are Teachers 
College, the University of Michigan and Stanford University. 
They all report favorably on its use. The device is an ex- 
pensive one, however, and I should think that it would be 
unwise to introduce it at the Appointments Office at the 
present time. 

Probably the most difficult problem which has developed 
at the Appointments Office is that of its relations to the 
various schools of the University and to the University officers 
in those schools. There exist somewhat serious misunder- 
standing as to the respective employment functions of the 
Office and the several schools. Many University officers feel 
that their jurisdiction is being encroached upon by the Office. 
Others believe that each school should handle the whole job 
of employment (except perhaps part-time student employ- 
ment) for and by itself. These differences are reflected in the 
registration figures of the Office, particularly the full-time 
registration figures. There are few, if any, registrants for 
full-time employment from the School of Journalism, and 
not many from the Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chem- 
istry. This unfortunate situation is largely due (1) to a mis- 
conception, on the part of University Officers, of what the 
Office does, and what it does not, purport to do, and (2) to a 
lack of sufficient continuous advertising of the Office to the 
teachers and students in the University. 

I have discussed this subject with the Deans of all of the 
Schools which the Office is designed to serve, with the exception 
of the School of Architecture. I have talked, also, with a 
large number of the professors in the different schools. No- 
where have I found opposition to the work of the Office that 



APPENDIX 3 2TJ 

could not be overcome by removing the misconceptions al- 
luded to above. 

The Office certainly should not be made a substitute for the 
professor in connection with the filling of technical or other 
important or responsible positions. The belief seems to be 
fairly widespread on the campus that the Office wishes to 
supplant the professor in selecting and recommending suitable 
candidates for positions. An employment bureau in a uni- 
versity ought not to attempt anything of this kind. All em- 
ployment bureaus are clearing houses — exchanges — for fa- 
cilitating the buying and selling of labor. The Columbia 
Appointments Office is just that and nothing more. In so 
far as it cannot fall back upon the student's instructor to 
designate the right student for it to refer to the employer, the 
office must, perforce be the best judge it knows how to be of 
the qualifications of this and that journalist, or chemist, or 
architect. The function of the Office is that of clearance and 
record; that of the professor is authoritative advice, selection 
and recommendation. For unimportant or routine jobs the 
professor usually is glad to have the Office take the work off 
his hands; and for such jobs, as well as for most part-time 
work for students in course, the Office is equipped, or can be 
equipped, to do the whole placement job as competently, 
probably, as any person or agency could do it. When a call 
comes in for some one to fill a responsible position the Office 
invariably calls upon a University officer in the appropriate 
school or Department and asks for his suggestions and advice. 

But there are other calls which go directly from the em- 
ployer (whether a business concern or a board of trustees) 
to the dean or professor. Nearly all of the calls of this sort are 
handled informally by the professor, a student selected, 
notified, sent to the job and put to work — all without the 
Appointments Office ever knowing what has happened, unless 
the professor should be unable to find a student whom 
he can refer to the job in question. Even in such a pass, the 
professor may prefer to report "no candidates" to the employer 
than to advise the Appointments Office of the opening. 
Whether the job is, or is not, filled by the professor, the fact 



278 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

that the call and its outcome have not been reported to the 
Office simply means an appointments record for the University 
which falls short, by so much, of completely reporting what 
the University, through its agents, has done in the way of 
securing, or attempting to secure employment for its students. 

The established policy at Columbia is centralized employ- 
ment machinery — for clearance and record, and without 
design of abridging, in the slightest degree the authority of 
the individual professors in selecting and recommending 
candidates for important, or technical positions. If it is de- 
liberately decided to unscramble the employment machinery 
and let each school handle its own employment problem, well 
and good. But if the Office is worth continuing at all, surely 
it is worth continuing in such a thoroughgoing way that the 
records of its operations can be confidently referred to as some- 
what faithfully representing what Columbia is doing for her 
students in this respect. This cannot be done unless the facts 
of every placement by an officer of the university are reported, 
as promptly as possible, to the Appointments Office, there to 
be recorded. 

There is no reason why placements in important academic 
or business positions should not be made directly by the 
professor. And there appears to be no reason why such an 
"outside placement" should not be reported, for record, to the 
Office. That large numbers of such outside placements have 
been made is evident from figures given in footnote 5 to 
Table B. But these figures represent by no means all of the 
"outside placements" which are actually made. In 1916 the 
Secretary of Appointments sent a circular letter to the heads 
of 39 departments of instruction requesting information as to 
positions secured, and recommendations made by any members 
of the department. Twenty-four of the departments reported 
an aggregate of 165 placements, but fifteen departments 
failed to make any reply. (Report of the Secretary of Appoint- 
ments, 1916, pp. 23-25.) 

There is another very practical consideration, which it is 
important to keep in mind in balancing the relative advan- 
tages of decentralized placement through the various in- 



APPENDIX 3 279 

structors as compared with the system of centralized placement 
through an Appointments Office. It is the inevitable delay 
which almost always accompanies the decentralized system. 
A call comes to Professor A. He does not happen to know of a 
candidate. He passes the tip on, the next day, possibly, to 
Professor B, who also may lack candidates and, therefore, 
passes it on to Professor C, who, having no one in mind for the 
job may think to advise the Appointments Office of the op- 
portunity. Meanwhile the employer, losing patience, takes 
his jobs somewhere else to be filled. If, however, the job in the 
first instance, had been reported to the Office by the em- 
ployer, or by the first professor hearing of it, the Office would 
then simultaneously communicate with Professors B and C, 
and possibly still others, either to ask their advice about 
referring a certain registrant, or, if the Office had no qualified 
registrants, to ask the professors to suggest candidates, whom the 
Office can then promptly put on the trail of the job. It seems 
to me that each professor receiving a call for a man (or woman) , 
and failing to resort to the Appointments Office, makes him- 
self, perforce, a miniature, and necessarily an inefficient, 
employment bureau, going about from one colleague and 
student to another in what is likely to be a fruitless effort to 
fill the vacancy. 

It is necessary, I think, that the Office should advertise 
(and explain) itself more diligently and continuously to both 
professors and students. At the beginning of each session, 
and particularly at the beginning of the Winter Session, a 
carefully worded notice should be sent to each officer of the 
University, explaining the work and function of the Office and 
laying stress upon the necessity of continuous co-operation 
between Office and instructor, upon the fact that the Office 
cannot, and does not desire to, set itself up as the complete, 
self-sufficient chooser and selector, that the Office is chiefly a 
co-ordinating and clearing agency for the making of place- 
ments, casual and permanent, and for recording the same, 
and upon the fact that the Office needs and desires the advice 
and counsel of the members of the faculties, in order most 
effectively to serve employer and student. Appropriate forms 



280 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

should be devised for the convenience of instructors in report- 
ing jobs which come to their attention from time to time. 
As it is, it is more or less of an inconvenience to do this. It 
should be made as convenient as possible, by frequent form 
reminders, by keeping the instructor supplied with the neces- 
sary report forms, and so on. 

The Office appears to be fairly adequately advertised to 
students, at least in respect to part-time employment. As 
regards full-time jobs for graduating students, it might be 
efficacious to plan to get acquainted with them earlier in their 
course. In the School of Business this might be done in con- 
nection with the placing of its students in summer jobs, in 
lines of work similar, if possible, to the work they expect to 
take up after graduation. Then perhaps there would be 
larger proportions of them responding to the letters they get 
from the Office on the eve of graduation. Less than one third 
of the 31 students up for the A.B. degree in the College in 
February, 1923, replied to the letters sent out by the Office. 
A still smaller proportionate return was had from School of 
Business candidates who were written to in May, 1922. Of 
course, many (probably the majority) of these college students 
were bound, not for jobs, but for one of the professional schools. 
Many School of Business students doubtless had "rustled" 
their own jobs. 

The bulk of the work of the Office in the past has been the 
placement of students in part-time jobs. These have been 
chiefly term-time jobs, but some of this casual work has taken 
the form of summer work for students. A university, neces- 
sarily, must give more attention to casual employment than 
does the ordinary employment bureau. It goes without saying 
that this part of the work at Columbia must be continued 
and made more effective. The remarks already made apply 
no less to part-time than to full-time employment. 

On the whole the problem of part-time employment is in 
a less experimental and tentative stage than the full-time 
placement work. The result is that less attention, perhaps, 
needs to be given to it here. In part-time placement work 
there are perhaps more frequent instances of dissatisfaction 



APPENDIX 3 28l 

on the part of students with jobs offered or taken. Many 
students expect quite impossible things in the way of jobs 
and the payment therefor. This is also frequently true of 
seniors in their attitude towards full-time jobs. This naturally 
renders the work of the Office in making placements more 
difficult. No less unreasonable are the expectations of some 
employers. They rely, evidently, on the chance of getting 
casual student labor at lower than the prevailing market rates. 
Students will need to be given more counsel and advice, of 
course, about what they can, and what they cannot, reason- 
ably expect in the way of jobs and pay. The employer who 
wishes to give himself the benefit of sweated student labor 
ought to be eliminated by authorizing the Office to set a 
minimum hourly rate, say 50 cents per hour, below which it 
may not supply student labor. This practice has been success- 
fully followed at Yale. 

No university located in a large city can do as much with 
the development of campus agencies (such as laundry and 
pressing agencies) as is possible in an institution located in a 
small town. Yet I think that we have by no means exhausted 
the possibilities at Columbia. Outsiders are continually 
coming in and developing prosperous little businesses out of 
student trade. In most cases, it is true these outsiders already 
have a clientele off the campus, so that they have a less formid- 
able task than the student is likely to have. The full develop- 
ment of this phase of the work will require systematic direc- 
tion in some quarter, — either by some member of the staff 
of the Office or by the associated students themselves. 

In this connection it is important to remember that there 
are, on the campus, a number of full-time jobs, as well as some 
part-time jobs, apart from trustees appointments, which 
might be filled through the Office more generally than now 
seems to be the case. Thus, the Book-Store, the Chemistry 
Stores Division, Kings Crown, the Commons, and the Bur- 
sar's Office all hire part or full-time workers. The managers 
of each of these divisions of the University ought not to be 
left in ignorance of the fact that the Appointments Office 
is doing business. Here, too, a simple form distributed at the 
beginning of each Semester ought to be helpful. 



282 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

With respect to both part and full-time work it would be 
wise, I think, to have in each school of the University (except- 
ing, of course, Barnard and Teachers College) some member 
of the faculty of that school designated as a liaison officer, 
whose duty it would be to keep in rather close touch with 
the Appointments Office and to serve as the channel through 
which his faculty may communicate with the Office, and 
vice versa. This officer would be the natural person to whom 
to refer openings which come to the attention of members of 
his faculty and on whom the Appointments Office might call 
when in need of such information or advice as would naturally 
be sought in that particular school. Single liaison officers 
would perhaps meet the need better than would the establish- 
ment of employment committees in the various schools. The 
committee system is easily pushed too far. Moreover it tends 
to absorb too large a part of the time of the instructors. 
Naturally, the liaison officers in the different schools might be 
constituted an advisory committee on employment, with the 
Secretary of Appointments, the Director of Admissions and 
the Secretary of the University as additional members. Such 
a committee might be of considerable help to the Office as a 
consulting and advisory body. 

The Law Clerkship Committee of the Law School has 
demonstrated how very effective organized co-operation be- 
tween the Appointments Office and the different schools 
might be. The work is done through co-operation between 
students of the Law School and its alumni, assisted by the 
Appointments Office, the routine details being handled 
through the Office. The Law Clerkship Committee makes 
recommendations of applicants to fill positions, and these 
applicants, with the approval of the Dean, are sent out for 
the necessary interviews. 

Possible expansion of the work of the Office might take 
the form of branching out into employment work for gradu- 
ates, — i. e., for students who have left Columbia and been at 
work for some time ; it might also take the form of vocational 
guidance work; and, of course, it might take both these 
forms. Probably it would not be wise immediately to under- 



APPENDIX 3 283 

take either one of these new fields of work. The Office should 
first of all, I think, get its full-time placement work more 
firmly in hand, and its intra -mural connections to working 
more smoothly. That done, it seems to me that the University 
should consider very seriously the problem of vocational 
guidance and the desirability of providing such guidance, in 
some degree, for its students, through the joint efforts of the 
Appointments Office and the Office of the Director of Admis- 
sions. I understand that some time ago a plan for vocational 
guidance and expert counseling for students was worked out 
through the joint efforts of the Columbia College Faculty 
Committee on Advice and the College Alumni Association 
Vocational Committee. The solid foundation for the future 
development of vocational guidance work may be said to 
have been already laid by Columbia College in establishing 
the psychological tests for admission. Vocational guidance 
would build upon the records furnished in the psychological 
tests and, on this basis, endeavor more adequately to prepare 
the student for the kind of work to which his talents and 
temperament dispose him, thus making the work of his place- 
ment in industry less a matter of blind chance. 

The growing importance of vocational training and guidance 
is evidenced on every hand. With the passage of the Smith- 
Hughes Act the Federal Government committed itself to the 
support and encouragement of vocational education enter- 
prises in the various states and, through the agency of the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education, by the Federal 
government itself. At Dartmouth College and at Northwest- 
ern University pioneer work in vocational guidance is now 
under way in connection with student personnel and employ- 
ment work. A university like Columbia where the professional 
schools constitute such an important part of the institution 
is perhaps better suited to the development of vocational 
guidance service than is the college. Moreover, as already 
remarked, important preliminaries to vocational guidance are 
already a matter of established routine at Columbia. I refer 
to the psychological tests, which constitute the basis for the 
determination of vocational aptitudes, even though they are 
not vocational tests. 



284 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Furthermore, at the other end of the course, on the eve of 
graduation, the University makes a systematic effort to place 
its students in appropriate positions in the vocations for which 
it is presumed they are fitted. In a sense, then, vocational 
guidance would seem to be a logical and necessary conse- 
quence of the psychological tests, and, no less, a desirable if 
not a necessary preparation for adequate and. satisfactory 
placement. 

It is true that the professional schools offer, in some degree, 
a substitute for vocational guidance. For them, consequently 
the discussion of vocational guidance is, probably, not so 
pertinent as it is for Columbia College, and, to a less extent, 
University Extension and the non-professional graduate 
schools. Yet it should be noted as a highly significant fact 
that large numbers of law graduates do not practice law, 
many engineering graduates go into other lines of work than 
engineering, and many journalism graduates go into other 
than newspaper work. Many engineering students moreover 
have a difficult time deciding what branch of engineering to 
take up. In the School of Business the problem of what one 
among a host of business vocations should be chosen is often 
a very perplexing one for the Business graduate. 

The following remarks of President Butler, in his Annual 
Report for 191 7, are worth citing in this connection: 

The number of college graduates who turn from one field to another 
and another, in the first five years after taking their degree, is very large. A 
much larger proportion of professional students do not practice the calling 
for which they have been trained. . . . Neither they nor their families 
know how to find places or for what places they are fit. The colleges make 
a wholly inefficient provision for such men. It is appalling to see the time 
lost by some graduates before they find themselves, or their jobs. 

The problem of vocational guidance is closely associated 
with the problem of the courses of study. In fact it is the voca- 
tional demands and opportunities of modern industry which 
have done much to expand and diversify courses of study. At 
Columbia we seem committed to a pretty well diversified 
curriculum — one which is well calculated (so far as a very large 
proportion of its constituent courses are concerned) to 



APPENDIX 3 285 

meet the needs of students desiring more or less technical 
training for certain vocations. This being the case, it would 
seem to be highly important that the work of making and 
remaking the curriculum be done with as full a knowledge as 
possible of the vocational opportunities actually available in 
the business and industrial world, of the lines of work in which 
the labor market is oversupplied, of the other lines in which 
the demand appreciably exceeds the supply. Thus, electrical 
engineering at present seems to be an overcrowded profession ; 
in the ceramic industries, on the other hand, there appears to 
be a distinct shortage of trained men. The Appointments 
Secretary on this account ought to have an advisory part, if 
possible, in the shaping up of courses of study, to the end that 
it may be kept more closely adjusted to the changing demands 
of the business world. The work of full-time placement, 
especially, is sensitive to changes in the curriculum. 

It is possible that Columbia may in the future organize 
some kind of Industrial Research and Service Bureau, similar 
to the organizations maintained at Harvard, New York Uni- 
versity and the Carnegie Institute of Technology. This report 
is not the proper place for a discussion of such a project. 
I allude to it because of the conviction that the way to secure 
the cooperation of industrial concerns in the enterprise of 
placing students in jobs is to do constructive research work for 
these concerns. It was stated at a recent meeting of the Per- 
sonnel Research Federation that an expenditure of $150,000 
for such a service to industrial concerns would be matched 2 to 
1 by payments for such service from cooperating corporations 
and by endowment from foundations. A by-product of such a 
university bureau of industrial counsel and research would be 
the immensely greater volume of contacts of which the Ap- 
pointments Office could avail itself. But quite apart from 
the existence of such a bureau it is highly desirable that the 
University, through the Appointments Office or some other 
agency, maintain research co-operation with as many business 
and industrial establishments as possible. 

It does not seem to me desirable, at the present time, to 
undertake to extend the scope of the full-time appointments 



286 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

work to include alumni. The Office ought first, it seems to me, 
to develop more fully the full-time work for seniors. It may be 
noted that at Yale, where alumni placements were handled for 
two years, such work has been discontinued. This alumni 
employment work might perhaps be undertaken by the alumni 
and an office created for the purpose at the Columbia Uni- 
versity Club. 

Much more "field work" needs to be done than can possibly 
be done now by an office whose responsible staff is practically 
limited to two persons. Unquestionably one very important 
way to bring the Office to the attention of employing concerns, 
perhaps the most important way, is to visit those concerns. 
The vital importance of this work is fully appreciated by the 
present staff, and Miss Breed and Miss Wegener make frequent 
visits to downtown concerns. But the routine business of the 
Office is, by itself, almost enough completely to absorb the 
energies of the present staff. I should say that provision should 
be made for a member of the Office Staff to give his whole time 
to outside contact and promotion work. 

Another eminently worthwhile piece of work which the 
Appointments Office, in co-operation, say, with the School of 
Business, might well undertake is the making of an industrial 
survey of the occupational opportunities in the metropolitan 
region, and, possibly, in the State of New York and sections of 
Connecticut and New Jersey adjacent to the metropolis. 
Such a survey would furnish an invaluable guide in the work 
of full-time placement. This survey might even include the 
listing of individual firms, with size of personnel and the 
numbers in different occupations noted. All this could very 
conveniently be made a part of the work of the "contact" man 
already referred to. 

It is evident that the Appointments Office, given the neces- 
sary support, need not lack for work to do. It may quite 
naturally evolve into a combined employment and vocational 
guidance bureau, undertaking to advise students in their 
choice of occupations and then to place them as satisfactorily 
as possible in those occupations. It would necessarily main- 
tain close and continuing contact with alumni and other 
employers on the one hand, and with students on the other — 



APPENDIX 3 287 

while at the same time co-operating (for the better service of 
these groups of employer and student clients), with Uni- 
versity Officers, the Admissions Office, the various University 
Departments, and other employment bureaus, both on and off 
the campus. 

The effective administration of this work calls for executive 
and planning ability of a rather high order. The work calls for 
imagination, administrative ability, initiative, good judgment 
of men and women, sympathy and some experience in the 
technique of personnel work. I should say that experience 
in the administration of a public employment office would be an 
invaluable asset. So also would experience as employment 
manager for some industrial concern. Yet University Ap- 
pointments Office work is so specialized that the experience 
with this very Office which is possessed by its present staff 
is doubtless worth as much as — perhaps it is worth even more 
than — experience in public or establishment bureaus. I 
should say that the person who is in charge of the Office should 
have rank and salary not lower than that of an assistant 
professor. 

During the four months in which I frequently was in the 
Office, I had excellent opportunity to observe the work of its 
staff. As a result, I have formed a high opinion of the quality 
of the work which is being done by Misses Breed and Wegener, 
the two responsible members of the staff. I believe these 
women are carrying on very effectively under conditions which 
are anything but ideal and with resources none too adequate 
for the task. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Paul F. Brissenden 

September 1, 192J 



APPENDIX 4 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF EARL HALL 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

I have the honor to submit this report to you for the ten 
months (September I, 1922 to June 30, 1923) during which I 
have been Director of Earl Hall. 

The refurnishing of Earl Hall last summer has greatly aided 
in maintaining and developing the building as a center on the 
campus for student activities. The old trophy room has been 
improved by removing the large case of silver cups to the lobby 
and by installing attractive furniture. Through the coopera- 
tion of Mr. Watt, the Graduate Manager, many trophies and 
banners have been added to the building and the athletic record 
chart has been brought up to date. The main floor now offers 
three large rooms (in addition to the offices of the Chaplain and 
the Director) open to students in the day time as reading rooms 
and lounge, and two of these are in constant use evenings for 
groups of seventy-five to eighty-five people. The auditorium 
on the upper floor leaves much to be desired as to furnishings, 
but nevertheless has been in constant use for larger meetings 
and for dances and receptions. My plan is to develop the audi- 
torium, as fast as funds are available, for dramatics and thus 
be able to take care of many of the student plays that now have 
to engage space down town. We should be able to offer a much 
lower rate of charges and also, more important, to permit the 
holding of these plays on the campus under proper supervision. 
To deal adequately with this problem requires the use of the new 
Student Hall but I feel that in the meantime Earl Hall can be 
made far more efficient. 



290 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

ASSIGNMENT OF EARL HALL ROOMS 
DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1922— 1923 

Auditorium All Other Rooms 

Winter Term 145 129 

Spring Term 126 140 

Total 271 Meetings 269 Meetings 

The Varsity "C" Club accepted the old trophy room as its 
headquarters. The Freshman Athletic Adviser — Mr. William 
T. Cook — has also used this room as his office. The Student 
Board have taken over Room R on the second floor and made 
it a conference room for the various undergraduate interests. 
Chaplain Knox, whose office continues in Room M, is direct- 
ing the C. U. C. A. and the work of the Christian Association 
centers in his office. The Cosmopolitan Club continues to use 
Earl Hall for "national nights" and for the Sunday evening sup- 
pers of the foreign students. The Come Back Club has used the 
building all through the year. Earl Hall has been open each 
night of the Academic Year without charge to these various 
groups until ten o'clock. Meetings continuing until midnight 
have had to pay a reasonable charge for service. An attempt 
has been made to furnish meeting places for graduate students, 
and the Graduate English Club, the Sociology Club, the 
Roberts Fellows and groups from the various professional 
schools have been accommodated. Meetings of the faculty and 
students have been encouraged, as the Contemporary Civiliza- 
tion party held under that department in November, and the 
General Honors party arranged by Dean Hawkes and Profes- 
sor Erskine last spring. During the Christmas Holidays, a 
series of informal smokers were held for the students who were 
unable to return to their homes. The use of a portion of the 
Entertainment Fund will enable me next year to assist in 
developing meetings of students and faculty, especially in 
encouraging the various graduate clubs — a subject called to my 
attention by several of the University officers. 

Early last fall, as a result of a conference of all interested 
parties called by the Committee on Student Organizations, the 
Earl Hall office was designated as the place of assignment for 
rooms for all extra-curricular activities. This involved a close 



APPENDIX 4 291 

cooperation between Earl Hall and Mr. Fox of the Registrar's 
Office on the one hand and with Mr. Hubbard of King's Crown 
on the other. A University calendar (in which Barnard and 
Teachers College have also cooperated) of all student meetings 
held on the campus was set up and has been maintained 
throughout the year. Into this all advance dates for athletics 
and dramatics were placed by Mr. Watt and Mr. Hubbard 
This has prevented many conflicts because at the time of appli- 
cation the situation in regard to that day or week is seen at a 
glance. Then also the calendar has furnished excellent data for 
studying the situation as regards extra-curricular meetings on 
the campus. In using this office for this purpose the procedure 
in regard to securing rooms for student meetings was simplified : 
the student applying deals only with the Earl Hall Office and, 
in case advance payments are required, with the Bursar's 
Office; and a uniform procedure has been more easily set up 
for the supervision of dances and receptions. Another year will 
show many more definite results. 

Beginning January 1, 1923, the Director of Earl Hall was 
made Executive Officer of the Advisory Committee on Men's 
Residence Halls. This has brought into this office the details 
of the three men's residence halls, establishing a point of con- 
tact between the Director and the nine hundred and more men 
residing on South Field. It has given a splendid opportunity to 
work with the student committees in the three halls on matters 
of student government and also to assist in developing a pro- 
gram of social activities for the halls. The Secretary's Office 
has received all inquiries regarding rooms and has forwarded 
the necessary announcements and application blanks. On re- 
ceipt of the signed applications the assignments have been made 
in this office. In case of long waiting lists — as is always the 
case with the graduate and professional schools hall (Furnald) 
— the Secretary's Office has notified the applicant and referred 
the request to the University Residence Bureau. In this way 
a very real cooperation has been established that has resulted 
in an efficient handling of applicants and an assurance to each 
that he would be provided for in some way — if not in the Men's 
Halls then in the apartments in the immediate vicinity of the 



292 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

campus. This working together has been amply justified in the 
handling of the applicants for the Summer Session. 

In continuing the development of Earl Hall as the student 
center and taking up these various lines of activity, I want to 
record my appreciation of the work and counsel of my secre- 
tary, Mrs. Herbert W. Schneider. 

Herbert B. Howe 

Director 
August i, 1923 



APPENDIX 5 

REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD 
OF STUDENT REPRESENTATIVES 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I923 

To the President of the University 

Sir: 

As Chairman of the Student Board of Representatives for 
the academic year 1922-1923 I have the honor to submit the 
following report. 

In the spring of 1922 the following members of the class of 
1923 were elected members of the Board of Student Represen- 
tatives: Messrs. J. S. Blundell, R. M. Burtt, R. W. Keenan, 
G. Medigovich and F. V. Brodil. These men with Messrs. 
R. F. Pulleyn and M. T. Reilly who were elected in February 
1922, constituted the Board for the academic year 1922-1923. 
At the first meeting of the Board, held in May, 1922, Mr. Bro- 
dil was elected Chairman and Mr. Reilly was elected Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Howe, the director of Earl 
Hall, and the efforts of Dean Hawkes the Student Board has 
finally secured the use of a suitable office. Room R, Earl Hall, 
was furnished and turned over to the Board for its exclusive 
use. At various times other organizations, such as the King's 
Crown Board of Governors were permitted to make use of the 
room. This most satisfactory headquarters should fill the needs 
of the Board until the new Students' Hall is completed. 

At the opening of the Winter Session the Student Board 
held a reception for the incoming freshman class. The meeting 
was held on the evening before our first football game and was 
the first opportunity the Class of 1926 had to meet as a unit 
and give its first display of the spirit and enthusiasm that has 
distinguished that class throughout its first year. The class 
filled the Earl Hall auditorium and the speakers included Dean 



294 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Hawkes, Chaplain Knox and all our coaches and captains. 
Every activity was represented and the newcomers were made 
acquainted with every possible field of extra-curricular activity 
the college has to offer. 

At the beginning of the football season the Student Board 
held the competition for cheer leaders. Irving E. Cooper, '23, 
head cheer leader with W. E. Ferris, '24, G. Brophy, '24, and 
S. Blundell, '23, executed their work as cheer leaders not only 
during the football season but through the entire academic 
year at all gatherings, athletic as well as non-athletic, wherever 
their services were in demand. 

The Student Board kept in close touch with the administra- 
tion of the affairs of the Freshman class during the entire aca- 
demic year. Until the freshman elections were held in Decem- 
ber the Freshman Activities Committee, composed of Juniors 
chosen by the Board, organized the activities of the class, called 
meetings and advised the members of the class in matters per- 
taining to Columbia. The practice of issuing the Freshman 
Activity Button to those participating in extra-curricular ac- 
tivities was continued. In December the Board felt that the 
Freshmen knew one another well enough to choose their own 
officers. There has always been a tendency for Freshman Class 
officers to devote so much time to their class that they have 
failed to keep up in their studies. This year the Board allowed 
only those candidates to run for office who had the sanction of 
Dean Hawkes and Mr. W. T. Cook as to their ability to handle 
both their curricular and extra-curricular work successfully. 
A primary election and registration was held simultaneously 
and the three highest candidates for each office were declared 
eligible for the final election. 

During the academic year 1921-1922 some of the social af- 
fairs on the campus were marked by boisterousness and exces- 
sive drinking. In an effort to eradicate this evil from our cam- 
pus a petition was drawn up by the Student Board of Repre- 
sentatives, and the leaders in all our branches of college activity 
pledged their support and cooperation in remedying the situa- 
tion. The governing board of the students in the School of 
Business also pledged their aid in this undertaking. This action 



APPENDIX 5 295 

succeeded in making the social affairs of the year much more 
like the type we want at Columbia and gave evidences that the 
situation would continue to improve. The Varsity Show, Jun- 
ior Prom and other more important social events of the college 
year showed a remarkable improvement in atmosphere and 
conduct over previous years. 

The Board through a committee organized a trip to Ithaca 
so that undergraduates might support their team at the annual 
football game with Cornell. Busses and a special train were 
provided and more than five hundred undergraduates made the 
trip. A campaign was carried on to take the University Band 
to Cornell. The tagging was continued for three days and suffi- 
cient funds were raised to send the musicians to Ithaca. 
The cheering of this loyal contingent was a fine display of true 
Columbia spirit. 

A mass meeting in the Commons was arranged by the Board 
for the night before the Dartmouth game to be played at the 
Polo Grounds and it proved to be one of the most successful 
ever held by Columbia undergraduates. The support the 
undergraduates gave the teams this year was all that could be 
asked of any group of college students. 

During the Winter Session a committee was appointed to 
consider from an undergraduate viewpoint the plans for the 
Students' Hall to be erected on South Field. The committee 
and the members of the board made a considerable study of 
the problem and finally made a formal report which the Board 
of Representatives endorsed and submitted to the Trustees and 
officers of the University. 

Through the courtesy of the Athletic Association the Tug- 
of-War was again permitted to be contested on South Field. 
As in past years this traditional contest proved a great success, 
bringing out both Freshman and Sophomore classes in full 
strength and resulting in a bitterly fought struggle. 

There were no protests received this year in regard to the 
S. A. F. privileges given by the Athletic Association and the 
King's Crown. Both organizations issued tickets and copies of 
the publications to the S. A. F. ticket holders in a more efficient 
and satisfactory manner than ever before. There were several 



296 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

cases of students transferring their cards to persons not en- 
titled to use them and wherever such violations were appre- 
hended the Board confiscated the cards and suspended the 
S. A. F. privilege for the entire semester. 

The rules regulating the dinner scraps were revised and 
clarified this year. In past years the rules have been so vague 
as to cause considerable misunderstanding and some of them 
were regarded as unfair by the classes concerned. The new 
rules put into effect this year were approved by the officers 
and dinner committees of both classes before being put in 
operation by the Board of Representatives. Among the note- 
worthy changes made this year were; the shortening of the 
period to one week; the participants were not permitted to 
solicit outside aid; the fraternity houses, dormitories, private 
dwellings and hotels were not to be used as the scenes of scraps ; 
the participants were not permitted to cut classes to evade 
capture; the time that a captive might be held was shortened. 
There were no riots of any consequence this year or scraps 
accompanied by destruction of private property and resulting 
in a nuisance to the public. Good feeling prevailed between the 
classes and there was cleaner and better rivalry than ever 
before. 

In connection with the New York University football game 
there appeared articles in Jester and Spectator, which cast 
discredit on Columbia. Although the intentions of both 
publications were good their efforts were so misdirected as to 
require the removal of the editor of Jester and the tendering 
of suitable apologies to the persons concerned therein. This 
was one of the most difficult situations the Board had to 
confront this year. 

When the committee in charge of Alumni Day, headed by 
Mr. Ryan, decided to secure as much undergraduate participa- 
tion in the affairs of this occasion as possible, the Student 
Board was invited to cooperate. Its work, together with that 
of other campus organizations, resulted in a strong student 
support of Alumni Day and the affair was declared by the 
graduates to be one of the most successful ever held on the 
Heights. The athletic events of the afternoon and the evening 



APPENDIX 5 297 

entertainment following the Alumni Dinner were given en- 
tirely by the students of the college. 

Another undertaking that is deserving of special mention 
was the presentation of "Julius Caesar," by the Philolexian 
Society. The society called for candidates from the entire 
student body and the cast included many students that were 
not members of the Philolexian Society. The Student Board 
endeavored to secure the support of the entire college for the 
enterprise. Although the venture did not prove a success finan- 
cially, it was remarkably successful artistically in the opinion 
of many persons qualified to judge. 

The Van Am Club, a new organization, was formed this year 
under the supervision of the Student Board. It is a sophomore 
honorary society of about fifty men to be elected at the end of 
their freshman year by the Van Am Club of that year. The 
purpose of this organization is to represent Columbia in its 
relations with the public and other institutions; by acting as 
ushers at athletic contests and social functions; to welcome 
and take care of visiting teams ; to make Columbia attractive 
to the type of prep school man we want to have at Columbia ; 
to keep the prep schools informed as to the activities and 
accomplishments of their alumni at Columbia. This club has 
proved very helpful and has accomplished much even though 
it was only organized in February. 

One of the most successful events of the Spring Session was 
the trip to Philadelphia to witness the Child's Cup Races and 
the Penn Relays. This trip was made possible by the untiring 
efforts of the Committee in its brilliant advertising campaign 
and its determination to put the trip across despite all obsta- 
cles. It was only at the last moment that the required quota 
of five hundred tickets was reached to make the special train 
possible. There were hundreds of other supporters that jour- 
neyed to the contests by auto. Those who made the trip were 
amply repaid in witnessing one of Columbia's most successful 
days in sport. The crew swept the Schuylkill, defeating Penn- 
sylvania and Princeton in both races. The track team won the 
mile relay championship due to a brilliant quarter by Kop- 
pisch, placed second in the four-mile relay and Higgins won 
the two-mile international. 



298 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

The Intercollegiate Conference was held this year at the 
University of Pennsylvania. The Student Board chose four 
men to represent Columbia in the four separate divisions of 
the conference, i. e. (1) Student self-government, (2) athletics, 
(3) musical clubs and dramatics, and (4) publications. The 
delegation was composed of two Juniors and two Seniors. 
Juniors were chosen so that the ideas applicable to our own 
problems could be put into practice next year. The Conference 
was attended by 200 delegates from about 75 colleges situated 
in different parts of the United States. 

To take the place of the dangerous Flag Rush which was 
abolished two years ago, the Sack Rush was instituted. Nine 
immense canvas sacks were made to order and filled with excel- 
sior. The sacks were placed in the center of South Field and 
an equal number from the Sophomore and Freshman were 
divided into nine groups. Each of the groups was assigned to 
contest for one bag and at a given signal both classes ran from 
opposite ends of the field to fight for the bags and drag them 
across their side of the goal line. This Rush resulted in an ex- 
citing and spirited struggle which compared very favorably 
from the points of view of both spectators and participants 
with the Flag Rush. These bags can be used indefinitely and 
this rush should become an annual event. 

A Flour Rush was also planned but a suitable hour for the 
contest could not be arranged at so late a time in the semester 
so that this contest remains to be tested next year by the mem- 
bers of the 1924 Student Board who are familiar with the rules 
of the contest. 

This year the scope of inter-class athletics was extended from 
a crew race between two classes to a crew race for three classes ; 
a football series for three classes ; a swimming meet, a water- 
polo tournament and a track meet of four classes. The interest 
and value of these intra-mural contests have become so evi- 
dent that the Student Board has appointed an inter-class 
sports committee under the supervision of Dr. W. T. Cook 
whose leadership will guarantee the continuity of the work 
from year to year. The Student Board recommends that 
provision be made as soon as practicable at Baker Field for the 



APPENDIX 5 299 

accommodation of the students participating in intra-mural 
sports. 

The system of elections was simplified so that registration 
and voting took place at the same time. For the February and 
May elections all the voters were registered according to their 
S. A. F. ticket numbers. The signature of each candidate was 
required next to his number at each election and compared 
with the signature on his S. A. F. card. Voting was held for a 
period of three days from 10.00 A. M. to 5.00 P. M. It was so 
simple a matter to vote and so little time was required that 
over a thousand men cast their ballots in the May elections. 

The four class presidents cooperated with the Chairman of 
the Student Board in planning the events for the college year 
to avoid any conflicts in dates. An effort was made to have the 
traditional events of the year take place at a certain time each 
year so that in future all organizations could count on dates 
that would not conflict with the important college functions. 
The Class Dinners, Junior Week, Junior Prom, Senior Prom, 
Varsity Show, Philo Show and Soph Show should take place at 
approximately the same time each year. 

The work of the Department of Buildings and Grounds in 
keeping the Bulletin Boards free from unauthorized notices 
and those posters not conforming to the regulations of the 
Student Board was so efficient that we had no trouble at all in 
that way. 

The sanction of the Faculty to hold the West Point Trip on 
May 12th was granted early in the Spring Session. The Faculty 
granted us permission to have another trip and declared the 
day a college holiday on the condition that the Board guaran- 
tee that the trip be a representative Columbia affair. Arrange- 
ments were completed under the direction of R. W. Keenan, 
'23, and everything that could be done to make the trip plea- 
sant was carried out. The Board succeeded in accomplishing 
its object of a Columbia trip for Columbia men and the trip 
was a truly representative Columbia event. The affair was not 
as successful financially as the trips have been in the past due 
to the fact that inclement weather kept many people away. 
The baseball game, military drill and the other outdoor fea- 



300 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

tures were all cancelled due to the rain. Considering the 
weather and the other difficulties that came up at the last mo- 
ment it is remarkable that the people who came had as enjoy- 
able and as pleasant a trip as the affair turned out to be. It is 
the opinion of the Student Board that they were mistaken as 
to the number of students who really wanted to have another 
excursion to West Point. 

In concluding the report for the academic year 1 922-1 923 
there are a number of recommendations which are respectfully 
submitted for consideration. 

First, that noon hour classes hamper under-graduate activities 
and should be abolished as soon as practicable. 

Second, that intra-mural athletics be encouraged in every 
way possible and that accommodations be created for them 
at Baker Field. 

Third, that the West Point Trip should be discontinued until 
a more general interest on the part of the student body should 
warrant the risk of having another trip. That the trip be guar- 
anteed to be a representative Columbia trip as well as a 
financial success. 

Fourth, that steps should be taken to enlarge and improve 
the University Band. It has made splendid progress despite 
many handicaps. 

Fifth, that the manor house at Baker Field be renovated and 
furnished so that it shall be the most attractive home for ath- 
letes possessed by any college. 

The Student Board of Representatives has to meet numerous 
small problems that require efficient and willing student board 
members and the earnest support of the student body. These 
small problems which are too numerous and unimportant indi- 
vidually to deserve mention in the Chairman's report are 
really the field for the Board's most effective work. It is in this 
respect that the Chairman of this year's Board feels it has 
had its greatest success. Much of the work was divided so that 
each student board member was called upon to act as chairman 
of a committee to accomplish certain important work. I feel 
that in this respect the Chairman of this Board was particu- 
larly fortunate. The Board worked together splendidly, each 



APPENDIX 5 301 

member did his allotted share of the work and this was due in 
no small degree to the friendship existing between the members 
of the Board. The student body supported the Board in all its 
actions and decisions and no Chairman could ask for better co- 
operation. The campus publications were always eager and 
willing to help the Board carry out any of its plans. I cannot 
help calling attention to the splendid work of Messrs. F. Booth, 
T. Chrystie and E. C. Bennett of the Class of 1924 and of 
Messrs. G. Medigovich, F. W. Taylor, R. W. Keenan, C. Ford 
and R. F. Pulleyn of the Class of 1923 in meeting Student 
Board problems. The Board is greatly indebted to Dean 
Hawkes and Secretary Fackenthal for their interest in its work 
and their willingness to offer suggestions and assist us at all 
times. Mr. B. A.Hubbard, Graduate Treasurer of King'sCrown 
and Mr. R. W. Watt, Graduate Manager of the Athletic Asso- 
ciation, helped in many ways and made it possible for us to se- 
cure funds from their respective organizations to carry on our 
work. Mr. Wright of the Department of Buildings and 
Grounds offered much valuable assistance during the year and 
some of our work would have been well nigh impossible without 
his hearty cooperation. The seven members of the Student 
Board of Representatives this year represented almost every 
field of extra-curricular activity in college. The spirit in which 
these men have worked in their various activities has been 
responsible for the steady improvement in undergraduate 
life at Columbia since their entrance as Freshmen. It has been 
a great pleasure to all of us to serve as members of the Student 
Board and we can only hope that the members of the 1924 
Board will find as much satisfaction and pleasure in working 
with the Faculty and the students of the college in bringing us 
nearer the goal Columbia strives to attain. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Franklin V. Brodil, 

Chairman 
June 30, 1Q23 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1 923 
AND FOR THE SUMMER SESSION OF 1 923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As Registrar of the University, I have the honor to submit 
the following report for the year ended June 30, 1923 and for 
the Summer Session of 1923. 

During the year beginning July 1, 1922 there were enrolled 
at Columbia University 30,619 resident students as compared 
with 29,420 in the preceding year and 12,422 ten years ago. 
This student body is made up of three main divisions as 
follows : 

Men Women Total 
Undergraduate, Graduate and Pro- 
fessional Schools 6,006 5,572 11,578 

University Extension 4,9*6 4,402 9,318 

Summer Session 4,272 8,295 I2 >567 

Total 15,194 18,269 33,463 

The figure first mentioned above is the net total arrived at 
after deducting 2,844 duplications within these groups, 2,645 
of whom were sudents who received instruction both in the 
Summer Session and the Winter or Spring Session following. 

12,567 were enrolled in the Summer Session, 17,397 in the 
Winter Session and 16,071 in the Spring Session. Thus the 
aggregate session -registrations numbered 46,035. 

5,447 not included above received instruction as non-resi- 
dent students in University Extension as follows: 3,244 in 
Extramural courses, 831 in Home Study courses and i,37 2 
in Special courses. 

Of the 11,578 students in the undergraduate, graduate and 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 303 

professional schools 4,787 or 41 per cent, were residents of 
Greater New York, and 511 or about 4.4 per cent, were from 
foreign countries. Every state of the Union was represented 
by the remaining group. Twenty-five or more came from each 
of 36 states a,nd ten or more from each of 46 states. The 
largest foreign representation in the group was that from 
China with 193; Canada came second with 68, and Japan third 
with 52. The ratio of out-of-town students has increased from 
51.4 per cent, in 1913-14 to 58.9 in 1922-23. 

Holders of degrees from 534 different institutions of learn- 
ing were enrolled in the graduate and professional schools 
exclusive of the College of Pharmacy; 108 foreign institutions 
were represented in this number. Of the 8,244 students in 
the group 4,852 or nearly 59 per cent, were holders of one or 
more degrees, 992 being graduates of two or more higher in- 
stitutions of learning. 

During the academic year 3,122 at the University received 
degrees and diplomas in course, 2,828 completing courses 
leading to a degree as compared with 1,452 ten years ago. 

Each of the following departments within the Corporation 
gave instruction to more than 500 students, exclusive of 
University Extension and Summer Session: 



Department 


No. of Students 


English and Comparative Literature 


1830 


Physical Education 


1231 


Romance Languages and Literature 


1225 


Economics 


1068 


Mathematics 


795 


History 


783 


Chemistry 


762 


Private Law 


707 


Contemporary Civilization 


685 


Business 


583 


Physics 


555 



In the Summer, Winter and Spring Sessions 112,411 was 
the aggregate attendance in 3,166 courses offered by the Cor- 
poration for resident students. The average class roll was 
about 36. The following shows the number of courses and the 



304 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

aggregate attendance under the three main divisions within 
the Corporation: 

Division No. of Courses Aggregate 

Attendance 

Graduate, Undergraduate and 

Professional Schools 1363 49> I0 4 

University Extension 1011 3°,88i 

Summer Session 792 3 2 »4 26 



Total 3166 112,411 

University Extension gave instruction to 17,543 students, 
resident and non-resident. These are classified as follows: 

Resident Students: 

Matriculated 2,778 

Non-matriculated 9,3*8 

Non-resident Students: 

Extramural 3> 2 44 

Home Study 831 

Special i,37 2 

Total 17,543 

Of the 9,318 resident non-matriculants 3,176 or over 34 per 
cent, were out-of-town students, 176 coming from foreign 
lands; 4,402 or 47 per cent, were women; 3,572 or over 38 
per cent, were former students returning to continue their 
academic work. 

Of the subjects offered in University Extension for resident 
students the following had aggregate class attendance of 
more than 1,000 each: 



Subject 


Courses Offered 


Aggregate Attendance 


English 


102 


6,411 


Business 


109 


4-38o 


History 


2 5 


1,884 


French 


3 2 


1,819 


Spanish 


36 


1,252 


Oral Hygiene 


2 3 


i, 2 35 


Mathematics 


20 


1,142 


Psychology 


18 


1,060 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 305 

The statistical tables which follow supply in greater detail 
information on matters touched upon above, together with 
other facts and figures gathered from the student records. 
The periods covered by these reports are the Fiscal Year 
1922-23 and the Summer Session of 1923. 

The office routine, faithfully and intelligently carried on by 
the staff, consisted mainly of registration and record keeping; 
preparation of class rolls, reports of standing, credentials, 
diplomas, examination schedules and the Student Directory; 
computation of student fees and adjustments; assignment of 
class rooms; tabulation of statistics and checking of eligi- 
bility for student organizations. Mr. Edward B. Fox, Assi- 
tant Registrar, has kept himself in close touch with themanage- 
ment of these tasks. In addition to the regular staff as many 
as seventy extra helpers have been employed at busy times. 
For purposes of record there are listed below the names of 
members of the regular staff. 

The Staff 

Mrs. Nancy D. Baines Miss Elsie Kempton 

Mr. Walter L. Baker Miss Iva Kempton 

Miss Marjorie L. Barrington Miss Alice A. King 

Miss Ina Bell Mr. Charles E. Kunz 

Mr. George L. Campbell Miss Jane McGrane 

Miss Amilda Creifelds Mrs. Ellen Packer 

Miss Annie F. Currier Miss Viola Reynolds 

(Resigned) 

Mrs. Gertrude Finan Miss Violet T. Totten 

Miss Helene Gladwin Miss Edith Van Wagner 

(Resigned) 

Mr. George H. Kean Miss Beatrice Young 

(Resigned) 

The academic calendar of today is fundamentally the same 
as that of thirty years ago, especially with respect to dates 
defining the sessions. Back in those days the enrollment was 
well under 2,000; today we have more than ten times that 
number of students exclusive of the Summer Session. The 



306 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

academic year was then the basis of credit, and courses generally 
ran from September to May without a real break; now the 
session has become the basic period of residence and courses 
end at mid-year with final examinations which are often de- 
signed to determine a student's qualification for admission to 
Spring Session courses. In our calendar of thirty years ago 
a lapse of three working days was allowed between the last 
mid-year examination and the opening of the Spring Session ; 
we now have only two days, the first Monday and Tuesday 
in February. The interval seems altogether too brief under 
existing conditions when 45,000 or more examination books 
have to be read, rated and reported for record at mid-year. 
A student is required to complete his registration before the 
opening of the Spring Session, but often several days later the 
records may disclose that his standing in the work of the pre- 
ceding session would not warrant his enrollment in courses 
which he has already been attending. A lapse of one full week 
between the close of the mid-year examinations and the open- 
ing of the Spring Session would tend to relieve the situation 
considerably. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 



307 



TABLE I 

REGISTRATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN ALL FACULTIES, DURING THE 
ACADEMIC YEAR, 1922-1923 

Resident Students 



Faculties 


V 

> 

tn 

E 


u 
cd 

V 

> 

■a 

C 




w 


In 
> 

.3 

J3 

H 


u 

> 
si 
u 
3 
O 

to 


m 

V 
OJ 

"2 
•3 
a 
a 
U 
c 

Z 


m 

V 

3 

•a 

Gj 
l-i 

O 


13 



at 

a 

<U 

•a 

3 

w 
is 

V 


S3 
&Z 


Undergraduate Students: 
Columbia College l 


619 

270 


535 
168 


4i3 
219 


474 
94 


13 
70 




2,054 

821 

69 

2.944 

1.872 
683 
400 

221 

65 

142 

355 

19 

2,290 

2,052 

638 

145 

8,882 

248 

11.578 

9,3i8 

20,896 
199 

20,697 

12,567 

33,264 

2,645 

30,610 


698 

359 

55 

I.II2 

614 
298 

124 

114 
22 
92 

202 

8 

877 
78i 
314 

59 

3,505 


34-0 


University Undergraduates. 


79-7 
37.8 

32.8 

43-6 


Total Undergraduates 

Graduate and Professional 
Students: 
Graduate Faculties 2 


889 


703 


632 


568 


83 


1,872 

8 

22 
1 
9 

56 




263 

103 

69 


197 
98 

60 
63 
55 
99 

5 


175 
86 

5i 


94 


40 
19 

19 

1 

12 

86 




Mines, Engineering and 


51.6 
33.8 
64.8 
56.9 
42.1 

38.3 
38.1 
49.2 

40.1 
39-5 


Architecture 


Journalism 


66 
114 

7 






Business 






Dentistry 


3 


4 


Teachers College 8 : 

Education 


988 

689 

26 


1,302 

344 




198 
313 


168 

287 


339 

10 


314 

2 




Unclassified University Stu- 


Total Graduate and Professional 


1 J 33 


1,032 


664 


414 


1,880 


3,6i4 


Deduct Duplicates 4 


Total 


















University Extension 














5.746 


61.7 


Total 














Deduct Duplicates 


















Net Total Winter and Spring 
































7,104 


56.5 


Total 














Deduct Duplicates 


















Grand Net Total, Winter, Spring 
and Summer Sessions. . 


















The above is exclusive of the 
following: non-resident Stu- 
dents in University Exten- 
sion: 

Students in Extramural 
Courses (given with or with- 














3,244 
831 






Students in Home Study 
courses (given without aca- 


















Students in Special Courses 
(given without academic 































1 The registration by years in Columbia College is according to the technical classifica- 
tion, based on the amount of credit earned. 



308 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE Ia 



STATISTICS OF REGISTRATION BY SESSIONS, I922-1923 

Resident Students 



Undergraduate Students: 

Columbia College 

Barnard College 

University Undergraduates 

Graduate and Professional Students: 

Graduate Faculties 

School of Law 

School of Medicine 

Schools of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 

School of Architecture 

School of Journalism 

School of Business 

School of Dentistry 

TparhPrs ToIWp \ School of Education 

ieachers College j Schoo] of Practical Arts 

College of Pharmacy 

Unclassified University Students 

University Extension 



Gross Totals 

Duplicate Registrations. 
Net Total for the Year. . . 



1922 
Summer 
Session 



404 
99 
26 

947 

212 

10 

55 

17 

40 

132 

2 

1,935 

1,047 



7,641 



12,567 



Winter 
Session 



1,904 

764 

45 

1,635 
649 
395 
215 
58 
142 
315 
19 

1,892 

1,747 
638 
105 

6,874 

17,307 



Spring 
Session 



1,928 

783 

53 

1,543 

627 

385 

201 

56 

124 

296 

19 

1,790 

1,652 

638 

102 

5,874 

J.6,071 



Gross 
Totals 



4,236 

1,646 

124 

4.125 

1,488 

790 

471 

131 

306 

743 

40 

5,6i7 

4,446 

1,276 

7.848 

12,748 

46,03s 

15,416 

30,619 



2 The total 1872 does not include 29 college graduates, in Law (28) and Mines, Engineer 
ing and Chemistry (1), who are also candidates for the degree of A.M. or Ph.D. It likewise 
does not include 689 candidates for higher degrees enrolled in the Summer Session only. 

3 Does not include 1774 candidates for a higher degree enrolled in the Summer Session 
only. 

4 167 college seniors exercising a professional option are included in both the Columbia 
College total and those of the respective professional schools, distributed as follows: Law 
86; Medicine 16; Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 52; Business 5; Journalism 5; Archi- 
tecture 2; Dentistry 1. The 248 duplicates also include 81 who transferred at mid-year 
from one school of the Universitv to another. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 



309 



TABLE II 

REGISTRATION AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN ALL FACULTIES, DURING THE 
ACADEMIC YEARS 1913-I914 TO 1922-I923 

Resident Students 



Faculties 



Undergraduate Students: 

Columbia College 

Barnard College 

University Undergraduates 

Total Undergraduates 

Graduate and Professional 
Students 

Graduate Faculties 1 

Law 

Medicine 

Mines Engineering and 
Chemistry 

Architecture 

Music 

Journalism 

Business 

Dentistry 

Teachers College 

Education 

Practical Arts 

Pharmacy 

Unclassified Univ. Students 

Deduct Duplicates 

Total Graduate and Profes- 
sional Students 



941 
666 



1,116 
730 



1,256 
694 



r. 453 
734 



I.3IS 
697 



1,486 
715 



1,901 
755 



1,607 



1,568 
467 
344 

675 

151 

19 

115 



1,875 
453 

374 

481 
112 

143 



1,516 
485 
376 

375 
95 

144 



2,187 



1-358 
474 
451 

276 
90 

155 
61 



1,052 
219 
554 



774 
233 
485 

92 
41 

65 
126 



Deduct Double Registration 

Net Total 

Students in University 

Extension 

Deduct Double Registration 
Total 



Summer Session 

Deduct Double Registration 
Grand Net Total, Winter, 

Spring 6° Summer Sessions 



1,475 
335 
448 
159 
422 

5,334 

7 
6,034 

2,623 
572 

0,085 

4.539 
1,102 

12,422 



950 

1,057 
495 
199 
612 

5,527 

39 
7,334 

3.4H 

761 

9,982 

5,590 
1,235 

14,339 



1,157 

1,065 

510 

161 



5,884 

160 
7,674 

4.503 

880 

11,297 

5.96i 
1,345 

15,913 



1,277 

1,167 

428 

206 



36 

8,094 

6,062 

1,216 

12,940 

8,023 
i,50i 

19,462 



1,078 

1,307 

524 

107 



38 

7,088 

5.895 

1,203 

11,780 

6,144 
1,141 

16,783 



1,073 

1,290 

343 

115 



4,637 

35 

6,803 

6,42s 

1,572 

11,656 

6,022 
1,176 

16,502 



2,656 



1,249 
451 
446 

136 
63 

123 
269 

4 

1.567 

1. 551 

523 

166 



6,548 

87 
9,H7 

11,564 

2,398 

18,283 

9,539 
1,897 

25,925 



1,963 

748 

6 

2,717 



1,303 
584 
401 

191 

74 

137 
361 



1,711 

1,700 

553 

203 



7,226 

202 
9,741 

9.913 
165 

19,489 

9,780 
1,917 

27.352 



2,061 

734 

90 

2,885 



1,520 

694 

377 

206 
69 

146 

420 

13 

1,976 

1,953 

684 

245 



8,303 

237 
10,951 

9,131 

151 

19,931 

11,809 
2,320 

29,420 



2,054 

821 

69 

2,944 



1,872 
683 
400 

221 
65 

142 

355 

19 

2,290 

2,053 

638 

145 



8,882 

248 
n,578 

9.3i8 
199 

20,697 

12,567 
2,645 

30,619 



1 In 1915-1916 candidates for the degree of Master of Arts whose subject of major interest was 
Education (654) were, for the first time, included only under the Faculty of Education. Since 
1916-1917 all students engaged in graduate study with Education as their subject of major interest 
have been counted under the faculty of Education only. 

THE PROPORTION OF MEN AND WOMEN FOR THE PAST TEN YEARS, EXCLUSIVE OF 

THE SUMMER SESSION AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, IS AS FOLLOWS: 



Year 


Men 


Per Cent. 


Women 


Per Cent. 


Total 


1913-1914 


4,277 


61.68 


2,657 


38.32 


6,934 


1914-1915 


4,466 


60.89 


2,868 


39-H 


7,334 


1915-1916 


4.524 


58.96 


3,150 


41.04 


7,674 


1916-1917 


4,682 


57.84 


3,412 


42.16 


8,094 


1917-1918 


3.797 


53-57 


3,291 


46.43 


7,088 


1918-1919 


3,523 


51-79 


3,280 


48.21 


6,803 


1919-1920 


4,945 


54-24 


4,172 


45-76 


9,H7 


1920-1921 


5,3i6 


54-57 


4,425 


45-43 


9,74i 


1921-1922 


5,906 


53-93 


5,045 


46.07 


10,951 


1922-1923 


6,006 


51-87 


5,572 


48.13 


n,578 



3io 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 





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1897-1898 




UNITED STATES 



1922-I923 




UNITED STATES 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS 

(1922-1923 is inclusive of 1922 Summer Session, but not of 
University Extension) 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
Grand Net Total, including Summer Session and University Extension 

1912-1913 to 1921-22 



v. £ 

S"fe"5 

< to 






too 


ON 


fvCQ 

00 


00 O^ 


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31000 
























30000 ' 






















29000 


















28000 




















27000 
















26000 
25000 
24000 
23000 
22000 
2 J 000 
20000 
19000 
I80O0 
17000 
16000 
15000 
14000 
13000 
12000 
11000 
10000 
9000 
8000 
700C 
6000 
5000 
4000 
3000 
2000 
100C 














. 










































































■■ 


! 






















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,1 _.-. 














. 


; 






V 






■': 






. . . ■ . 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 3II 

TABLE IV 



DUPLICATE REGISTRATIONS BETWEEN THE SUMMER SESSION OF 1922 AND 
THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1922-1923 

A. Students of the Summer Session Who Returned in the Winter or Spring Sessions 

of IQ22-IQ23 



SCHOOL OR FACULTY TO WHICH THEY RETURNED 



Architecture 

Barnard College 

School of Business 

Columbia College 

School of Dentistry 

Graduate Faculties (Political Science, Philoso- 
phy and Pure Science) 

Journalism 

Law 



Medical School 

School of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 
Teachers College: 

Education and School of Practical Arts. . . 

College of Pharmacy 

University Undergraduate 

University Extension 



Total. 



Men 



63 
375 



10 

180 



108 

3 



258 



Women Total 



4 
87 



157 
S 



633 

1 
325 



19 

87 

74 

375 



384 

24 

189 



831 
3 



583 



2,64s 



B. Matriculated Graduate Students of the Summer Session of 1022 Who Did or Who 
Did Not Return in the Spring or Winter Sessions of 1922-1023 



FACULTIES 


Returned 


Did Not 
Return 


Total 


Political Science, Philosophy and Pure Science. 


258 
161 


689 
1.774 


947 
1.935 




Total 


410 


2,463 


2 882 







312 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE V 

CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOLS OF MINES, 
ENGINEERING AND CHEMISTRY 



DEPARTMENTS 



Chemical Engineering. 
Civil Engineering 
Electrical Engineering 
Industrial Engineering 
Mechanical Engineer- 
ing , 

Metallurgy 

Mining Engineering. . , 



Total. 



















m 












u 
















> 
•a 
a 
o 
u 

OJ 

03 


V 










> 


> 
X) 


e 1 

o."2 

&"2 


J, ri 

OT3 


"JO M 


"3 a 




J3 


a) 

u 


(1. cij 

o 


Hn 

a 




12 


22 


18 


4 




56 


65 


8 


8 


2 


2 




20 


12 


15 


10 


10 


3 


10 


48 


43 


6 


I 


6 


I 




14 


9 


n 


II 


3 


2 


12 


39 


38 


3 


3 


6 


S 




17 


19 


14 


S 


6 


2 




27 


20 


69 


6o 


Si 


■T0 


22 


221 


206 



H M 



64 
9 

44 
6 

36 

14 



* Total 221 includes 52 College Seniors exercising professional option in Mines, En- 
gineering and Chemistry as follows: 3 C.E.; 7 M.E.; 10 Chem.E.; 1 Met.E.; 6 Ind.E.; 
11 E.M.; 14 E.E. 



TABLE VI 

CLASSIFICATION OF SEMINARY STUDENTS 



SEMINARIES 


1922-1923 


1921-1922 


1920-1921 




13 

10 

13 

8 



12 

5 

12 

10 

2 






8 








6 










Total 


44 


41 


58 







REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE VII 



313 



CLASSIFICATION OF CANDIDATES FOR THE DEGREES OF MASTER OF ARTS 
MASTER OF LAWS, MASTER OF SCIENCE, AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

A . By Primary Registration 



Political Science, Philosophy and Pure Science 

Architecture 

Law (A.M.) 

Law (LL.M.) 

Medicine 

Mines, Engineering and Chemistry (A.M.) 

Mines, Engineering and Chemistry (M.S.) 

Business (M.S.) 

Journalism (A.M.) 

Journalism (M.S.) 

Education and Practical Arts 

Theological Seminaries 

Philanthropy 

Botanical Garden 

Officers 

Summer Session 

Total 



6,105 



1922-1923 


1921-1922 


1,741 
28 

8 


1,382 

1 

26 

4 
2 


1 


2 


22 
56 


14 
26 

1 


9 
1,646 

44 


4 

1,325 

41 

1 


87 
2,463 


1 

96 
2,017 



B. By Faculties, including the Summer Session 




Political Science, Philosophy and Pure Science. 

Architecture (M.S.) 

Business (M.S.) 

Education and Practical Arts 

Journalism 

Journalism (M.S.) 

Law (A.M.) 

Law (LL.M.) 

Mines, Engineering and Chemistry (M.S.) 

Mines, Engineering and Chemistry (A.M.) 

Medicine 



Total. 



2,094 

1 

26 

2,769 

1 

4 

26 

4 

14 



By Faculties, omitting Summer Session and Students registered primarily for a degree 
in the Faculties of Architecture, Law, Medicine, Mines, Engineering 
and Chemistry, Business and Journalism 





1922-1923 


1921-1922 




1,872 
1,646 


1,520 




1,325 






Total 


3,5i8 


2,845 







314 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE VIII 



A. SUBJECTS OF MAJOR INTEREST OF STUDENTS REGISTERED FOR THE 
HIGHER DEGREES 



Subjects 


c a 
<y d D 

"flag 

"32 a 


a 


4) w 

'2 S 

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S.S 




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2 
< 


8 

1 

m 


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u 


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Si 







3 

4 

9 

10 

25 

19 

16 

177 

206 














3 


Anthropology 














4 














9 


Biological Chemistry. . 














10 














25 










56 






75 


Chemical Engineering. 




I 








17 










177 
















206 


Education and Practi- 












1,646 


1,646 


Electrical Engineering 
English and Compara- 


3 

349 

32 

28 

3 

249 

7 




10 








13 










349 
















32 
















28 
















3 
















249 
















7 












9 




9 




34 
54 

I 

2 
2 

93 

47 
6 

120 

59 
134 

16 

4 

H5 

45 










34 
















S4 


Mechanical Engineer- 














I 
















2 






12 










14 


Philosophy (including 
Ethics) 










93 
















47 
















6 
















120 


Public Law and Com- 
parative Jurispru- 


36 












95 


Romance Languages.. 
Semitic Languages. . . . 
Slavonic Languages.. . 












134 














16 














4 














115 
















45 


















Total 


I.872 


36 


2J 




56 


9 


j, 6^(5 


3,642 







REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE VIII— (Continued) 

B. SUMMARY BY DIVISIONS 



315 





FACULTIE3 


DIVISIONS 


a a 
v a v 

IIS 

"32 3 

PUPhPh 




.•a 

tn E3 


V 

3 


1) 

2 

u 

< 


to 

QJ 
.3 

3 


1 

a 

3 

>-> 


t3 tn 


3 


Ancient and Oriental 
Languages 


60 
98 

19 
177 














60 














98 










56 






75 














177 


Education and Practi- 












1,646 


1,646 




30 

32 

629 




23 








43 


Geology and Miner- 










32 


History, Economics 














629 












9 




9 






36 








36 


Mathematics and 

Physical Science. . . . 

Mining and Metal- 


101 

4 
SIS 

217 












IOI 














4 


ModernLanguagesand 














SIS 


Philosophy, Psychol- 
ogy and Anthropol- 














217 




















1,872 


36 


23 




5<5 





1,(546 


3,642 







3i6 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE IX 

RESIDENCE OF STUDENTS 



erg 



T3 3 
ai o 

Ota 



3< 

OT3 



>> 








(8 




s 




H 

J3 


01 


Ph 


3 




:va 


o 




a> 


2 Si 


M 




OJ 


.K-a 




3 3 


U 


PD 



United States 

North Atlantic Division 

(75-17 per cent.)- • • 

Connecticut , 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire . . . 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 



1,715 

40 

5 

20 

2 

238 

1,358 

45 

5 



South Atlantic Division 
(04.07 per cent.) .... 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Virginia 

West Virginia 



38 



South Central Division 
(03.18 per cent.) . . 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Mississippi 

Oklahoma 

Tennessee 

Texas 



North Central Division 

(09.70 per cent.) 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

South Dakota 

Wisconsin 



14 



17 



40 



18 



1,259 

17 

3 

34 

4 

151 

971 

73 



16 



2,8gg 
114 

35 
116 

32 

671 

1,654 

251 

14 

12 



230 
5 



147 
17 

5 
16 
11 

4 
19 
26 
49 



634 
85 
56 
41 
35 



633 



56 
83 
24 
11 
117 
3 
53 



8,764 

249 

50 

212 

46 

1,388 

6,324 

441 

30 

24 



475 
10 
44 
25 
86 
56 
48 
41 
92 
43 



371 
43 
23 
39 
18 
42 
36 
45 

125 



147 
103 
H5 

64 
100 

86 
122 

46 

15 
238 

10 



85 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 317 

TABLE IX— (Continued) 



1922-1923 


V 
M 




h-1 


V 

a 

■3 
01 


C 

c.2 

^S 

o> 

so 

§ ta 


D 

3 
O 



u 

< 


1 

"ta 

e 

1- 
3 
O 


3 
pq 


3 

Q 


m 
.£ 

"3 


ta 
k, 
u 

3 
•d 

CJ 
lH 

O 


C 

01 

■d 

3 

w 

_0) 

_M 
3 


01 

M 

"3 

U 

•d 
1-1 

C3 

B 
1-1 

ta 

m 


la 

ta^j 

.-"ta 
la H 

3" 

.2 ta 

Wft. 




o> 3 

01 G 
3J ta 

OJ3 


0) 

ta 

3 

Trt H 

E M 

goJ 

3 O 


3 


Western Division 

(02.09 per cent.) . . 


30 

3 
13 

5 
1 
2 


16 
2 
5 
1 


14 
1 
6 
2 


10 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


I 
I 


9 
I 

6 

1 


1(5 
3 

4 




^P 


J 


10 


160 

6 
74 
20 

S 
11 

2 

2 
10 

9 
28 

2 

23 




2 


340 






28 

9 

4 
2 

1 


2 

1 


4 
1 

1 


1 


1 

1 

1 


142 




42 




11 












19 












4 






















1 
2 


2 

1 
5 


1 
4 








1 
2 
5 
1 

7 




6 

16 
1 

15 




1 
3 

1 


21 


Utah 


2 
2 




1 


25 


Washington 


62 

4 


Insular and Non-con- 
tiguous Territories 
(0.50 per cent.) . . . 


8 

3 

2 

1 

i,S50 
1,008 


2 


1 






1 


5# 














1 
6 

.J2I 

/op 


13 


1 

11 

1 

i,73i 
817 

1 

1 


/J7 
74 


1 
814 
421 


6 
12 

4,102 

1,080 


1 

512 


1 
64 

27 






1 
1 

676 
344 












Porto Rico 


1 
300 

207 


200 
07 


6./ 
32 


1 
133 

37 


10 


Totals 


11,148 


New York City 

(41.06 per cent.).. . 

Foreign Countries 


4,787 






















1 


I 

2 
10 




1 


4 




1 






















I 


1 


1 








1 










1 




























1 

16 

3 












1 




2 

1 




2 


1 




6 


2 






2 


37 

1 






68 




s 


Chile 






1 
9 












China 


13 


1 
I 






2 


21 

I 




72 


3 




71 




1 


193 






Cuba 


1 




























I 














1 


































1 
2 
2 
II 
5 

s 

4 

2 
18 




1 




























2 


Finland 
























3 




















3 

1 
I 


1 


1 
1 


16 




















6 




1 




I 












8 














s 


Holland... 




1 
































- 




t 






28 


Island of Cyprus. . . 
Italy 


1 




] 


























] 

21 






1 










J 






I 




l£ 






52 


























] 
















1 



























318 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE IX— (Continued) 



1922-1923 


4) 
M 

"o 
U 


1 
J 


0> 

.5 
!2 
■3 

V 

3 


C 
Of >> 

5.22 

.S"0 


0) 

1-1 

3 

a 

IS 
u 

< 


B 
.S2 

13 
c 
u 

3 
O 


CO 
CO 

<L> 

a 
'S 

3 
« 


>> 

u 

VI 

C 
CU 




«j to 

•g 3 

nJ O 

"- CO 

Ota 


01 

•a 

3 

•a 

CU 

J! 

a 
£> 


eg 

to 
jo 

"o 



« 

e 
1-1 
a 

n 


^i2 

a< 
.2-3 

w 


E 
cd 

"o 

01 

cm 
ju 

"3 
U 


00 

01 

3 

.5TJ 
C 13 


3 

H 




1 
















2 






2 






s 












I 






1 






1 


1 










1 






3 
3 






6 
















3 




















1 
2 






1 




































1 
























1 
























1 
2 






1 
















I 




1 






4 










I 
I 
I 






1 




1 


1 


1 










2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 


1 










5 












1 

1 


9 
2 
7 
2 
4 
1 
9 
1 

240 
4,34s 


(5j5 


5 

<5p 


13 




1 










4 


















10 




2 
















6 








I 










7 


















1 




















1 
I 

141 
1,872 


1 

c? 

14.5 


7 

521 


ir 




2 

28 

I.887 1 


7 

683 


1 

JO 

400 












s 


Total 


21 
221 


65 




142 


34 
355 


IP 


511 


(04.38 per cent.) 
Grand Total 


n,650 
81 
































n,578 



































1 Exclusive of seniors exercising the professional option, included elsewhere in this table. 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 319 

TABLE X 

RESIDENCE OF THE STUDENTS OF THE ENTIRE UNIVERSITY (EXCLUDING 
SUMMER SESSION AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION) FOR THE PAST TEN YEARS 



Ifl 


vO 


r~ 








o> 


a 


O 








1 


1 


J, 








o> 


a 


Ov 


M 


M 


M 


5,004 


6,128 


6,325 


125 


143 


153 


29 


15 


32 


150 


164 


187 


23 


21 


20 


752 


752 


864 


4.539 


4.738 


4.756 


247 


239 


270 


16 


19 


17 


23 


37 


26 


240 


272 


288 


4 


5 


5 


17 


22 


29 


13 


II 


7 


34 


55 


65 


39 


52 


44 


30 


28 


28 


30 


26 


33 


61 


64 


58 


12 


9 


19 


170 


J 78 


213 


20 


23 


26 


U 


12 


17 


25 


30 


33 


11 


9 


9 


15 


9 


8 


13 


14 


17 


37 


35 


41 


35 


46 


62 


603 


661 


751 


74 


87 


87 


62 


85 


76 


45 


58 


65 


34 


51 


46 


65 


76 


66 


51 


45 


58 


64 


46 


82 


28 


25 


25 


12 


9 


7 


134 


136 


162 


5 


7 


14 


29 


36 


63 


1 82 


182 


271 


1 


3 


4 


67 


61 


103 


28 


29 


30 


4 


11 


9 


7 


10 


8 


1 


I 


2 


8 


6 


4 


11 


14 


36 


19 


17 


19 


32 


29 


53 


4 


1 


3 



a 





H 








Ol 


» 


O 








1 

CO 


k 









M 


a 


©. 


O 


H 


M 


M 


?,2S<5 


6,704 


7,174 


135 


183 


214 


23 


30 


49 


112 


185 


190 


19 


34 


30 


709 


938 


1,028 


4,061 


5.009 


5.279 


196 


289 


334 


11 


20 


23 


20 


16 


27 


242 


42 f 


454 


3 


15 


10 


20 


35 


47 


5 


26 


13 


54 


85 


90 


39 


47 


49 


23 


56 


76 


30 


47 


42 


47 


77 


85 


21 


37 


42 


190 


336 


387 


18 


36 


37 


lb 


22 


23 


3i 


44 


42 


13 


23 


22 


11 


17 


37 


9 


23 


18 


30 


45 


43 


62 


126 


165 


579 


913 


928 


75 


129 


136 


51 


80 


70 


57 


84 


74 


38 


49 


45 


59 


86 


76 


44 


74 


75 


38 


80 


94 


29 


44 


46 


8 


11 


13 


118 


194 


212 


11 


13 


10 


51 


69 


77 


161 


300 


329 


3 


8 


16 


45 


100 


114 


30 


42 


43 


5 


9 


10 


8 


14 


20 


1 


3 


4 


2 


6 


4 


17 


40 


37 


19 


24 


24 


29 


45 


48 


2 


9 


9 



United States 

North Atlantic Division . . . 

Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York . ; 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

South Atlantic Division. . . 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . . . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

South Central Division. . . . 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Mississippi 

Oklahoma 

Tennessee 

Texas 

North Central Division 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

South Dakota 

Wisconsin 

Western Division 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Montana 

Nevada 

New Mexico 

Oregon 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 



5,515 
no 

31 
130 

16 

627 

4.351 

209 

18 

23 

280 

5 
23 
15 
51 
33 
51 
26 
59 
17 

160 
25 

6 
19 

9 
13 
16 
33 
39 

577 
76 
7i 
41 
36 
52 
34 
42 
22 
18 

139 

7 

39 

194 

4 

7i 

29 

5 

9 

2 

4 

18 

27 



5,514 

143 

36 

149 

18 

742 

4,l8l 

214 

7 

24 

257 
3 
24 
7 
48 
40 
40 

20 
50 
25 



6 

30 

8 

8 

7 

27 

44 

639 
59 
49 
68 
32 
65 
51 
59 



144 

9 

69 

228 

9 

73 

35 

7 

13 



8,273 

243 

64 

218 

25 

1,291 

5.965 

412 

22 

33 



36 

11 
70 
49 
73 
38 
79 
35 

357 
41 
23 
46 
20 
31 
13 
40 

143 

1,063 
140 
IO4 

86 
64 
95 
81 

103 

47 

9 

247 
15 
72 

336 

II 

139 

51 

17 

13 

2 

3 

36 

15 

44 

5 



8,764 

249 

50 

213 

46 

1,388 

6,324 

441 
30 
24 

475 
10 
44 
25 
86 
56 
78 
41 
92 
43 

371 
43 
23 
39 
18 
42 
36 
45 

125 

U3I 

147 

103 

115 

64 

100 

86 

122 

46 

15 

238 

10 

85 

349 
17 

142 

42 

II 

19 

4 



25 

62 

4 



320 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE X— (Continued) 



•tf 


lO 


>o 


t. 


00 




o 


H 
















« 


o> 


Ov 


Ov 


a 


a 




Oi 


Ol 


w 


H 


H 


H 


H 




I 


H 


fO 


't 


in 


*o 


t> 




o 














H 




a 


o. 


a 


o> 


o> 




O. 


a 


H 


M 


H 


w 


H 




M 


H 



Insular and Non-contiguous 

Territories 

Alaska 

Canal Zone 

Hawaiian Islands 

Philippine Islands 

Porto Rico 

Virgin Islands 



Totals (United States) . 
New York City 



6,934 
3,368 



Foreign Countries 

Albania 

Argentina 

Armenia 

Australia 

Austria-Hungary 

Bavaria 

Belgium 

Bermuda and Bahamas . 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Central America 

Chile 

China. ._ 

Colombia 

Costa Rica 

Cuba _ 

Czechoslovakia 

Denmark 

Dominican Republic. . . 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

Esthonia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Holland 

Iceland 

India 

Ireland 

Isle of Cyprus 

Italy 

Japan 

Java 

Jugoslavia 

Korea 

Liberia. . . . ; 

Mesopotamia 

Mexico 

Newfoundland 

New Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Palestine 

Panama 

Persia 

Peru 



7,112 

3,6i3 



42 



43 



68 



7,434 
3.509 



7,868 
3,670 



6.808 
3,091 



69 



6,477 
3,163 



46 



114 



8,727 
3,702 



3 

123 

3 



56 



82 



66 



9,338 
4,094 



105 
3 



144 
3 



4 

119 

3 



16 



63 



58 



34 



10,484 
4,424 



11,148 
4,787 



14 



102 
6 
5 

166 
3 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 32 1 

TABLE X— (Continued) 



■<r 


i/> 





f. 


00 


Oi 





M 


N 




















a 


O. 


a 


o> 


Ot 


a 


0\ 


Cv 


Oi 


H 


H 


H 


J, 


IH 


w 


I 


H 


M 


n 


■* 


10 


r» 


00 


O 












H 










Ov 


Oi 


Oi 


a 


Ov 


0, 


O, 


a 


a 


M 


" 


M 


H 


H 


H 


M 


M 


M 



Poland 








2 
1 
2 
5 

1 
1 


1 
1 
2 
9 
2 

I 
3 

1 
2 

1 


2 






5 
1 
3 
8 


4 












1 

1 

10 






1 
4 


5 


6 
2 
2 
1 
3 
I 
2 
2 


6 
5 
2 
2 


S 
13 


Russia 


2 






2 




2 


5 


4 








2 


4 


4 

1 
2 

1 

12 

1 


3 

8 

2 
1 


7 
3 
4 
2 


15 
2 
7 

II 
2 

II 


14 
3 
7 
4 
2 
7 








Sweden 


2 


1 
3 
11 


6 

7 






Turkey 


11 


6 

1 


S 

a 

5 
318 

7,126 


3 

I 


2 
























2 


1 

222 

7,334 


1 
24S 

7,670 


2 
262 

8,130 


2 


4 

0,204 
87 

5,^7 


3 

465 

0,803 

62 

0.74J 


9 

5.57 

11,041 

90 

J0.05I 


5 

5/1 


Totals (Foreign Countries) .... 




81 


Grand Total (Net) 














n,578 



















THE PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS FROM THE SEVERAL GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS 
DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS 



North Atlantic Division 
South Atlantic Division 
South Central Division. 
North Central Division . 

Western Division 

Insular Territories 

Foreign Countries 

New York City 

Out of town 



79.53 


80.51 


79-86 


78.14 


77.38 


77.30 


72.84 


73.18 


74-93 


4-03 


3.27 


3-55 


3.56 


3.61 


3.54 


4.62 


4-63 


3.6s 


2.30 


2.32 


2.30 


2.63 


2.13 


2.78 


3-05 


3-95 


3.23 


8.32 


8.22 


8.62 


9.28 


8.97 


8.47 


9.92 


9-47 


963 


2.79 


2.48 


2.37 


3-34 


319 


2.35 


3-26 


3.36 


3-04 


0.24 


0.17 


O.17 


0.25 


0.31 


0.28 


0.53 


0.60 


0.47 


2. 75 


3-02 


3-13 


3-22 


4.41 


5.28 


5.18 


4-75 


5-05 


48.57 


49-26 


45-70 


45.14 


43.38 


46.26 


40.22 


41.76 


40.40 


51.43 


50.74 


54-30 


54.86 


56.62 


53-74 


59.78 


58.24 


59-6o 



75. I 7 

4-0 7 
3- 18 
9-7 

2.9 

0-5o 

4-38 

41-06 

58-9 4 



322 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE XI 

SOURCE OF HIGHER DEGREES HELD BY STUDENTS 

Note: The inclusion of an institution in this table does not necessarily signify the recognition of its 
degrees by Columbia University. 

A. HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 



I52J-I923 


"o 
U 




.2 
"5 
'■3 


a 

CU >> 

'Is 

.St) 
S c3 


<u 

|H 

3 

U 
V 

2 
o 

H 


i 

■(3 

G 

3 

o 
1—1 


3 
09 


e 

V 

Q 


3 

S3 m 

c s 
DP 


"3 

cU 

3 

•v 

o 


> 

"a 

s-S 

eg 3 

u i>. 

C£ 

D-5 


"O to 

a< 
11 

WPh 


H 



H 






















32 
7 




22 
2 
2 

I 

4 

2 

s 


44 






















9 






















2 


Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 




















I 

3 

I 

2 
S 

5 
5 
I 


i 


2 






















3 






















I 






















3 




















i 


5 




















7 








i 














6 






6 


I 


3 






i 




20 






2 






i 
I 








3 






4 
























I 




















2 
I 
I 

3 

2 
2 


i 


I 

7 
I 
5 
i 
i 
i 

2 
2 

I 


3 






















I 






















8 






















4 






















7 






















4 


2 g-> 11 




















I 
















I 










2 




















I 
I 
I 


i 


3 














I 


I 






5 














I 


Blue Mountain Female College 




















I 
























I 














. I 












i 




















6 
3 

i 




2 

3 

I 


8 






3 
















9 




















2 








2 














2 




I 






















I 




















12 

13 

3 
I 
2 




5 
II 

10 
2 


17 








4 








I 






29 














13 






I 
















4 




















2 


Caiirorn a sit 




I 
















1 




















2 

6 

I 




2 

3 

2 


4 






















9 






















I 






















2 
















I 










1 




















2 

4 




2 
2 

I 


2 






















6 
















I 






3 




















i 




I 






I 
















3 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 323 

TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1532-1923 


01 

bo 
U 




1> 

'0 

•3 

HI 


M 
'u 

V ^ 

a £ 

.S"o 


V 

u 

3 
O 
<u 
*J 

2 


1-4 

< 


E 

"rt 
C 
u 
3 
O 
H-1 


11 

3 

CO 


C 

u 

Q 


4) 

n) 
3 

.2ts 

c c 


V 

3 


3 

2 
O 


U 

V 

> 
'a 
O m 

w 3 
Jjt/3 

G£ 
ID'S 


"O m 

a Z 

.213 
S3 

3" 

•og 


3 



























I 




Citadel — South Carolina Military 




I 








I 


















1 




7 
2 




4 
2 
8 
IS 
2 


13 

4 
















Colby College 






1 
3 






I 












4 








8 




30 






















1 

74 






















College of the City of New York 




20 


10 




I 




4 




130 

2 

1 

3 

II 


2 
1 


63 

3 
S 


303 
3 

4 




























































16 






1 




































I 
4 
I 

3 

3 

3 
613 

4 
3 


10 
1 


8 
2 
I 
I 

8 
537 

1 
1 
1 
7 

35 

1 
1 




College of St. Elizabeth 






1 














13 


































2 






1 
6 










I 






3 


Colorado State Teachers College 
(Greely, Colo.) 




1 
141 
















1 


159 


73 


7 


II 


18 


2 
1 


I 






6 














I 








































I 
8 

4 

43 

1 

1 


3 

7 


























Cornell University Medical College 
(New York City) 
























1 


13 




I 






I 


1 


I 


P3 










1 














































































I 
















8 


6 
1 


I 


I 


I 






8 
3 
3 
4 
I 
9 


1 


4 
4 
3 

3 
I 
10 
I 
3 
4 
3 
















































I 












































I 






20 
































I 






I 

2 
3 










1 




I 






8 






















1 




























2 








2 

7 




I 
5 
1 
8 
I 

1 

I 
1 


























































I 








4 






Elon College 








































3 
1 

2 










1 

































































































324 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1922-1933 


V 

U 


£ 

rt 
iJ 


a 

"3 
'■3 


3 

So 

=5 rt 


11 

3 
u 

V 

2 



< 


a 

c 

3 


1-1 


V 
G 

3 

M 


>> 
u 

a 

V 

Q 


01 

+-» 
td 

3 
3 H 

o> ir! 

fc-S 
32 


CO 



to 

<u 
+J 
(tf 

3 
Tf 
CO 

O 


unclassihea 
University Students 
Education and 
Practical Arts 


"3 

H 






















I 
I 
I 




1 
1 
1 
8 
1 
3 
S 


1 




























I 


1 














































1 
















1 


' 5 


4 












5 
1 

7 


1 


17 
















4 
12 


























1 




































1 
1 
2 
1 
2 


1 

1 


























a 














































2 






















1 






11 
















10 








I 












14 




S 


21 








1 




















I 










2 














I 












1 
11 




3 

14 

1 
I 
4 

1 
2 

2 
18 

3 

I 


s 




















35 
















































I 






















8 
2 
2 

1 
8 
2 

I 
1 
37 
1 
8 
I 
4 


"6 


12 






I 




































2 


Gustavus Adolphus College (Minn.) 
























7 








1 








17 


















4 






















1 






















3 






21 


7 


2 


5 


3 


3 






102 






1 






I 
















12 










































s 






1 




































2 
2 
3 


1 


I 
4 
4 
3 


3 














I 








8 








1 
1 
1 












8 




















4 






2 






I 
























I 




2 
3 


3 






































1 


































I 
1 
94 
I 
1 

1 = 








5 
















a 

138 

] 


""2 


8 






5 






1 


• 






243 








2 






















1 






















s 

ij 


1 
1 


3 






















3 






} 

3 


] 

... 














3o 






1 












7 


Iowa State College of Agriculture 














( 




2 






















XI 






















I 

























REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 325 

TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1932-1923 


a; 
to 

V 

7=1 
O 
O 




V 

a 
'0 

'•3 

V 

2 


60 

S 

*c 

v . 

.5 +* 

M.23 


e 



2 

< 


e 

Ui 

3 
O 
1-1 


3 


.2 
C 

Q 


.Sx) 


a) 

a 

01 

3 
T) 

O 


a 
u 

T) 
« >. 

CO *- 

o.S 

c c 


a" 


73 

H 








1 








































I 

7 


I 


2 

1 

4 
2 

4 

2 

2 

1 

2 

10 

3 
3 

2 
9 

1 
3 










1 


I 




















































r 
1 
1 
1 
1 


I 

I 














































6 






1 




















1 














6 






















Kent State Normal College (Ohio) . . 




















1 
















































1 
































1 
1 
















2 


























Lander College (S. C.) 


















1 
1 


I 
I 


















2 






6 






































8 

4 








1 




I 












16 














































I 


4 
















1 
1 
1 


I 












































Long Island College Hospital Medi- 






1 






































I 

2 
I 

I 
I 
I 

3 

2 

1 
























2 
2 
1 

2 


































































































1 
1 


4 












1 


5 
4 

1 
2 


I 

I 


















6 
















































































































3 






Massachusetts Agricultural College . 




1 










































2 


1 
1 


I 












4 




8 


































1 




1 






















I 
















1 










1 




















2 

2 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
2 


2 
2 


1 

3 
7 
4 
2 
3 


3 






















4 






















4 






















8 






1 


4 














13 


















3 




























1 


1 



































326 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1033-1923 


o 
U 


•J 


'o 
'•3 

2 


M 

a 
•c 

■IS 

c a 
Su 


V 

3 
■u 
o 
<u 

3 

(J 

< 


6 

3 
O 
►-> 


a 
a 

3 


•fc* 

3 

p 


3 

.S-d 

a a 


.Si 
■3 

u 

(9 

d. 

V 

Id 

3 

T3 
UJ 

u 

o 


3 
OJ 

3 

£•- 

2D 


.2-3 
WO. 


3 

o 

H 


Mississippi Industrial Institute and 














I 






13 

I 




2 

I 

4 

2 
I 

I 
I 


16 




























































4 
I 

I 

2 


2 
I 
























i 












































3 










I 














Moravian College and Theological 






















I 






















I 


I 
































i 






I 








I 




3 






i 














2 














12 


I 


24 


39 






i 


































2 

5 
I 
3 


I 


6 

i 

2 
2 


2 






















II 






















2 






2 


















New Hampshire State College of 












I 






4 








I 
























i 




















I 


I 

I 
9 


I 




I 








I 
IS 
31 

2 


I 

S 


I 
II 
19 

2 


7 


New York State College for Teachers 


I 
I 


I 




28 


6 


I 


i 


I 


75 








North Carolina State Normal and 








I 












I 
























3 

I 

I 
6 

20 
S 




Northwestern College (Naperville, 
111.) 




















I 




2 


Northwestern College (Watertown, 
Wis.) 




















I 
















I 






12 

IS 

2 

I 


I 


19 












i 




37 




















7 






2 
















3 


















i 


I 






I 
I 

I 


I 

i 
I 




3 








14 

I 

10 




13 
II 
13 

I 


33 














14 






I 


I 










27 


Oklahoma^ State Agricultural and 






I 
I 






2 
























I 
























3 
7 


I 


























I 






I 




















2 




















2 




3 






















I 


























I 






















I 

S 

i 

2 




























































































I 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 327 

TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1922-1923 


V 

bo 

_!> 

"o 
V 


-1 




bl 

c 
C 

s£ 

M.2 

a a 
Wg 

.Et3 

2 a 


4) 
w 

3 


<D 

!3 
U 
1* 

< 


a 
■3 

c 

u 
3 
O 
•-> 


§ 

03 


Q 


CO 

3 

>>'9- 

c c 

£J3 


.Si 

3 
u 


a 
3 

■a 

CJ 

O 


3 

0) 

•d 

3 

<f§ 

en t* 

u£ 

3 3 

&& 


3" 


3 

H 
















I 






1 

8 

12 

2 




d 
3 
2 

5 

12 
1 
1 

8 
6 

5 

1 
8 

1 
6 












1 
1 






















1 










I 












Presbyterian Hospital School of 
























27 


IS 


2 












25 


2 


83 


















Queen's College (Charlotte, N. C.) . . 


























Radcliffe College. . . 








I 


2 

I 








10 
4 

4 
1 
2 
1 
8 
















I 
















































I 


















































I 


















































1 
8 
1 
4 




1 






5 


3 
















St. Clara College 












































2 


















St. John's College (Ohio) 


















1 


1 














































1 
6 








I 
I 
I 


2 




















































2 


1 














I 




I 








St. Olaf's College 














1 


1 

1 
1 


6 

1 

2 
1 
2 
5 
8 
2 
25 

3 

4 
1 

1 
II 

3 

3 
I 

24 


























St. Stephen's College 




I 
















1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 
48 
1 




St. Thomas's College (St. Paul, 




I 




































Seton Hall College ... 




























2 




























I 


















I 




6 








I 




2 


6 






83 










Southeast Missouri State Teachers 




























I 






2 








2 

I 
8 

1 

25 

2 
3 
I 
6 


1 






















I 








































2 








I 


1 








State University of Kentucky (Lex- 








5 




























I 












1 








































1 






4 


2 


1 












30 

I 


1 


62 






















I 
















1 





























328 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1022-1923 


p 

bfl 
U 




O 

a 

'u 

•3 


W 
C 
■3 
at >> 

.S-B 

M.22 

C d 
WS 

tor 1 

.S"o 


g 

u 

V 
-t-> 



< 


I 

a 

u 

3 
O 
1-1 




.5 
3 


d 



.St3 

d d 


2 
"3 


C3 

to 

rt 




d 

01 

•d 
d 

£■- 

w *-< 

US 

d d 


d -3 
C3 ^ 

d< 

5 -a 

1= 


1 







1 






















1 
























1 

4 


I 






















I 




5 






1 
1 


















Trinity College (North Carolina) . . . 


















I 

s 

I 


1 


2 
4 
1 

2 
1 

1 

4 

1 
6 


4 








I 
















2 






















1 


Tufts College 












I 








s 


8 




















1 


























1 


Union Theological Seminary (New 




















6 




10 


Union Theological Seminary (Rich- 




















I 






3 


2 














s 




16 






22 












22 
























1 
3 
3 

20 
SO 

8 
9 

1 
6 


1 






2 


3 














5 




13 


















3 






3 


2 

1 






I 


2 






24 
1 

46 

15 
2 
1 

14 


1 

1 
1 


S3 






2 






2 

1 








1 

1 
1 






99 












I 


26 












13 
















2 










2 






2 

I 






25 






1 
10 




2 






1 






2 






7 

1 

3 

11 

4 
1 
1 


1 


18 
6 

4 

1 

25 

16 
1 

28 
2 
9 
1 
2 
5 
1 

1 
3 
11 

5 
2 

7 


20 












I 






















3 






2 


1 

1 


I 
I 




I 








34 












13 


















I 






















5 




1 


















2 




5 
4 
3 

1 










5 
2 


I 


1 


31 
IS 

2 
23 

2 
IS 


1 


66 














40 






2 
2 








8 












1 






SS 












4 






1 










1 






26 














1 


























2 






3 








3 


3 






4 


I 


19 






1 






2 




















3 

8 
1 
18 
S 
7 


2 
1 


3 








1 
1 
1 














12 




















5 






5 

1 








I 
I 






37 












7 






1 


I 




1 


15 














2 






I 
2 

I 


3 


I 






I 






6 
1 
2 

7 




19 






3 












1 










3 


4 


















10 






















/• 





REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XI— {Continued) 



329 



1922-1923 


M 

JJ 

"3 
O 




V 

'3 

"■3 

V 


60 

a 
'C 

4) ?> 

'S.s 

Su 

2 CD 




3 



1 

"is 

c 

3 
O 
1— 1 


a 

3 

« 


a 
Q 


cu 

3 

•<-> cs 
■frt *-< 
" u 

.5 -a 


CO 

.Si 

3 


ct) 

to 

aj 

3 
T3 

O 


IS 

c 

oj 
-a 

3 

•M 

Si >> 

C3 OJ 
C C 


3 -M 

C3 "3 

.2-3 

■S-a 

30 


"c3 























s 

IS 
4 
5 
5 

16 

22 
S 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 

32 


2 
1 


7 
4 
2 
9 

14 

27 

3 

2 

4 

1 

33 








3 








I 


3 

2 












2 
2 


2 












j( 






2 
3 

2 




















9 


I 




I 


2 

6 

2 






3( 






6- 




















































1 
























































( 














I 
















s 


















1 
1 




























































I 
4 
3 




3 
3 

2 
2 
3 

36 
3 
2 

6 
3 
2 
3 

1 
1 
7 
3 
3 
4 
3 
I 
1 
1 
6 

1 

1 
1 

9 

I 

1 

1,980 






1 


1 


I 




1 


I 
I 






















































2 
3 
1 

1 












I 








1 
















1 










1 






2 


1 






























3 








32 
3 

1 
10 

4 
1 
3 

1 
1 


1 


71 


Wells College 






I 




































5 


4 






I 








2£ 
















1 
1 






















1 








1 














































































































3 


























































1 




I 












3 

1 


1 














































10 


1 




1 


I 

I 


1 






4 






























5 

4 






Winthrop Normal and Industrial 














1 








Wittenberg College (Ohio) 
















Wofford College 






1 














1 

1 

14 


3 

1 




























22 


21 




4 




1 






































Total 


8 


514 


350 


136 


33 


67 


104 


14 


<? 


2.337 


94 


5,<54J 



330 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XI— (Continued) 

B. HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 



1932*1933 


& 
.22 
"o 
U 


1 


a 
'0 

'■3 


M 

a 
•c 

HI 
3 9 

-J3 

SO 

.S"0 

2 OS 


CI 
H 

3 


01 
+J 

'3 

u 
u 

< 


I 
■-3 

a 
c 

3 
O 
1-1 


u 
■1 

3 


p 


!> *• 

St) 

c n 
D2 


1 

a! 
U. 
V 

ts 

3 

•a 
2 



3 

a 

•8 

3 

i| 

us 

c a 


.213 

H 

li 


3 


H 


























4 


4 










1 
















1 












I 












2 

1 


3 


American College for Girls (Constan- 


















I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

I 




2 


























































































Catholic University of Santiago 
(Chile) 








1 














Cauca University (South America).. 




1 






























I 


1 


1 


























Classical Gymnasium (Kremenchug, 
























Colegio Mayor de Rosario (Colom- 




I 








































2 

I 


2 
























1 




Ecole Alsacienne (Paris, France) . . . 
Engineering Academy (Konstanz, 




1 


















1 




















Escuela Nacional de Jurisprudencia 




I 








































2 

I 
I 


1 


1 

1 
1 




Fuh Tan University (Shanghai.China) 
Fukien University (Foochow, China) 
Georg August University (Gottingen 










































































































2 




























Imperial University (Tokio, Japan) 






























I 










































2 

1 


2 


Japanese Women's University (Nip- 




















2 
2 


1 


2 
















1 






4 
















I 


Krakow University (Poland) 




I 










1 










2 














I 




1 
3 

1 


1 






















I 






















2 




5 






















1 


Medical College of Nagoya (Japan) . 
Mount Allison University (Canada] 
Nankai University (Tientsin, China) 
National University of Athens 






I 


















I 


















1 
2 

1 


I 




















I 




I 




















2 


National University of Irelanc 




















I 
I 




I 


National University of Mexico (Mex- 




















I 






















1 




















1 







REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 33I 

TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1922-1923 


bfi 

"0 
U 


! 


S 


•3 

HI 

2 


M 

a 
C 

eh 

t§ s 

.si 
20 
Stj 


a 


!3 

< 


i 

£ 


1—1 


.5 
3 
pq 


c 

V 

a 


V 

3 
B C 


09 

.Si 

"3 


to 
<u 

rt 

3 

rt 

M 

O 


3 
V 

■a 

3 

■a 33 

£•- 

n! « 

US 

c c 


3 w 


1 
O 

f-> 






















I 




2 
I 
I 














































I 

14 




























Polytechnic University (Jugoslavia) . 
Psycho-Neurological Institute of 














1 












2 










































2 
I 
















1 








4 




6 


Real School Bogenoff (M oscow, 






1 














St. Francis Xavier University (Nova 


















1 




2 

2 

I 








































1 






8 

1 












































Seminary of St. Sava (Belgrade, 




1 




























1 




















Tohoku, Imperial University (Japan) 


















1 








I 


1 


















University of Aixe-Marseilles(l ranee) 












































I 
I 

I 
























2 

2 

1 




























University of British Columbia 






























1 














University of Cape Town (South 






















I 
I 
























1 












































































1 












1 




































3 












1 








































I 










1 






































I 
3 
















1 








1 












1 
































I 
3 




I 

X 

I 


























University of New Brunswick (Can- 






















































1 










































I 
I 
2 

I 
























1 
5 


1 








2 






































University of Poland (Warsaw, 
Poland) 




















I 
3 






University of Prague (Czechoslo- 













































332 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XI— (Continued) 



1922-1923 


V 
be 

"3 
O 


IS 


4) 

a 
•3 

V 


M 

a 

aii 
'Sb.S 

-.s 
• S c 


4J 

3 



< 


i 

c 

3 

1—1 



3 


a 

Q 


4j 

a 

H 3 


en 

.a 

~3 


to 

V 

■a 

CO 

u 




w 

C 
(U 

■a 

3 

<S| 

CO ^ 

cd <u 

o.£: 
a a 


"S CO 

c3 H 

a< 
.2-3 

3" 

X) i_ 


3 


University of the Propaganda (Rome 
Italy) 




I 
















2 
I 
2 




7 

6 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 


3 












































University of Stellenbosch (South 




















7 






















I 

7 
1 


















































University of Wittenberg (Germany) 


































































2 

1 

1 

2 


1 


















I 








Wesleyan College (Montreal, Can- 























































































REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XI— (Continued) 

SUMMARY 



333 



1933-1923 


M 

"3 
U 


IS 

-1 


V 

a 
'0 
■3 

V 


a 
"C 

v ^ 

.Sis 

cc.3S 

sg 

.J3 

.S-a 


CD 



V 

!3 
u 
1m 

< 


S 

"3 

s 



>-> 


CU 

s 


a 

V 

Q 


V 

3 
2 M 

c c 

£2 


09 
o> 



ca 

CU 

T) 
CD 

t-i 

O 


a 

41 

•a 

3 

w *" 

US 

c c 

£2 


?2 
11 


1 




Total graduates of 
domestic institu- 


8 
1 

9 

1 

8 

2,054 

0.39 

0.82 


5H 
II 

525 

25 

500 

683 

73-21 

70.11 


3SO 
9 

359 

35 

324 

400 

81.0 

77-71 


136 

5 

141 

2 

139 

221 

62.90 

64.S6 


33 

33 

I 

32 

65 

49.23 

44.91 


67 
3 

70 

7 

63 

142 

44-37 

45.20 


104 
5 

109 

9 
100 

355 
28.17 
26.43 


14 

14 

2 

12 

19 

63.16 

76.92 


8 
1 

9 

9 

69 

13.04 

II. II 


2,337 
103 

2,440 

616 

1,824 
1,872 
97-44 
97.23 


94 
8 

102 

14 

88 

145 

60.69 

62.04 


r,98o 
7i 

2,051 

281 
1.770 
4.342 
40.76 
36.29 


S.645 
217 

5,862 


Total graduates of 
foreign institutions 

Grand total gradu- 
ates of higher insti- 


Deduct for graduates 
of more than one 
Institution 

Total students hold- 
ing degrees 

Total students en- 


993 

4,869 


Percentage holding 

degrees, 1923 

Percentage holding 


46.97 
43-13 



334 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XII 

TITLE OF DEGREES HELD BY STUDENTS 



DEGREES HELD 
1922-1923 



3.2 



S cd 



c a 



n 




a 




V 




■0 




a 


■O o> 




« -3 






£•= 


.273 




■£ u 


co £ 


§"6 

■Sfi 


c c 


PD 


WP« 



Bachelier es Lettres 

Bachelier es Science 

Bachelor of Architecture 

Bachelor of Architectural Engineering 

Bachelor of Arts 

Bachelor of Business Administration. . 

Bachelor of Chemistry 

Bachelor of Civil Engineering 

Bachelor of Commercial Science 

Bachelor of Divinity 

Bachelor of Education 

Bachelor of Engineering 

Bachelor of Journalism 

Bachelor of Laws 

Bachelor of Letters 

Bachelor of Library Science 

Bachelor of Literature 

Bachelor of Mathematics 

Bachelor of Music 

Bachelor of Pedagogy 

Bachelor of Philosophy 

Bachelor of Sacred Theology 

Bachelor of Science 

Bachelor of Science in Journalism 

Chemical Engineer 

Civil Engineer 

Doctor of Dental Science 

Doctor of Dental Surgery 

Doctor of Jurisprudence 

Doctor of Laws 

Doctor of Medicine 

Doctor of Philosophy 

Doctor of Sacred Theology 

Doctor of Science 

Electrical Engineer 

Engineer of Mines 

Graduate in Pharmacy 

Graauate United States Naval Acad- 
emy 

Licentiate in Sacred Theology 

Master of Arts 

Master of Laws 

Master of Mining Engineering 

Master of Pedagogy 

Master of Philosophy 

Master of Sacred Theology 

Master of Science 

Mechanical Engineer 

Pharmaceutical Chemist 



Total degrees held 

Deduct for Students holding more than 

one degree 

Total Students holding degrees, 1923. . . 
Total Students holding degrees, 1922 , . . 



381 



86 



7 
45 
S 
325 
1 
4 
3 



497 
4 



2,463 

639 
1,824 
1,478 



18 



24 



13 



301 



2,073 

303 
1,770 
1,426 



1 

3 

56 



59 

14 
1 

28 
I 
4 

37 
134 
7 
I,i88 
I 
6 
7 



3 

7 

23 

39 

I 

3 

12 

7 

7 



855 
7 



60 

13 

2 

3,929 

1,060 
4,869 
4.214 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 335 

TABLE XIII 

DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS GRANTED, 1922-I923 



A. Degrees conferred in course: 

Bachelor of Arts 

Bachelor of Science 

Bachelor of Science (Business) 

Bachelor of Science (Practical Arts) 

Bachelor of Science (Medicine) 

Bachelor of Science (Pharmacy) 

Bachelor of Science (Dentistry) 

Bachelor of Science (University Course) 

Bachelor of Architecture 

Bachelor of Laws 

Bachelor of Literature 

Chemical Engineer 

Civil Engineer 

Electrical Engineer 

Engineer of Mines 

Doctor of Dental Surgery 

Doctor of Medicine 

Pharmaceutical Chemist 

Master of Arts 

Master of Arts (Education and Practical Arts) . 

Master of Laws 

Master of Science (Applied Science) 

Master of Science (Architecture) 

Master of Science (Business) 

Master of Science (Journalism) 

Master of Science (Practical Arts) 

Mechanical Engineer 

Metallurgical Engineer 

Doctor of Philosophy 

Total 

Deduct duplicates l 

Total individuals receiving degrees in course 



B. 



Honorary Degrees: 

Doctor of Laws 

Doctor of Letters 

Doctor of Sacred Theology . 
Total 



Men 



348 

2 

90 

38 

10 



3 

7 

9 

157 

27 

17 

1 

9 

4 

3 

83 

6 

269 

247 

4 

27 

1 

17 



3 
6 

87 
1,479 

15 
1,464 



Women 



157 



24 
429 



253 
430 



20 

1,368 

4 

1.364 



Totals 



505 
2 

114 
467 

10 



3 

9 

9 

157 

49 

17 
1 
9 
4 
4 

95 

7 

522 

677 

4 

27 
1 

20 
2 

14 

3 

6 

107 

2,847 

19 

2,828 



Certificates and Teachers College Diplomas Granted: 

Certificate of Proficiency in Architecture 

Certificate of Proficiency in Journalism 

Certificate in Optometry 

Certificate in Secretarial Studies (Business) 

Certificate in Secretarial Studies (University Exten 

sion) 

Bachelor's Diploma in Education 

Master's Diploma in Education 

Doctor's Diploma in Education 

Total 



29 

148 

6 



Total degrees and diplomas granted 

Deduct duplicates 2 

Total individuals receiving degrees and diplomas. 



1,695 

191 

1,504 



33 

257 
223 



1,892 
266 

1,626 



26 
8 

33 

286 

371 

6 

732 



3,587 

457 

3,U0 



1 Distributed as follows: A.B. and A.M., 4 men; B.S. (Bus.) and A.M., r man; B.S. 
(Teachers Coll.) and A.M., 3 women; LL.B. and A.M., 7 men; LL.M. and A.M., 1 man; 
B.S. and M.S. (Business), 2 men, 1 woman. 

8 In addition to those noted under Note 1 (19) the following duplications occur: (438) 
(176 men, 262 women) A.B. and Teachers College Diploma, 4 men, 7 women; B.S. and 
Teachers College Diploma, 29 men, 143 women; A.M. and Teachers College Diploma, 
137 men, 112 women; Ph.D. and Teachers College Diploma, 6 men. 



336 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XIV 



NUMBER OF DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS GRANTED, I913-I914 TO I922-I923 



A. Degrees conferred in course 

Bachelor of Arts (men) 

Bachelor of Arts (women) . . 

Bachelor of Laws 

Bachelor of Science 

(Columbia College) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Barnard College) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Teachers College) 

Bachelor of Science in 

Practical Arts 

Bachelor of Science 

(Architecture) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Business) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Dentistry) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Pharmacy) 

Bachelor of Science 

(Medicine) 

Bachelor of Science 

(University Course) .... 
Bachelor of Architecture . . 

Bachelor of Music 

Bachelor of Literature. . . . 

Chemist 

Chemical Engineer 

Civil Engineer 

Doctor of Dental Surgery. . 

Electrical Engineer 

Engineer of Mines 

Mechanical Engineer 

Metallurgical Engineer. . . 

Doctor of Medicine 

Pharmaceutical Chemist . . 

Doctor of Pharmacy 

Master of Arts 

Master of Laws 

Master of Arts 

(Teachers College) 

Master of Science 

(Applied Science) 

Master of Science 

(Architecture) 

Master of Science 

(Business) 

Master of Science 

(Journalism) 

Master of Science 

(Practical Arts) 

Doctor of Philosophy 

Total.... 

Deduct duplicates 

Total individuals receiving 

degrees 



99 
113 

140 

77 

7 

218 

5 



105 
141 
I3S 

85 



357 
19 



101 
112 
134 

75 

6 



38 
14 

8 
71 
24 

7 
492 

3 



633 



407 



226 



65 

1,470 

18 



125 
136 
165 



326 



24 

3 

90 

15 

389 
3 



136 

142 
54 

76 
15 



7i 

1,814 

13 



1,737 
21 

1,716 



82 

1,002 

8 
1,984 



118 
6 

281 
3 

306 



104 
137 

44 

49 
4 



138 



241 
3 



4 

83 

1,625 

3 

1,622 



237 
139 



4 
3 
7 
3 
101 
15 



423 

4 



9 
52 
1,466 
4 

1,462 



284 
168 
108 



452 



117 
13 

38l 

1 

442 
17 



82 
2,311 



315 
151 

174 



428 



9 

4 
11 

3 
68 

9 

448 



535 
15 



,525 
19 



348 
157 
157 



467 



114 
3 



9 
9 

49 

17 
1 
4 
9 
4 
3 
6 

95 
7 

522 
4 

677 

27 



14 

107 

2,847 

19 



2,50612,828 



B. Honorary degrees 

Master of Arts 

Master of Science 

Doctor of Science 

Doctor of Letters 

Doctor of Sacred Theology . 

Doctor of Laws 

Doctor of Music 

Total 



24 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 337 

TABLE XIV— (Continued) 





1 
0, 0\ 


1 


Oi o\ 


1 

O O 


1 
r~co 

Oi Oi 


1 

CO C\ 
Oi Oi 




Oi Oi 


1 

M 

01 N 

Oi o> 


1 

Oi 


Oi Oi 


C. Certificates and Teachers 
College diplomas granted 
Certificate of Proficiency in 


13 


8 
2 


12 


8 


I 

58 


5 
69 


7 
17 


S 
3 


2 

I 
32 

II 

47 
256 

307 

5 
661 








Bachelor of Arts Certificate 
for Academic Record and 






Certificate of Proficiency in 
























7 
7 


19 

12 


36 

12 

33 
2S3 

267 

2 

611 


26 


Certificate in Secretarial 










2 


8 


Certificate in Secretarial 
Studies (University Ex- 












Bachelor's diploma in 
Education 

Special diploma in Educa- 
tion 

Master's diploma in Educa- 
tion 

Doctor's diploma in Edu- 
cation 


253 

21 

174 

13 

474 


323 

226 
5 

564 


268 

199 
S 

484 


238 

199 

4 

440 


226 

187 

7 
481 


199 

162 

3 

452 


236 

240 
12 

543 


286 

371 
6 






Total degrees and diplomas 


1,068 
436 

1,532 


2,388 
S63 

1,825 


2,227 
410 

1,817 


2,456 

447 

2,009 


2,116 
402 

I.7I4 


1,926 
342 

1,584 


2,658 

477 

2,181 


2,929 
514 

2,415 


3,199 
S65 

2,634 


3,587 






Total individuals receiving 


3.130 



338 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XV 



A. MAJOR INTEREST OF RECIPIENTS OF HIGHER DEGREES, I922-I923 

EXCLUSIVE OF THE MASTER'S DEGREE IN EDUCATION 

AND PRACTICAL ARTS 



Subjects of 
Major Interest 


A.M. | Ph.D. 


M.S. 


LL.M. 


Total 


Men.Women 


Men Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 




1 






1 










1 

2 

1 

4 

2 

2 
17 

8 
S7 

1 

2 

13 

10 

37 

12 

4 

45 

1 

8 

13 

5 
I 
6 
6 

1 
56 
17 

28 
8 
2 


1 






2 




















1 












2 


3 


2 

2 
1 


1 








4 
















1 


5 


1 










6 




17 


3 






3 


Chemical Engineering 


6 
39 

1 

2 


II 


2 
18 










7 










18 


Classical Philology: 












14 














14 


Education and Practi- 


13 


I 










1 








10 










English and Compara- 
tive Literature 


34 

12 

4 

35 


70 
I 
2 

S8 


3 










70 












1 


Germanic Languages. . 














2 


10 


2 










60 




1 


1 






1 




6 

1 


8 


2 








8 


Mechanical Engineer- 




12 
5 




























1 
5 
4 


















I 

I 

13 

20 

24 

I 
17 
4 

253 


1 
2 
1 
6 
7 

3 
2 
1 


























1 














1 


Political Economy. . . . 


SO 

10 

21 
6 
1 












13 


4 










24 


Public Law and juris- 






4 






Romance Languages . . 


3 






27 
























I 




19 
8 

260 


4 
5 

87 












23 
13 

406 


17 












4 


Total 


20 


46 


4 


4 




277 







REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 339 

TABLE XV— {Continued) 

B. HIGHER DEGREES GRANTED UNDER EACH FACULTY 



Faculties 


A.M. 


Ph.D. 


M.S. 


LL.M. 


Total 


Men Women 


Men Women 


Men! Women 


Men 


Women 


Men Women 


Political Science, Phi- 
losophy and Pure 


269 


253 


87 


20 










356 
27 

1 

17 
1 
4 

406 
248 
654 
539 
459 






27 

1 

17 

1 






































3 
1 






3 


























4 

4 






Total 1923 


269 
247 
5i6 
45i 

364 


253 
430 
683 
532 

459 


87 


20 


46 
1 
47 
26 
32 


4 
13 
17 
II 
12 


277 
443 
720 
563 

491 


Education and Practi- 


Total 1923 (including 
Teachers College) . . 

Total J 023 (including 
Teachers College) . . 

Total 1 92 1 (including 
Teachers College) . . 


87 
61 
62 


20 
20 
20 


4 
1 
I 





34° 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XVI 

CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS ATTENDING ONE OR MORE COURSES OF 
INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 



1932-1923 


_0J 

"o 

u 


1 
►J 


J 

u 

•3 


tu 
a 
u 

M.S 

SO 
S-o 

<5 <3) 


0) 
u 

S3 

-t-» 


01 

!3 


< 




73 
c 

P 


1-1 


01 
_g 

M 


a 
01 

P 


13) 

3 
4-> n] 

Em 
g-g 

R B 

32 


.a 
'■*-> 

1 

[X. 
01 

3 

•d 

n) 

O 


z> c 
3 > 


3 


H 


Department 

Anatomy (including Histology and Em- 






200 










12 




5 

II 

I 








I 

9 

91 












12 










65 










75 




I 


97 
103 


6 










98 










S 
7 


I 

3 

I 

16 


12 
19 
34 

109 
22 

193 
1 

14 
43 


I 
I 
3 
S 
1 
14 

1 
2 


115 
















130 




20 

134 
S 

477 
6 

13 
33 

14 
677 


2 


7 

19 

no 

62 

97 








65 






2 


309 




583 




139 












762 












104 


Classical Philology: 










1 

1 
I 

7 


29 


















79 


















15 














I 


19 


685 














19 








180 
180 
















180 
























180 




11 
601 

..25 

3 
66 

1,376 

92 

109 

91 

145 

363 




















II 




5 

I 

9 




I 

3 

181 

24 




4 


138 
3 




12 
3 


291 

195 

10 


16 
9 
1 


1,068 




239 




195 














90 


English and Comparative Literature. . 


I 

2 


11 


29 




23 
2 

I 
3 
9 


354 

6 

5 

32 

41 

77 


27 

3 

I 


1,83a 
102 




I 


49 


49 




31 

I 

18 

5 




145 




174 








2 
1 


213 










456 






180 






180 




496 
57 


4 




2 


I 


7 




12 

I 


252 

I 
21 


9 
3 


783 


Hygiene and Preventive Medicine 


58 






7 










8 




2 


I 






141 








37 




180 












180 




681 

3 

58 




2 

198 

80 

102 


10 




10 




8 

1 
1 


76 
11 

I 
18 
I 
8 
2 
7 


8 

1 

1 
1 


795 




213 


Mechanics (Mathematical Physics) . . . 


12 








153 








120 




68 
9 
















69 








43 
37 










1 


62 












39 




76 


1 


380 
180 


I 




I 






87 




380 
























180 


Oriental Languages: 


















8 
12 
16 


3 
3 


11 






















12 




2 












I 






22 






180 
183 








180 
















7 






1 


191 



















REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 341 

TABLE XVI— {Continued) 



1922-1923 


V 

bo 

0) 

75 

U 




a 
'u 

•3 

1 


a 

HI 

£ >• 

B ^ 

MS 

W E 

J3 

.St3 


3 


< 


1 
a 

3 




OJ 

a 
3 


a 
Q 


V 
3 

'2 & 

.St3 
a a 
DP 


V 

73 


3 
T3 

Bl 

1h 

O 


■a! 

■a "2 

<u 3 

Sw 


73 

H 


Department 
Pharmacology, Materia Medica and 






97 

102 

277 










9 








106 


Philosophy 

Physical Education (including Hygiene) 


302 

1,185 

350 

30 


2 
12 


9 
102 


1 
1 


I 

2 


1 
8 


7 
4 
10 

1 


125 
10 

86 

7 


13 

7 

1 


452 

1,231 

555 










9 


ISO 












277 




11 
186 


683 






5 
I 






1 
4 


7 
113 


"8 


707 










312 






94 






94 


Public Law and Jurisprudence 


3 

43 

687 

12 
213 


117 

1 

5 






I 


4 




1 
11 


86 

1 

in 
9 

45 

1 

4 

257 


2 

7 

1 

21 


213 








46 


Romance Languages and Literatures: 






2 


II 


54 




888 




22 




1 






1 


5 


50 






315 


Slavonic Languages and Literatures: 


1 




I 

53 


















5 


Social Science (including Statistics) . . . 


2 








3 


9 




3 


348 


277 
180 






277 
























180 




152 














4 






156 

























342 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
TABLE XVII 



AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE IN ALL COURSES, I922-1923 (EXCLUDING COURSES 

IN SUMMER SESSION, UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, 

BARNARD COLLEGE AND THE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY) 



1922-1923 



Department 

Anatomy (including Histology) 

Anthropology 

Architecture 

Astronomy 

Bacteriology 

Biological Chemistry 

Botany 

Business (including Accounting) 

Chemical Engineering 

Chemistry 

Civil Engineering 

Classical Philology: 

Greek 

Latin 

Classical Civilization 

Contemporary Civilization 

Dentistry 

Dermatology and Syphilology 

Diseases of Children 

Economics ._ 

Electrical Engineering 

Engineering Drafting 

English and Comparative Literature 

Fine Arts 

Geography 

Geology 

Germanic Languages and Literatures 

Gynecology and Obstetrics 

History 

Industrial Engineering 

Journalism 

Laryngology (including Otology) 

Mathematics 

Mechanical Engineering 

Metallurgy 

Military Science 

Mineralogy 

Mining 

Music 

Neurology and Psychiatry 

Ophthalmology 

Oriental Languages: 

Chinese 

Indo-Iranian 

Semitic 

Orthopedic Surgery 

Pathology 

Pharmacology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

Philosophy (including Ethics) 

Physical Education (including Hygiene) 

Physics (including Mechanics) 

Physiology _. 

Practice of Medicine 

Private Law 

Psychology 

Public Health Administration 



Number of 


Number of 


Half-Year 


Registrations 


Courses 




10 


847 


6 


26 


54 


578 


3 


125 


13 


357 


15 


258 


24 


152 


79 


2,666 


20 


381 


70 


1,994 


23 


180 


17 


63 


24 


209 


4 


30 


4 


1.257 


36 


152 


3 


266 


7 


586 


38 


2,619 


38 


542 


9 


197 


82 


4.944 


8 


168 


2 


248 


37 


388 


43 


484 


4 


361 


38 


2,041 


6 


39 


30 


1,288 


4 


379 


32 


1.347 


52 


736 


26 


309 


16 


110 


9 


94 


17 


100 


12 


298 


15 


1,012 


3 


266 


4 


21 


17 


43 


22 


76 


4 


360 


3 


209 


I 


no 


44 


990 


10 


2.907 


44 


1,412 


7 


152 


17 


1.548 


50 


5.343 


19 


639 


2 


188 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
TABLE XV r II — (Continued) 



343 



Department 

Public Law, Government, and Comparative Juriprudence: 

Constitutional and Administrative Law 

Government 

International Law and Diplomacy 

Roman Law and Comparative Jurisprudence 

Religion 

Romance Languages and Literatures: 

French 

Italian 

Spanish 

Slavonic Languages: 

General Slavonic 

Russian 

Social Science 

Surgery 

Urology 

Zoology 

Total 



1,363 



Number of 


Number of 


Half-Year 


Registrations 


Courses 




7 


18S 


18 


782 


6 


148 


6 


41 


3 


61 


Si 


2,282 


6 


56 


16 


612 


4 


9 


S 


10 


22 


854 


12 


1,086 


4 


368 


26 


516 



344 



1Q22-IQ23 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

A. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SEX 



June 20, 1 023 





Morning- 
side 


Extra- 
Mural 


Home 
Study 


Total 




4,916 
4,402 


398 
2,846 


521 
310 


5,835 




7,558 






Total 


0,3i8 


3,244 


831 




Duplicate Registrations 


583 










12,810 













Note: Matriculated students taking courses in University Extension are not included 
In the above figures. 



B. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED AS OLD AND NEW 





Morning 
side 


Extra- 
Mural 


Total 




5,746 
3,572 


2,163 
1,081 






4,833 






Total 


0,3i8 


3,244 









Note: Home Study students are not included in this table. 
C. REGISTRATIONS IN SPECIAL CLASSES (NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER TABLES) 



Agriculture 

Fine Arts 

Government 

Music 

Neuro-otology 

Recreation Courses (at Barnard) . 

Spoken Languages 

Swimming (at Barnard) 



Total. 



Winter 
Session 



179 



27 

53 

114 

256 

3 



632 



Spring 
Session 



4i 

166 

18 

3 



92 

149 



Both 
Sessions 



76 

73 



270 



Total 



4i 

464 

18 

30 

S3 

282 

478 

6 



D. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FACULTIES 



1. Non-matriculated: 

Columbia 

Teachers College (exclusively) 

a. Matriculated: 

Columbia College 

Barnard College 

Law School 

Mines, Engineering and Chemistry. 

Architecture 

Journalism 

Business 

Graduate Faculties 

Teachers College 

University Undergraduate 



8,911 
407 

653 

59 

46 

39 

42 

21 

265 

799 

810 

44 

Total 12,096 



Morning- 
side 



Extra- 
Mural 



3,244 



Home 
Study 



831 



831 



Total 



12.986 
407 

653 

59 

46 

39 

42 

21 

26s 

799 

810 

44 

16,171 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 
UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

E. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RESIDENCE 



345 



New York City: 

Manhattan and Bronx 

Brooklyn 

Queens 

Richmond 

New York State (outside New York City) . 
New Jersey 



Totals. 



Other States: 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri.. _ 

Mississippi 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Total. 



Morning- 
side 



4.658 
1,168 

267 
49 

827 
1,071 

8,040 



24 

IS- 

186 

5 
26 

9 
IS 

1 
35 
22 
16 



S 
28 
20 
120 
23 
24 



52 
9 
9 
151 
19 
9 



44 
9 
10 

35 
5 
9 

24 



Extra- 
Mural 



33 
129 

4 

492 
860 

1.518 



429 
378' 



383 



536 



Home 
Study 



58 



89 

57 



4 

6 

5 

29 

10 

31 

6 

9 

7 

17 

5 



16 

7 

3 

4 

5 

8 

32 

24 

13 

11 

4 

5 

3 

7 

2 

15 

4 

42 

13 

5 

75 



S 

786 



Total 



4.749 
1,315 
276 
5i 
1,408 
1,988 

0,787 



18 

8 

13 

53 

25 

646 

11 

413 

16 

32 

6 

56 

34 

32 

17 

21 

9 

33 

28 

535 

47 

37 

29 

9 

7 

13 

19 

2 

38 

4 
94 
22 
14 
762 
25 



25 
65 
13 
15 
49 
19 
20 
32 
5 

13.172 



346 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

E. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RESIDENCE — (Continued) 



Foreign Countries and Territories 

Argentina 

Alaska 

Australia 

Bahamas 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British West Indies 

Canada 

Canal Zone 

Central America 

Chili 

China 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia 

Es t honia 

Finland 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Hawaii 

Honduras 

India 

Ireland 

Japan 

Maupi 

Mexico 

New Zealand 

Panama 

Peru 

Philippine Islands 

Poland 

Porto Rico 

Roumania 

Russia 

Santo Domingo 

Scotland 

South Africa , 

Spain 

Sweden 

Turkey 

Venezuela 



Totals 

Grand Totals. 



Morning- 
side 



36 



25 
3 



176 
9.318 



Extra- 
Mural 



Home 
Study 



Total 



45 
831 



55 
3 



29 
7 



221 

13,303 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 347 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

F. AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE ON COURSES 



Subject 



Administration 

Advanced Dentistry. . . . 

Agriculture 

Anthropology 

Arabic 

Architecture 

Astronomy 

Auto-Engineering 

Biology 

Bookkeeping 

Botany 

Business 

Business English 

Chemical Engineering. . 

Chemistry 

Chinese 

Civil Engineering 

Clothing 

Comparative Literature. 

Cookery 

Czechoslovak 

Drafting 

Drawing 

Economics 

Education 

Electrical Engineering . . 

English 

Filing 

Fine Arts 

French 

Geography 

Geology 

German 

Government 

Greek 

Gujarati 

Hindustani 

History 

Household Economics. . 

Hygiene 

Industrial Arts 

Irish 

Italian 

Japanese 

Journalism 

Latin 

Law 

Mathematics 

Metal Working 

Motion Pictures 

Music 

Neurology 

Nursing 

Nutrition 

Optometry 

Oral Hygiene 

Persian 

Philosophy 

Phonetics 

Photoplay Composition. 



Number of Half- Year 
Courses 



Morn- 
ingside 



14 
3 
1 
43 
4 
3 
6 
4 
2 
109 
4 



9 
102 



Extra- 
Mural 



Total 



14 

3 
1 

43 
4 
3 
6 
4 
2 
109 
4 
1 

24 
6 
4 

26 



15 
38 

9 
107 

2 
44 
36 



31 
4 
4 
2 
3 
4 
3 
2 

14 
6 



18 
23 



Number of Registrations 



Morn- 
ingside 



16 

105 

101 

10 

11 

93i 

95 

34 

18 

155 

143 

4.38o 

358 

20 

683 

28 

44 

221 

447 

68 

10 

66 

34 

832 



200 

6,411 

27 

3/8 

1,819 

59 

73 

467 

283 

28 

3 

5 

1,884 

13 

52 

4 

5 

138 

6 

115 

169 

84 

1,142 

6 

45 

153 

87 

28 

11 

746 

1.235 

4 

657 

144 

146 



Extra- 
Mural 



240 



3. 121 
310 



54 
118 



Total 



16 
105 

101 

10 

11 

93i 

95 

34 

18 

155 

143 

4.38o 

358 

20 

923 

28 

44 

221 

447 

68 

10 

66 

34 

832 

3. 121 

200 

6,721 

27 

432 

1,937 

59 

73 

567 

283 

28 

3 

5 

2,123 

13 

52 

4 

5 

138 

6 

115 

169 

84 

1,142 

6 

45 

153 

87 

28 

11 

746 

1.235 

4 

742 

144 

146 



348 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

F. AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE ON COURSES — {Continued) 



Subject 



Physical Education 

Physical Training 

Physics 

Physiology 

Polish 

Portuguese 

Psychology 

Public Law 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Secretarial Correspondence .... 

Semitic 

Serbian 

Slavonic 

Slovene 

Sociology 

Spanish 

Speech 

Stenography 

Structural Mechanics 

Teachers College Chemistry . . 

Teachers College Drawing 

Teachers College Hygiene 

Teachers College Mathematics. 

Teachers College Music 

Teachers College Physics 

Textiles 

Turkish 

Typewriting 

Typography 

Zoology 



Number of Half- Year 
Courses 



Morn- 
side 



Total 



Extra- 
Mural 



Total 



Number of Registrations 



1,082 



Morn- 
side 


Extra- 
Mural 


Total 


296 

96 

173 

156 

6 

4 

1,060 

81 

1 

58 

174 

4 

3 

3 

2 

412 

1,252 

45 

584 

89 

13 

21 

4 

2 

81 

3 

124 

1 

441 

117 

139 


125 
248 


296 

96 

298 

156 

6 

4 

1,060 

81 

1 

58 

174 

4 

3 

3 

2 

412 

1,252 

45 

584 

89 

13 

21 

4 

2 

81 

3 

124 

1 

441 

117 

387 

35.521 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 349 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

G. AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE ON HOME STUDY COURSES 



Subject 



Agriculture 

Ancient Christianity 

Biblical Literature 

Bookkeeping 

Business 

Business English 

Comparative Literature . . . 

Drafting 

Economics 

English 

French 

German 

Government 

Greek 

History 

Italian 

Latin . 

Mathematics 

Actuarial Mathematics 

Philosophy 

Psychology 

Scouting 

Secretarial Correspondence 

Sociology 

Spanish 

Typewriting 

Typography 

Photoplay Composition 

Total 




Number of 
Registrations 



14 
5 

86 

17 
3 
7 

22 
253 

17 



3 
6 
5 

4 

42 

34 

8 

S3 

173 

1 

4 

40 

1 

7 

18 

828 



350 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

SUMMER SESSION, 1923 

SUMMER SESSION ENROLLMENT 

1900-1923 









Percentage of Increase 




Year 


Total Enrollment 


Over Preceding Year 




1900 


417 






1901 


S79 


38.8s 




1902 


643 


11.05 




1903 


993 


54-43 




1904 


961 


— 322 




1905 


1,018 


5-93 




1906 


1,041 


2.26 




1907 


1. 395 


33-72 




1908 


1.532 


10.05 




1909 


I.97I 


28.65 




1910 


2,632 


33-54 




1911 


2,973 


12.96 




1912 


3,602 


21.16 




1913 


4.539 


26.01 




1914 


5.590 


23.14 




191S 


5.961 


6.63 




1916 


8.023 


34-59 




1917 


6,144 


- 23.42 




1918 


6,022 


- 1.99 




1919 


9.539 


58.40 




1920 


9.780 


2.52 




1921 


11,809 


20.75 




1922 


12,567 


6.42 




1923 


12,675 


.86 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 35I 

SUMMER SESSION, 1923 



Classification 



Students Classified According to Sex 

Men 

Women 

Total 

Students Classified as Old and New 

Previously registered 

New Students 

Total 

Students Classified According to Faculties 

I. Non-Matriculated 

II. Matriculated 

1. Columbia 

a. Columbia College 

b. University Undergraduates 

2. Barnard College . 

3. Mines, Engineering and Chemistry 

4. Law 

5. Medicine 

6. Architecture 

7. Political Science 

8. Philosophy 

9. Pure Science 

10. Ph.D. in Education 

1 1 . Journalism 

12. Business 

13. Dentistry 

14. Pharmacy 

15. Teachers College 

a. Undergraduates 

b. Graduates 

c. Unclassified 

Total I and II 

Students Classified According to Teaching Positions 

I. Not engaged in Teaching 

II. Engaged in Teaching 

Elementary Schools 

Secondary Schools 

Higher Educational Institutions 

Normal Schools 

Industrial Schools 

Principals (Schools) 

Assistant Principals (Schools) 

Supervisors 

Superintendents 

Special Teachers 

Private School Teachers 

Private Teachers 

Librarians 

Technical Schools 

Business Schools 

Vocational Schools 

Institutes 

Total I and II 



12,675 



Numbers 


Percentages 


4,122 


32-52 


8,553 


67.48 


12.675 


100.00 


5,888 


46.45 


6,787 


53-55 


12,675 


100.00 


7.317 


57-73 


5.358 


42.27 


12,675 


100.00 


347 




23 




100 




17 




186 




1 




13 




280 




562 




255 




68 




13 




90 




1 




2 




1,076 




1,972 




352 




12,675 




4,229 


3336 


8,446 


66.64 


12,675 


100.00 


3.4io 




2.745 




652 




269 




18 




476 




43 




223 




229 




107 




93 




29 




12 




18 




36 




40 




46 





352 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
SUMMER SESSION, 1923 



Classification 



Students Classified According to Residence 
North Atlantic Division: 

Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

*New York: 

Outside of New York City 

Manhattan and Bronx 

Brooklyn 

Queens 

Richmond 

*Total, 4,147 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

Total North Atlantic Division 

South Atlantic Division: 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Maryland 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Total South Atlantic Division 

North Central Division: 

Illinois , 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

South Dakota 

Wisconsin 

Total North Central Division 

South Central Division 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Mississippi 

Oklahoma 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Total South Central Division 



Numbers 



Percentages 



346 
103 
387 
75 
940 

1.344 

1.873 

703 

201 

26 

1,086 
35 
55 

7,174 



47 
no 

87 
271 
278 
269 
174 
283 
156 

1,675 



214 

282 

106 

136 

267 

144 

243 

97 

16 

661 

36 

171 



168 
52 

107 
53 
52 
42 

116 

235 

H25 



56.60 



18.72 



6.51 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR 353 

SUMMER SESSION, 1923 



Classification 


Numbers 


Percentages 


Western Division 


20 
93 
58 

4 
12 

2 

3 
IS 
14 
37 

3 

261 

1 

4 

8 

13 

30 

56 

12,364 

1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
121 
2 
93 
3 
I 
1 
1 
1 
6 
1 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
2 
2 
29 
1 
1 
2 
3 
4 
3 
1 
2 
5 
1 
1 
2 
2 
































Utah 
















Insular and Non-Contiguous Territories 




























Foreign Countries 
























Chile 




























Cuba 
































Italy 
























Poland 
































Turkey 






2.46 







354 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

SUMMER SESSION, 1923 

F. STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO DEGREES HELD 
6,576 degrees are held by 5,324 of the students as follows: 



Degree 


Number 


Degree 


Number 


Degree 


Number 


A.A. 


10 


B.O. 


3 


M.B.A. 


5 


A.B. 


3,596 


Bp.D. 


1 


M.C.S. 


2 


A.M. 


789 


B.R.E. 


2 


M.D. 


32 


B.Agric. 


1 


B.S. 


1.338 


M.E. 


16 


(Denmark) 




B.S.A. 


2 


M.E.L. 


3 


B.Arch. 


2 


B.S.D. 


2 


M.Litt. 


I 


B.B.A. 


4 


B.S.S. 


15 


M.O. 


I 


B.B.S. 


2 


B.Th. 


5 


M.S. 


62 


B.C. 


3 


C.E. 


14 


M.S.A. 


I 


B.Ch. 


2 


D.D. 


1 


M.S.E. 


1 


B.C.S. 


14 


D.D.S. 


4 


M.Th. 


2 


B.D. 


37 


D.J. 


5 


Pd.B. 


78 


B.E. 


18 


D.M.D. 


1 


P.M. 


12 


B.Ed. 


10 


D.O. 


2 


Ph.B. 


210 


B.F.A. 


1 


D.Phar. 


1 


Ph.C. 


I 


B.H. 


3 


Dr.P.H. 


1 


Ph.Ch. 


6 


B.H.Ec. 


1 


D.V.M. 


1 


Ph.D. 


30 


(Canada) 




E.E. 


10 


Ph.G. 


10 


BJ. 


1 


G.G. 


1 


Ph.J. 


I 


B.L. 


35 


J.C.L. 


2 


Ph.M. 


.5 


B.L.I. 


1 


L.D. 


3 


R.N. 


25 


B.Litt. 


2 


L.I. 


20 


S.A.V. 


1 


B.L.S. 


2 


L.L.B. 


56 


(India) 




B.M. 


13 


L.L.D. 


5 


S.J.B. 


1 


B.M. (Chile) 


I 


L.L.M. 


4 


St.B. 


8 


B.M.E. 


I 


L.T.C.M. 


1 


St.L.R. 


1 


B.Mus. 


12 


(Canada) 






Total. . .6,576 



964 students hold 2 degrees 

1 16 students hold 3 degrees 

15 students hold 4 degrees 

2 students hold 5 degrees 



REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR */f j f: 355 
SUMMER SESSION, 1923 



Subjects 



Aggregate Attendance on 
Courses: 

Accounting 

Administration 

Anatomy 

Anthropology 

Architecture 

Assyrian 

Astronomy 

Biological Chemistry 

Bacteriology 

Biology 

Bookkeeping 

Botany 

Business 

Business English 

Cancer Research 

Chemical Engineering .... 

Chemistry 

Chinese 

Clothing 

Comparative Literature . . 
Contemporary Civilization 

Cookery 

Economics 

Education 

Electrical Engineering .... 

Engineering Drafting 

English 

Fine Arts 

French 

Geography 

Geology 

German 

Government 

Greek 

Hindustani 

History 

Household Economics .... 

Hygiene 

Italian 

Japanese 

Journalism 

Latin 

Law 

Library Economy 

Mathematics 

Metallurgy 

Metalworking 

Music 

Neurology 

Nursing 

Nutrition 

Philosophy 

Penmanship 

Phonetics 

Photoplay Composition . . . 

Physical Education 

Physical Training 

Physics 

Physiology 

Portuguese 

Practice of Medicine 

Psychology 

Public Health 



Number of 
Courses 



4 

50 

1 

14 

4 

2 

14 

8 

218 

4 

3 

41 

34 

27 

9 

4 

10 

5 

3 

1 

23 

6 

4 

5 



36 
7 

14 
S 



Number of 
Registrations 



34 

129 

11 

Si 

108 

6 

58 

35 

23 

120 

31 

75 

405 

31 

5 

29 

635 

3 

320 

311 

39 

382 

357 

16,247 

90 

23 

2,209 

959 

1,098 

159 

31 

152 

171 

15 

I 

1,090 

123 

16S 

102 

9 

43 

320 

461 

123 

596 

36 

15 

235 

9 

173 

97 

150 

64 

17 

35 

1.447 

813 

239 

112 

1 

17 

432 

23 



356 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
SUMMER SESSION, 1923 



Subjects 



AGGREGATE ATTENDANCE OF 

Courses (Continued): 
Public Health Administration 

Public Law 

Religion 

Russian 

Secretarial Correspondence. . . 

Social Science 

Sociology 

Spanish 

Speech 

Statistics 

Stenography 

Teachers College Chemistry. 
Teachers College Drawing . . . 

Teachers College Music 

Textiles 

Typewriting 

Zoology 

Total 



787 



Number of 


Number of 


Courses 


Registrations 


1 


14 


4 


58 


2 


40 


2 


5 


2 


28 


4 


116 


7 


200 


12 


369 


3 


222 


2 


46 


4 


ISO 


9 


93 


1 


17 


5 


99 


2 


48 


2 


100 


2 


71 



33,976 



Respectfully submitted 

Edward J. Grant 

Registrar 



September 1, IQ23 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, I923 

To the President of the University 
Sir: 

As Acting Librarian of the University, I have the honor to 
submit the following report for the year ending June 30, 1923. 

The principal matter of importance to note during the year 
under review in the administration of the general Library 
system, and much more important than at first sight would 
appear, is the separation of the Bindery Department from the 
supervision of the stacks with which it has been traditionally 
connected. The change concerned some of the serious problems 
of the Library in the determination of the manner of distribu- 
tion of the books on the shelves, their replacement after use, 
and particularly the need of planning in advance measures 
to meet the complex problem of growth. 

The matter has two sides. The increase of the cost of binding 
in labor and materials in itself demands fuller and more careful 
supervision. Added to this there has been a notable increase 
in the number of pamphlets that have come into the Bindery 
for use and preservation, and a large development in the 
demands for photostat service which is at present a part of 
its duties. In point of fact, it is already an open question 
whether there should not be a further subdivision, and whether 
the care of pamphlets does not call for an individual responsi- 
bility. 

From the point of view of the control of the shelves, an 
immediate change was necessary in order to make any sort of 
effective supervision a physical possibility. The change to a 
new division in charge of the stacks, and the close and un- 
divided attention to the special problems involved in their 
care, has amply justified itself in a better understanding on the 
part of the page service of the location of sets or sections of 
books from lack of space crowded out of their regular sequence, 



358 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

arid, as a consequence of the difficulty in finding them, a con- 
stantly recurring source of dissatisfaction on the part of the 
borrower with the service of the Loan Desk, where a book 
should arrive from the shelves with reasonable promptitude. 

The connecting link between the shelves and the borrower 
is an adequate and capable page service — a matter that at the 
present time and under present conditions demands the most 
serious consideration as a problem that has been only inade- 
quately solved. The success of a library in serving its public 
can be greatly augmented or hampered by a good or bad page 
service. To make it good, it is necessary to have a more or 
less permanent staff of intelligent boys, who have had their 
duties properly defined, and who are made to feel the impor- 
tance of carrying them out. A plan has been put into operation 
during the year, in a renewed attempt to stabilize and con- 
sequently to improve the page service of the stacks and the 
Loan Desk, by making the hours of service, as had not been 
the case, uniform throughout; by granting a half-holiday 
weekly to all pages, where in previous years, as a tradition, 
weekly half-holidays were not allowed until after a three- 
months' service; and by increasing the pay of all pages. 
Under this arrangement the costs of general operation have 
been increased, but it is certain that the Library service has 
been greatly, and it is hoped permanently improved in a 
fundamentally important direction. The Loan Desk, more 
than any other part of the Library system, comes into direct 
contact with the public, and the work of the Library staff 
as a whole will be open to a justified criticism so long as Loan 
Desk methods and its dependent page service are not reason- 
ably efficient. Some reorganization of the Loan Desk, both 
in matter and method, is still needed in other directions to 
improve its service in accuracy and speed, but in spite of its 
limitations, which here and elsewhere in the Library building 
are largely of space, that under original conditions was not 
provided to take care of an expansion of use that could not 
possibly have been foreseen, it has by no means inadequately 
fulfilled its purposes. The Library, it may confidently be 
stated, is being used more than ever before as a living part of 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 359 

the life of the University. Too often, however, it may be that 
there are still to be found traces of a tacit acceptance of the 
existence of the Library as a landmark on the campus and an 
obvious external incident of student life, instead of the hoped 
for realization that the Library of the University — of any 
university — is not a building only, but the material expression 
of a service. 

An embarrassment that with the normal growth of the 
Library collections continually becomes greater is the pressure 
on the stacks, not only in the Main Library, but in many of 
the department libraries in the various buildings of the 
University. The growth, for instance, of the collection of trade 
catalogues used in instruction in Engineering and Chemistry 
calls for some radical enlargement of space or for a strenuous 
revision of policy, and conditions are as crucial elsewhere. 
The pressure in the Main Library continues and presently will 
become critical. If a whole section of stacks can presently be 
set up in University Hall, in connection with the library plans 
for that building, where the Proceedings of Scientific Societies 
and long files of the seldom or less frequently consulted peri- 
odicals can be kept, the exhaustion point will be averted for 
some time to come. A general use of dummies in the Main 
Library would under such circumstances be necessary, and 
some addition to delays would arise, but a serious problem 
would not be unsatisfactorily solved. 

This year it has been possible to view the matter of the pur- 
chase of periodicals from a post-war point of view. It has been 
complicated by mortalities among the periodicals themselves, 
by a general increase of prices, and by the fluctuations of 
foreign exchange. A very serious state of affairs was shown, 
and it is clear that the budget appropriation that was adequate 
ten years ago is at least deficient to the extent of one-third 
to one-half in order to maintain the same standards to-day. 
Additional appropriations accordingly are needed to keep the 
Library abreast of the essential material. There is need, also, 
of a general increase in the amount available for the purchase 
of books. An increased and increasing sum must be expended 
for the purchase of extra copies of books, new and old, to 



$60 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

keep pace with the increasing demands of readers. If there is 
need of five copies of a book, four copies are not sufficient. The 
Library in the interest of the University cannot adopt a policy 
of an inadequate supply of extra copies, and the only alterna- 
tive is to purchase duplicates to a sufficient number to supply 
all reasonable demands. 

Larger appropriations are needed to fill in the deficiencies 
that have naturally arisen in years of growth, in some direc- 
tions sporadic, in our collections, and the time has come in the 
necessary development of the Library as a supremely impor- 
tant adjunct of instruction in the University to take the 
systematic completion of incomplete material seriously into 
consideration. New courses in graduate subjects of study are 
developed from year to year, and it should be made possible 
to have at least fundamentally complete collections of material 
necessary to the proper conduct and pursuit of all such work 
by instructors and students. Library resources are the result 
of time, care and money, and each element is essential to 
their development. 

As a new element of growth in research material a number 
of photostat copies of manuscripts and rare books have been 
added to the Library during the year, and the plan under way 
whereby these reproductions through the libraries of the 
country are to be systematically catalogued for general use is 
full of possibilities. 

Reference work with advanced students shows more clearly 
each year that one of the greatest needs is wider information 
about the existence and accessibility in other libraries of 
material needed by our students that is not available either 
in our own Library or in the libraries of the City. Large as 
our own collection is, however, and rapidly as it is growing, it 
is still true that practically any research work soon leads 
outside our walls, and the investigator is fortunate if he can 
readily locate the missing material. To supply this information 
we need to purchase all possible printed aids, i.e., all good 
printed catalogues of books and manuscripts available in 
other collections, and we should support, on our part, the 
production of new catalogues and union lists. Our depository 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 361 

catalogue is an invaluable aid which is continually growing 
more useful. It now contains all the printed cards of the 
Library of Congress and the various other government 
libraries at Washington, the cards within two years of the 
important John Crerar Library, the cards so far as issued of 
Harvard and the University of Chicago, and also an increasing 
number of cards for rare copies in various American libraries 
which have been added as a result of efforts to find needed 
books. 

Additions have been made during the year to various 
special collections as opportunity offered. It has been satis- 
factory, for instance, to be able to add odd volumes to our 
important Grotius collection from second-hand catalogues, 
where, however, in this case as in others it is rare to find a 
missing third volume of an early publication that fits into two 
possibly at hand. The presentation to the University of the 
valuable Marvyn Scudder Financial Library, described more 
fully in this report in connection with other gifts, has given 
the School of Business a full equipment in an important 
direction. No better celebration of the tercentenary of the 
First Folio Shakespeare could have been had, to accompany 
our own beautiful copy of that edition, than the acquisition 
of a fine copy of the 1632 Second Folio which was bought in 
London through a special appropriation generously made to 
the Library for this particular purpose. Prospects of other 
additions to our Shakespeare collection have also developed 
from extra budget sources. The interest awakened by the Kent 
celebration by the Law School, elsewhere referred to, has 
resulted in the purchase of a number of Chancellor Kent's 
books that are of political rather than of purely legal interest. 
Several volumes of the Proceedings of the New York State 
Legislature, for example, have been added through this means 
to the General Library. Rare in themselves, they have Kent's 
notes in his own hand and as documents have a real historical 
value. Doubtless the most noteworthy single addition of the 
year is the original manuscript of John Stuart Mill's "Auto- 
biography," purchased by cable in London by members of the 
Department of Philosophy and presented by them to the 



362 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Library. The manuscript is written in two periods: the part 
corresponding to pages 1-25 1 of the printed edition of 1873 
before or during the year 1861; the last sixty pages during 
1870. There are few other books, it may be said, that possess a 
greater intrinsic value in themselves to an educational institu- 
tion, and it is no mere sentimentality to regard this manuscript 
of the "Autobiography" as a most notable addition to our 
collections. 

As a University Library we stand in a position of particular 
interest toward smaller colleges whose libraries are insufficient 
for their needs, and towards institutions which, as sometimes 
occurs, have suffered losses from fire. In a number of instances 
we have been able to help in this direction from our duplicate 
material. These duplicates, which come to us from many 
sources, have as a rule small financial value if sold to a dealer 
in second-hand books, but prove of great value to other 
libraries and are gratefully received. Besides smaller gifts of 
the kind, 225 volumes were presented to the Tuskegee Insti- 
tute; 155 volumes to Elon College, North Carolina; 130 
volumes to the Library of the Franciscan Sisters, Bozeman, 
Montana ; and 468 volumes to the Boston College Library. 

After an experimental ten months' work with the Columbia 
University Press Bookstore as the purchasing medium for 
American books in print, the practice was discontinued by the 
Library as inadvisable and we returned to the older method of 
buying, wherever possible, directly from the publisher. Dis- 
counts that had been assumed as greater through the mediation 
of the Bookstore amounted in the end to a sum that was more 
than absorbed by added overhead charges needed to take 
care of special Library service. 

Until the proposed plans for additional Library space in 
University Hall are carried out, there would seem to be no 
practical way, except in a single direction, to relieve the 
continually increasing pressure on the Loan Desk of the 
General Library, and to provide, as a consequence, to no 
small extent a better general library service. During the 
academic year under review it is estimated that the College 
Study served 300,000 readers, who borrowed by actual 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 363 

count 188,747 volumes from the reserved and open shelves 
in the two libraries located in 301 and 312 Hamilton Hall. 
These figures indicate a greatly increased use of the Col- 
lege Study in every phase of its service. They do not 
include books loaned from the General Library; nor do they 
include volumes borrowed from the Journalism Library and 
from Barnard College, where the collections parallel to a 
certain extent those of the College Study and an opportunity 
is at times at hand to borrow additional duplicate copies for 
periods when the pressure of demand for a certain book in these 
libraries is low and when in the College, on the other hand, it 
may reach its height. 

To fulfil its purpose, however, as the College library, in 
direct contact with the undergraduate student in his own en- 
vironment and calculated for his particular needs, the Study 
should have a considerably increased collection on its shelves 
independent of the General Library and of uncertain supply 
from other sources. With its empty shelves better filled, the 
Study would become infinitely more valuable, not only to the 
College itself, but also in its effect to the library scheme of the 
University. The advantage of making the library of the Col- 
lege study reasonably self-sufficient for College use and in- 
dependent of the General Library except for the occasional 
borrowing of a book rare or out-of-print would be quite as great 
for the General Library as it would be for the College, since 
it would bring about a relief to a not inconsiderable extent in 
the demands upon the Loan Desk and immediately react 
upon its service. 

In this same connection attention may be called to condi- 
tions at hand in the Johnston Memorial Library in Livingston 
Hall. This collection which comprises about 500 super- 
annuated popular novels was open during the academic year 
to residents of the three South Field dormitories for two hours 
one evening each week, at a cost of $50 from College Study 
funds. If no other provision can be made for it, the collection, 
its shelving and equipment, should be moved to a corner of 
301 Hamilton Hall, where there is room for it and where the 
expense of a separate attendant can be eliminated and its 



364 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

books be readily issued by those on duty in the College Study. 
The books would then be on daily view and at all times 
available for borrowing; the last days of the collection would 
be active and the problem solved by putting it to its utmost 
use and honorably wearing it out in intensified service. The 
only other solution, and possibly a better one, would be to 
secure funds for the accession of an adequate number of 
volumes of recent fiction, and to enable the library thereby 
to fulfil the purpose to students in the dormitories for which it 
was originally intended. 

During the year 6,271 volumes have been added to the Law 
Library, of which number 2,827 were by purchase, 2,884 by 
gift, and the others by binding and transference from the 
General Library. To all classes of books which compose the 
Law Library substantial additions have been made. The 
largest increase in any special subject has been in foreign law 
to which particular attention has been given. Gaps have been 
filled in British and British Colonial reports, especially those 
of India, in Latin-American law, British Colonial and American 
session laws. Several considerable shipments of foreign dis- 
sertations, especially those of French and German universities, 
have also been received. To keep pace with the increased use 
of the Library, it has been found necessary in several instances 
to add duplicate sets of American law reports and periodicals. 

A notable event in connection with the Law Library was the 
exhibition at the Kent Centennial Celebration, held on June 4, 
of memorabilia relating to the life of Chancellor Kent which 
immediately brought with it, as has already been indicated, 
the addition of a number of Kent's books to the Library col- 
lections. By gift through Mr. Alrick H. Man, came, in particu- 
lar, two interesting documents which relate directly to Kent 
as Professor of Law in Columbia College : they are the original 
manuscripts in Kent's own hand of lecture 52 on "Real 
Actions" and 53 on the "Action of Ejectment," read to his 
students on April 18 and 19, 1825, as a part of the "two private 
lectures in each week on the college lectures" described in the 
notes on the fly leaves of volume I of Kent's own copy of his 
"Commentaries" now in the Law Library. The exhibition 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 365 

comprised the Kent Collection consisting of 750 volumes of 
law books formerly in the law library of Chancellor Kent, 
presented to the Law School in 191 1 by Mr. Edwin C. Kent, 
and numerous manuscripts in his own handwriting beginning 
with the year 1793, and including representative documents 
from various periods of his life down to his death in 1847, partly 
owned by the Law Library and partly loaned by Mr. Hampton 
L. Carson of Philadelphia and Mr. Edwin C. Kent. The 
collection also contained photostat copies of manuscripts in 
the Library of Congress. 

A movement in Library ethics of somewhat unusual interest, 
and worthy of emulation elsewhere in the Library system, 
was set on foot during the year by the student "Law Library 
Association" (organized in 1921) in cooperation with the 
administration of the Law Library "in an effort to foster and 
where necessary to create a feeling of responsibility for the 
proper use of the library." A committee of the Association to 
carry this out drew up a series of "Canons of Law Library 
Ethics" which were printed and ultimately signed in approval 
by nearly every member of the School. The "Canons" are as 
follows : 

Recognizing that the value of a library is largely dependent upon the 
conduct of the users thereof, a committee of the Columbia University Law 
Library Association has drafted the following canons of Law Library 
ethics, the observance of which it recommends to all readers. 1. Books 
should not be mutilated or disfigured. This includes the cutting or tearing 
out of pages or parts thereof, and all underlining and annotating. 2. Books 
should not be secreted either within or without the library. 3. Books bor- 
rowed for home use should be returned within the time for which they were 
loaned. Reference books for use within the library should be returned 
promptly to the loan desk. Read the slip which you sign. 4. Talking, 
whispering or any other unnecessary noise or commotion in the library 
should be avoided by each in the interest of all. 

Important gifts were received from the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society 352 volumes; Columbia University Law 
Library Association 23 volumes and two permanent exhibition 
cases to contain the Kent Collection; Harold W. Buchanan 
21 volumes; Roger Foster 70 volumes; Albert Mayer 23 
volumes; estate of John B. Pine 805 volumes; John C. Rowe 



366 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

6 1 volumes. Of special interest is the gift by Frederick H. 
Man, Law '66, Henry H. Man, Law '76, and Aldrich N. Man, 
Law '79, of the two manuscripts of lectures delivered by 
Chancellor Kent in 1825 already referred to. Three gifts of 
money were received during the year: $2,173.95 from F. 
Trubee Davison, Law '22, for rebinding and completing the 
Kent Collection; $250 from William G. Low, Law '69, for the 
purchase of books in maritime and international law; and $100 
from Dean Harlan F. Stone for the purchase of books for the 
Officers' Library of the Law School. 

The Law Librarian gave as in previous years a course of 
instruction in legal research and the use of law books. 

The need of additional bibliographical material has become 
increasingly apparent in the Avery Library, as elsewhere, in 
order to keep pace with the increasing demands made by ad- 
vanced and research workers in its particular field. What is 
actively needed is a special depository catalogue to contain 
the titles of books and monographs in Art and Architecture in 
the chief libraries of the country, but which are not represented 
in the Avery collection. As a beginning of such outside aid 
the Library of Congress has supplied on subscription in these 
particular subjects 21,000 printed cards and will furnish 
subsequent issues. 

Important gifts to the Avery Library received during the 
year, among many others, were 81 volumes from Mrs. Hicks 
Arnold including 23 volumes of Piranesi (in a better state 
than the set in hand), works of Salvator Rosa (1640), La Fage 
(1689), the Carracci (1690), LeBrun (1752) and other large 
volumes, pamphlets and periodicals. From John C. Travis 
came a set of the sixteen portfolios of Detaille's "L'armee 
Francaise;" from the Princepessa di Venosa, the fine folio 
descriptive of the Villa Venosa in Albano Laziale, Italy; from 
J. C. Cebrain, V. Lamperez y Romeo's "Arquitectura Civil 
Espanola" in 2 volumes. 

The following exhibitions were held in the Avery Library 
during the year: Etchings and their processes (loan exhibition 
from the Keppel Galleries), and Art reproductions for teaching 
purposes, August; Pencil drawings of houses in Deerfield, 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 367 

Massachusetts, by Perry C. Smith, September; Water-colors 
and drawings of Armenian art by Mr. Fetvadjian, October; 
Early Chinese paintings from the collection of Professor V. G. 
Simkhovitch, November; Water-colors by Joseph Lauber, 
December; Architectural studies in the Ecole des Beaux- Arts 
by F. C. Hirons, January; Drawings in color by Albert E. 
Flanagan, February; Work of the School of Architecture, 
March; Exhibition on the 450th Anniversary of Copernicus: 
books, manuscripts, and astronomical instruments from the 
collection of Professor David E. Smith, April; McKim Travel- 
ling Fellowship competition: "A civic art center" and other 
work of the School or Architecture, June; also at intervals were 
shown plates from books on the architecture of Constantinople, 
primitive ornament, and others. 

The year marks, again, a notable increase in the use of the 
Medical Library and its various branches. A movement, 
begun in 1921 in the Department of Histology and Pathology 
and now extended to other departments of instruction, assigns 
as a part of the course of the first and second years a certain 
amount of library research, the student being given a subject 
upon which he is asked to write a paper involving a general 
review of its literature, with abstracts of original articles and 
a bibliography. This procedure has made necessary a greatly 
extended use particularly of journals contained variously in 
the libraries of the several departments and the Library of 
the Alumni Association, in the Sloane Hospital, and in the 
Janeway Library at the Presbyterian Hospital. As a conse- 
quence of these unusual demands, the departmental libraries, 
and especially those of Physiology and Pathology, were con- 
fronted with a new problem for which no adequate provision 
has been made. One department, in fact, refused the use of 
material and access to its library on the ground that it was not 
equipped to render the assistance required. The situation is an 
acute one, and under the library conditions that prevail at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and will continue to 
prevail until relief is provided in the new buildings projected, 
it must be met by other arrangements than those now at hand. 
Both of the departmental libraries mentioned and others have 



368 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

been formed from private sources, and were originally intended 
solely for the use of the staff or for research workers in the 
department itself. Care and general upkeep have been 
furnished from departmental appropriations, but no provision 
has been made for assistance to students in work required by 
other departments. In these departmental libraries and the 
others involved the time has come when it is imperatively 
necessary, in the interest of the educational scheme of the 
School in present day instruction in medicine and the accom- 
panying extended use of library material, to provide as a 
matter of general Library administration for the supervision 
necessary in the departmental libraries where they are used 
by undergraduate students. 

There is a unity of purpose and a spirit of cooperation in 
those in charge of the administration of the medical libraries 
to make their resources more available to those who desire to 
use them that has not been realized to the extent actually 
demanded and deserved, and additional Library funds, and a 
more general, and consequently a more unified administrative 
control should at an early date be provided to bring this in 
reasonable measure about. As an important part of such 
provision University control over the Alumni Library is 
especially urged in order to make its important contents more 
generally usable than is at the present time the case. 

During the year there were added to the medical libraries 
1,284 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets and reprints, journal 
numbers and dissertations. Important gifts were as follows: 
From Dr. Samuel W. Lambert 3 volumes, 211 reprints; 
Dr. Adrian V. S. Lambert 7 volumes, 148 reprints; Dr. Gardner 
Hirons 98 volumes; Dr. G. M. Swift 45 volumes; Dr. Russell 
Burton-Opitz 6 volumes, 143 reprints; Dr. J. F. Hinckley 57 
volumes; Dr. A. M. Jacobus 165 volumes; Dr. Haven Emerson 4 
volumes, 365 reprints ; Library of the Chemists Club 28 volumes ; 
The Breitenbach Company 25 volumes, 300 journal numbers. 

The statistics for the year also show an increase in the use 
of the library of Barnard College both in readers and circu- 
lation due partly to the student request to have it open the 
whole day of Saturday, instead of the morning only, and on 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 369 

Sunday afternoons. The total number of readers was 66,330 
and the total circulation 118,513 volumes. Accessions to the 
library were 1,904 volumes. The total number of volumes in 
the library is 18,800. 

The number of bound volumes added to the various libraries 
of Teachers College during the year was 3,030. Including the 
Horace Mann School library, the total number of volumes is 
79,477, exclusive of those belonging to the University Library, 
but shelved in Teachers College because of their educational 
content. The total number of volumes loaned was 114,842; 
the total recorded use was 524,272. 

Until the new addition to the building of the College of 
Pharmacy now being erected is completed the library will only 
be partly available for use, a condition that has existed since 
the end of March. The new library as planned will occupy 
greatly increased space on the main floor of the annex, where 
an ample general library and reading-room is provided to- 
gether with a stack-room, and an alcove for special work. No 
statistics for the year are at this time available. 

The University Bibliography for 1922, compiled by the 
Reference Librarian, was issued as a pamphlet of 85 pages, 
containing 1,576 titles. The list of Essays submitted for the 
Master's degree in 1922, compiled by the Supervisor of the 
Catalogue Department, was printed as a pamphlet of 39 pages. 
Both are now issued as Columbia University Bulletins of 
Information. 

An unusual number of valuable gifts have been made to the 
Library during the year from individuals, learned societies, 
corporations, and foreign governments directly or through 
their consular and diplomatic representatives. 

The largest and most valuable of these gifts to the Library 
of the University, intended in its particular use for the purposes 
of the School of Business, was the collection of books, pam- 
phlets, and other material "relating to business, to the history 
and organization of large industrial and financial corporations, 
and to allied topics " known as the Marvyn Scudder Financial 
Library and presented by the Investors' Agency, Inc., of this 
City. The collection consists of upwards of 7,000 bound 



370 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

volumes, together with many thousands of reports, circulars 
and prospectuses, letters, newspaper clippings and catalogue 
cards of various sorts partly contained in sixty-six filing cabi- 
nets. The library offers unexampled facilities for the study of 
original material, either not obtainable except in private offices 
of industrial companies or else scattered in special libraries 
throughout the country. As a subject library it has found 
immediate use as one of the important parts of the Library 
system of the University. Pending the completion of the 
School of Business building, the library has been temporarily 
housed in Schermerhorn Hall. 

Among the most notable in a long list of gifts are the 
following : 

From officers of the University and their representatives the 
following gifts were received : From President Butler 203 books, 
150 pamphlets; Provost Carpenter 59 books, 93 pamphlets; 
from Professors Barnouw 5 books, 46 pamphlets; Berkey 2 
valuable scrap-books containing unpublished material consist- 
ing of typewritten reports, maps, blue-prints, photographs and 
drawings made in connect 1 on w th the New York Water 
Supply Survey; Brissenden 3 books, 528 pamphlets; Roscoe 
Brown 63 volumes of the Niles Weekly Register; Chaddock 
250 books, 500 pamphlets; Estate of Professor W. A. Dunning 
550 books, 31 pamphlets; Estate of Professor Thomas Egleston 
2,000 reprints of journal articles of his authorship; Erskine, 
the complete set in 16 volumes of the collected edition of 
Lafcadio Hearn; Harold Jacoby 187 pamphlets, 30 maps; 
Kemp 68 books, 15 pamphlets; Brander Matthews 60 books, 
15 pamphlets, among them an interesting collection of early 
books and plays on the English stage; Montgomery a valuable 
collection of 54 early books on accounting; O. S. Morgan 518 
reprints ; Robert Peele Washington Irving's "Life of Washing- 
ton" in 66 parts; Seligman 142 books and pamphlets; Sim- 
khovitch 87 books, periodicals and pamphlets; Munroe Smith 
10 books, 300 pamphlets; Wilson 4 books, 594 pamphlets. 
From individuals, among many others were received the fol- 
lowing gifts: Mrs. Hicks Arnold 205 books, 680 pamphlets, 
and 500 photographs and 11 watercolors illustrating the 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 37I 

Orchidaceae; the Italian Ambassador, Gelasio Caetani, the 
fine folio Caietanorum Genealogia; J. Ackerman Coles 10 vol- 
umes Demosthenes et A eschinis quae extant omnia; R. B. Cornell 
128 volumes, 2 cases maps "Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Armies, War of the Rebellion;" Mrs. Arthur 
Wesley Dow 113 Chinese fasicules from the library of Professor 
Dow; Edward M. Earle 54 pamphlets comprising complete 
sets of the publications of the Societe Imperiale ottomane du 
Chemin de Fer de Bagdad; Allan Forman 48 volumes of the 
Journalist; Mrs. Orline Foster 150 pamphlets; Roger Foster 
186 books, 2 pamphlets; Miss M. L. Irwin 35 books, 17 
librettos; Due du Loubat 2 copies of his Choix d' inscriptions 
de Palmyre; Mrs. F. A. MacCluer 48 books; D. A. Nichols 120 
maps of the Canadian Geological Survey; Rev. Alexander 
Pavlak 11 books, 2 pamphlets in the Ukranian language; 
Otto Reiner 20 books, 112 parts Handbuch der Weber ei; Marie 
Waldisberg 52 books, 1 pamphlet. From the Czech Ministry of 
Education came 56 Czech operas and music; Denmark — 
Kommissionen for ledelsen af degeologiske og geografiske under- 
so'gelser i Gr0nland 73 parts of Meddelelser om Gr0nland; 
France — Ministry of Instruction and Fine Arts 61 Carte 
photo graphique du del, 3 Carte archeologique des environs de 
Carthage; Poland — Ministry of Foreign Affairs 549 books and 
pamphlets, Service Polonais des Echanges Internationaux a 
collection of 105 books, pamphlets and periodicals of Poland, 
Polish National Committee of America 6 parts Polish Ency- 
clopedia ; Russia — Commission for the Investigation of Natural 
Resources 58 pamphlets; Koningin Wilhelmina Lectoraat, 
Holland 107 books; American Museum of Natural History 
61 books, 102 pamphlets; Museum of the American Indian 
6 volumes notes and monographs; E. L. Stevenson, Hispanic 
Museum, his Facsimiles of the i6"Portolan Charts;" Columbia 
University Press 35 books, 71 pamphlets ; Carnegie Endowment 
for International Peace 66 books; U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey 145 maps; U. S. Bureau of Railway Economics 1 book, 
71 pamphlets; the University Club 277 books, 775 pamphlets. 
From anonymous sources came in all 1,079 books, 317 pam- 
phlets, 1 map and 30 plates. Gifts of money were the annual 



372 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

amount for material on Labor of $175 from James Loeb; 
and $73.02 from Mrs. Clement A. Griscom to be expended for 
the Joan of Arc collection. 

The Library distributed in the usual way, doctoral dis- 
sertations, pamphlets and duplicate material not desired for 
preservation among the following local institutions : New York 
Public Library, New York Botanical Garden, New York 
University, American Museum of Natural History, Union 
Theological Seminary, and the Chemists Club. Thirty- three 
mail sacks containing duplicates of U. S. Government docu- 
ments were returned to the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington. In addition to the regular list of exchanges, dis- 
sertations and duplicates were sent out, among others, to the 
Bibliotheca Rio-Grandense, Rio Grande, Brazil, 69; London 
School of Economics, 51; the Notgemeinschaft der deutsche 
Wissenschaft, Berlin, 100; Institute Storico Italiano, Rome, 13; 
the newly formed State Library at Oaxaca, Mexico, upon the 
application of the Smithsonian Institution, 456; the University 
of Lithuania, 1,409; the Poland Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
for distribution, 121 ; the Poland Institute for Agricultural Re- 
search, 15 ; Library U.S. Public Health Service, 32 ; Library U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, 12; Dove Marine Laboratory, 30; 
Boston Medical Library, 13; Henry E. Huntington Library, 10. 

In conclusion I would submit the following general statistics : 

A ccessions: 

Volumes added : 

General Library and Departments 21,905 

School of Law 6,271 

School of Medicine 1,284 

Barnard College 1.904 

Teachers College 3,030 

Total 34,394 

Total volumes in Library, June 30, 1923 863,671 

Estimated unbound pamphlets in Library 50,000 

Gifts: 5,026 volumes, 10,437 pamphlets, 320 journals . . . . 15,783 
Exchanges : 

Pieces received 11,823 

Pieces sent out 8,492 

Total 20,315 

Orders placed 10,177 



REPORT OF THE ACTING LIBRARIAN 373 

Cataloguing: 

Cards made and filed in the General Library and Departments: 

New cards 72,478 

Cards replaced 9,32 1 

Total 81,799 

Volumes recatalogued 5J54 

Volumes lost and withdrawn 822 

Binding: 

In Library Bindery: 

Books and pamphlets bound 14,175 

Volumes repaired 6,278 

20,453 

Outside of Library : 

Volumes bound 8,189 

Volumes rebound 4,082 

12,271 

Total 32,724 

Circulation: 
Volumes supplied from Loan Desk for outside use (including 

30,641 renewals) 156,674 

Supplied from Loan Desk for use in building 55,963 

Loaned from Reading Rooms for outside use 168,459 

Used in Reading Rooms 772,426 



Total recorded use of libraries 1,153,522 

Respectfully submitted, 

William H. Carpenter, 

Acting Librarian 



June JO, 1Q2 J 



REPORT 

To the Trustees of 

Columbia University in the City of New York 

The Treasurer makes the following report of the financial 
affairs of the Corporation for the year ended June 30, 1923. 



INDEX 



Income and Expense Account 379 

Income of the Corporation 380-381 
Expenses — Educational Administration and 

Instruction 382-399 

Expenses — Buildings and Grounds 400-401 

Expenses — Library 402-404 

Expenses — Business Administration 405 

Expenses — Annuities 406 

Expenses — Interest 407 

Expenses — Summary 408 

Students Loan Funds 409 

Balance Sheet 410-411 

Summary of Capital Account 412 

Auditors' Certificate 413 

Payments by Allied Corporations 414 

Arrears of Rent 415 
Receipts and Disbursements of Income of 

Special Endowments 416-423 
Gifts and Receipts for Designated Purposes; 

Receipts and Disbursements 424-431 
Securities Owned for Account of Special 

Endowments and General Funds 432-458 

Summary of Investments 459 

Redemption Fund 460-461 

University Land, Buildings and Equipment 462-466 

Other Property 467 

Special Endowments 468-498 

Permanent Funds 499-501 

Gifts and Bequests received during 1922-1923 502-506 



INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT (GENERAL FUNDS) 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1923 



INCOME FROM ALL SOURCES 
From Students: 

Fees (see page 380) $2,679,987.70 

Other Income (see page 380) 44.558.67 $2. "24.546.37 

From Endowments: 

Rents (see page 381) 773,262.13 

Income from Investments in Personal Property 

(see page 381) 83,970.68 

Investment of Redemption Fund (see page 381) 63,757.42 
Transferred from Income of Special Endow- 
ments (see page 381; 1,090,906.39 2,011,896.62 

From Gifts and Receipts for Designated Purposes 

(see page 381) 140,051.82 

From Allied Corporations (see page 381) 696,694.05 

From Presbyterian Hospital 

[Clinical Services] (see page 381) 50,541.64 

From Presbyterian Hospital 

[Laboratories] (see page 381) 31,500.00 

From Miscellaneous Sources (see page 381) 188,007.92 

Total Income $5,843,238 42 



EXPENSES 

Educational Administration and Instruction (see 

page 399) 4,507,981. 46 

BuildingsandGrounds — Maintenance (seepage40l) 601,132.45 

Library (see page 404) 222,466.70 

Business Administration of the Corporation: 

Salaries and Office Expenses (see page 405) 122,324.05 

Insurance on Academic Buildings (see page 405) 24,929.53 147,253.58 



Annuities (see page 406) 20,400.00 

Interest on Corporate Debt, etc. (see page 407) . . 145,217.42 



Total Expenses exclusive of provision for Re- 
demption Fund 5,644,451.61 



Balance being excess of Income over Expenses 

before providing for Redemption Fund 198,786.81 

Deduct: Amount transferred to Redemption 

Fund for retirement of 4 per cent Mortgage 

Bonds 100,000.00 



Balance, being excess of Income over Expenses for 
Maintenance for fiscal year ended June 30, 
1923, after providing for Redemption Fund. . . $98,786.81 



380 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

INCOME OF THE CORPORATION, YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1923 

FROM STUDENTS: 
Fees: 

Morningside: 

University $58,500.96 

Entrance and Special Examinations 14,843.00 

Late Registration 3,012.00 

Graduation 38,465.00 

Tuition 875,459.80 

Residence Halls 201,333.70 $1,191,614.46 



Summer Session: 
Morningside: 

University $75,456.00 

Tuition 605,446.00 

Less Teachers College pro- 
portion 350,675.00 254,771.00 



Camp Columbia 1,258.00 

Excursions 2,255.00 333,740.00 



University Extension: 

University 76,632.00 

Tuition 767,517.11 

Home Study 28,160.58 

School of Business 77,238.40 

Institute of Arts and Sciences 35,990,74 

American Institute of Banking 34,294.08 

School of Dentistry 6,632.00 1,026,464.91 



Medical School: 

University 4,644.00 

Late Registration 456.00 

Tuition 120,933.33 

Graduation 1,887.00 

Examination 168.00 

B. S. Degree 80.00 128,168.33 $2,679,987.70 



Other Charges: 
Morningside: 

Deposits for Breakage and Supplies. . . 43,540.45 

Electric Light Breakage and Keys 558.50 44,098.95 

Medical School: 

Supplies and Materials furnished to 

Students 459.72 44,558.67 



FROM ENDOWMENT: 
Rents: 

Upper and Lower Estates 644,942.21 

618 Fifth Avenue 22,567.29 

620 Fifth Avenue 17,318.67 

626 Fifth Avenue 25,000.00 

2 West Fiftieth Street 7,186.81 

4 and 6 West Fiftieth Street Dr. 4,050.54 

19 West Fiftieth Street 5,375.52 



Carried forward $2,724,546.37 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 38 1 

Brought forward $2,724,546.37 

6 West Fifty-first Street $2,446.64 

83 Barclay Street 1,720.00 

72 Murray Street 2,509.88 

41 West Forty-seventh Street 6,999.97 

18 East Sixteenth Street 4,708.30 

West 117th Street Houses 6,081.57 

Claremont Avenue Properties 30,455.81 $773,262.13 



INCOME FROM INVESTMENTS IN PER- 
SONAL PROPERTY: 
Interest: 

On General Investments 25,470.91 

On Deposits of General Funds 4,555.21 

On Notes Receivable 5,634.59 

On Rents 710.43 

On Gifts and Receipts for Designated 

Purposes 10,584.43 

On 503-11 Broadway, etc 37,015.11 83,970.68 

Investment of Redemption Fund 63,757.42 920,990.23 



FROM INCOME OF SPECIAL ENDOW- 
MENTS 1 ,090,906.39 

FROM GIFTS AND RECEIPTS FOR 

DESIGNATED PURPOSES 140,051.82 

FROM PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL (CLINI- 
CAL SERVICES) 50,541.64 

FROM PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL (LABO- 
RATORIES) 31,500.00 

FROM PAYMENTS BY ALLIED COR- 
PORATIONS: 
For Salaries and Annuities: 

Teachers College 372,210.00 

Barnard College 251,800.00 

Carnegie Foundation 72,684.05 696,694.05 2,009.693.90 



FROM MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES: 

University Commons 127,389.69 

Barnard College: 

Heat, Light and Power 19.760.95 

Civil Engineering: 

Receipts from Testing Laboratory 16,159.56 

Telephone Service 16,462.22 

Bureau of Purchases and Supplies 2,148.59 

Consents 1,237.00 

Income from Tennis Courts 1,163.00 

Post Office 1,000.00 

Rental of Typewriters 1,040.00 

Jobbing Account — Overhead 678.21 

Sundries 906.72 

Annual Catalogue 61.98 188,007.92 



$5,843,238.42 



382 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER 407 



$145,217.42 



INTEREST ACCOUNT 
Interest Paid: 

On Columbia College Bonds 5120,000.00 

On Ledoux Account 577.42 

On 503-11 Broadway 24,640.00 

Deduct Interest Received as Follows: 

503-11 Broadway 36,081.85 

620 Fifth Avenue 750.00 

George Crocker Research Fund 183.26 

37,015.11 

$108,202.31 



408 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 




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410 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



BALANCE SHEET AT JUNE 30, 1923 

Special 
General Endowments 
Funds and Funds Total 

ASSETS 

Cash at Banks and on Hand $156,484.65 $235,815.67 $392,300.32 

Notes Receivable 20,000.00 20,000.00 

Accounts Receivable: 

Sundry Debtors $462,286.31 

Accounts Receivable — Students, less Reserve. . . . 41,084.85 

Arrears of Rent (see page 415) 14,358.09 283,430.58 234,298.67 517.729.25 



Loans to Students less Reserve (see page 4C9) 1,288.24 44,282.94 45.571.18 

Inventories of Materials and Supplies less Reserve 126,824.81 126,824.81 

Rents Accrued— not due 107,750.46 107,750.46 

Deferred Charges: 

Unexpired Insurance 63,758.79 

Miscellaneous 1,135.41 64,894.20 64,894.20 



Joint Administrative Board Expenses — Deferred 43,315.30 43,315.30 

(New Medical School Site) 
Advances and Charges against Future Appropriations and 

Bequests, net 22,651.84 22,651.84 

Advances on Account of Income of Special Endowments and Gifts 

(see pages 423 and 431): 

Special Endowments 172,275.59 

Gifts 20,324.38 192,599.97 192,599.97 



Securities Owned— Book Value (see page 458) 293,298.92 23,385,609.35 23,678,908.27 

Investment of Contract Deposit — Book Value (see Contra 

$33,218.24) 33,192.64 33,192.64 

Real Estate: 

University Land Buildings and Equipment — at 

cost (see page 466) 18,429,469.03 

Rental Properties: 

Upper and Lower Estates — at 

1922 Assessed Valuation $19,544,500.00 

Other Property at Book Values 8,263,153.90 27,807,653.90 41,095,447.93 5,141,675.00 46,237,122.93 



Redemption Fund: 

Securities 1,395,045.01 

Cash at Bank (see page 461) 4,954.99 1,400,000.00 1,400,000.00 



43,648,579.57 29,234,281.60 72,882,861.17 
Loans — Due from Special Endowments and Funds per contra. . . . 49,366.27 49,366.27 



$43,697.945. 84$29.234,281.60 $72, 932, 227.44 



Included in the assets of Special Endowments is real estate, investments, etc., amounting to $5,774,006.96 
(together with the income therefrom amounting to $33,740.24) turned over to Columbia University by the 
Executor of the Estate of Amos F. Eno, subject to a contingent liability to refund part of this amount to the 
Estate of Amos F. Eno should any unforeseen claims arise for which the Executor has not provided. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



411 



BALANCE SHEET AT JUNE 30, 1923 



LIABILITIES, FUNDS, RESERVES AND CAPITAL 

Accounts Payable 

Deposits: 

Contract Deposit— (see Contra $33,192.64) $33,218.24 

Students Deposits 22,850.76 



Payments Received in Advance: 

From Students — for Fees 

Prepaid Rentals — Rental Properties. 

Accrued Interest: 

Mortgages Payable 

Columbia College Bonds 



35,953.73 
22,784.96 



7,446.80 
10,000.00 



Reserves: 

Stadium Site Expenses 

Contingent Items 

Requisitions Outstanding: Estimated 

Vendors $107,325.63 

Interdepartmental 42,494.39 



Deferred Income 

Unexpended Income (see page 423) 

Unexpended Gifts and Receipts for Designated Purposes (see 
page 431) 

Mortgages — New York City Property: 

Loubat Fund Property 448,000.00 

Claremont Avenue Properties 845,500.00 

626 Fifth Avenue 339,000.00 



Special 

General Endowments 
Funds and Funds Total 



$247,312.74 



53,061.02 



17,446.80 



3,813.60 
1,000.00 



149,820.02 154,633.62 



1,632,500.00 



Columbia College 4% Mortgage Bonds 3,000,000.00 

Endowments and Funds: 

Special Endowments (see page 499) 

Students Loan Endowments (see page 409) 

Permanent — For Purchase of Land, etc. (see page 502) 10,639,320.25 

Capital Account (see page 412) 26,497,602.41 

Principal of Redemption Fund 1,400,000.00 



6,850.00 
408,648.71 



$247,312.74 



56.069.00 



$5,677.67 58,738.69 



17.446.80 



154,633.62 



6,850.00 
408,648.71 



713,643.86 713.643.86 



1,632,500.00 
3,000,000.00 

27,992,700.94 27,992,700.94 

57,394.15 57,394.15 

10,639,320.25 

26,497,602.41 

1 ,400,000.00 



Lonns due to General Funds per contra. 



43.697.945.84 29,184,915.33 72,882,861.17 
49,366.27 49,366.27 



$43,697.945.84829,234,28! 60872,932,227.44 



412 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

CAPITAL ACCOUNT AS AT JUNE 30, 1923 

Balance at July 1, 1922 $26,430,836.76 

ADJUSTMENTS: 
Add: 

Arrears of Rent less adjustments $4,696.32 

Old outstanding checks unclaimed, written back 332.54 

Adjustment of Permanent Funds 5,221.75 

Miscellaneous 153.50 

Profit on sale of Williamsbridge Property 29,410.12 



$39,814.23 



Deduct: 



Annuity payments applicable to previous years 

(net) $ 493.50 

Insurance premiums applicable to previous 

years (net) 3,863.38 

Accounts receivable written off 1,049.67 

Transfer of balance of Fayerweather Legacy to 

University Publication Fund 7,843.97 

Transfer to Income of Harkness Fund 52,000.00 

Transfer to President's House Furnishing and 

Equipment Fund 6,584.87 71,835.39 

Net Deductions 32,021.16 

Adjusted Balance at July 1, 1922 $26,398,815.60 

Add: 

Excess of Income over Expenses for Maintenance for fiscal year ended 

June 30, 1923 98,786.81 

Balance at June 30, 1923 $26,497,602.41 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



Irtii m m ini liiiiilT h it in rilurT" rin * > ''* U"» 



Jon J. B««a. C A 

Mil AODI«QM 

r uu K. ouco*. px-a 



LINGLEY. BAIRD.A0DI9ON & DIXON 
Accountants and Auditors 



CwiAuita "AUDITORS" NewYo** 



No, 120, Broadway. Niw York October 11, 1925. 



CERTIFICATB 



Ws have examined the books and reoords of the Treasurer of Columbia 
University In the City of New York for the flsoal year ended June SO, 1925 and 
we are satisfied as to the general correctness of the acoounts and have submit- 
ted our detailed report thereon to the Treasurer. 

The oash at Banks and on hand has been verified and the securities 
representing the invested endowments and funds have either been produced to us 
or verified by certificates received from the depositaries. We have tested and 
substantially verified the income receivable from invested endowments and funds 
and all other income shown by the books of the University and are satisfied that 
the disbursements therefrom have been sufficiently vouched. 

The securities owned are carried either at their purchase price or at 
the market value at the date of their acquisition by gift. 

The Aeademic Properties, covering Land, Buildings and Equipment are 
carried in the accounts at cost. The properties known as The Upper and Lower 
Estates are carried at 1922 Hew York City Assessed Valuations. The other pro- 
perties of the University, mainly rental properties, are carried either at cost 
or cost plus carrying charges, and in a few instances at nominal values. These 
valuations, for the purposes of the acoompanying Balance Sheet, appear to us to 
be proper. From the active rental properties, reserves for depreciation have 
been deducted. 

On the basis stated above, TO HEREBY CERTIFY that the Balance Sheet 
submitted herewith is in acoordance with the books and, in our opinion, fairly 
refleots the financial status of the University at June 30, 1923. 




414 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 



Payments by Allied Corporations 

(1) Salaries Account Barnard College. Credited to the following Departments. 

General University Administration $30,400.00 

Anthropology 1,000.00 

Botany 13,000.00 

Chemistry 14,000.00 

Economics 12,000.00 

English and Comparative Literature 33,600.00 

Geology 7,500.00 

Germanic Languages 8,500.00 

Greek and Latin 18,800.00 

History 14,000.00 

Mathematics 13,700.00 

Philosophy and Psychology 17,500.00 

Physical Education 13,300.00 

Physics 8,500.00 

Religion 2,100.00 

Romance Languages 19,400.00 

Zoology 14,800.00 

Library 2,700.00 

Business Administration 7.000.00 $251,800.00 



(2) Salaries Account Teachers College. Credited to the following Departments: 

Food Chemistry 1,200.00 

Philosophy and Psychology 1 ,500.00 

Social Science 1.800.00 

Biological Chemistry 720.00 

Education and Practical Arts 366,090.00 

Institute of Public Health 900.00 372,210.00 



Carnegie Endowment. Credited to the following: 

Retiring Allowances 53,992.41 

Widows' Allowances 18.691.64 72,684.05 

$696,694.05 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



415 



ARREARS OF RENT, JUNE 30, 1923 



UPPER ESTATE 

39 West 49 Street 81,129.00 

62 West 51 Street 1,487.50 

18 West 50 Street 1,382.50 



$3,999.00 



RENTAL PROPERTY 



21 Claremont Avenue. 
39-41 Claremont Ave. 



156.25 
404,17 



560.42 



$4,559.42 



ENO ESTATE 

19 South William Street 60.00 

430 West Broadway 50.00 

434 West Broadway 68.00 

434K West Broadway 122.00 

33 Fifth Avenue 416.67 

1558 Broadway 125.00 

46 West 64 Street 45.00 

163 West 46 Street 100.00 

1556 Broadway 160.00 

Broadway, Seventh Ave., 52nd and 53rd Streets 8,652.00 



9,798.67 



$14,358.09* 



* Since June 30, 1923, this amount has been reduced to $3,989.17. 



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460 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

REDEMPTION FUND 

Balance in Fund at June 30, 1922 {1,300,000.00 

Add: Securities deposited with Trustees of Fund 100,000.00 

Balance in Fund at June 30, 1923 $1,400,000.00 

Composed of: 

BONDS 

$ 10,000.00 American Telephone and Telegraph Co.'s 

6 per cent. Gold Bonds, due 1924 $ 10,000.00 

30,000.00 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co.'s (P. L. E. & 
W. Va. System) 40-year 4 per cent. Refunding 
Bonds, due 1941 27,450.00 

50,000.00 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co.'s (S. W. Divi- 
sion) 3K per cent. First Mortgage Bonds, due 1925 44,937.50 

40,000.00 Central New England Ry. Co.'s 50-year 4 

per cent. First Mortgage Bonds, due 1961 37,211.25 

50,000.00 Chicago Union Station Co.'s 4M per cent. 

First Mortgage Gold Bonds, due 1963 49,875.00 

25,000.00 Grand Trunk Ry. Co.'s 7 per cent. Deben- 
ture Bonds, due 1940 25,000.00 

50,000.00 Northern Pacific Ry. Refunding and Im- 
provement Mortgage 6 per cent. Bonds, due 2047. . 48,250.00 

30,000.00 St. Louis, Southwestern Ry. Co.'s 4 per 

cent. First Mortgage Bonds, due 1989 27,750.00 

700.00 United States of America First Liberty Loan 

4X per cent. Converted Bonds, due 1947 700.00 

20,600.00 United States of America Second Liberty 

Loan M4 per cent. Converted Bonds, due 1942 20,600.00 

128,700.00 United States of America Third Liberty 

Loan 4K per cent. Bonds, due 1928 116,786.51 

150.00 United States of America Fourth Liberty Loan 
4X per cent. Bonds, due 1938 . 150.00 

69,000.00 United States of America 4K per cent. 

Treasury Notes, due 1926 68,440.80 

100,000.00 United States of America 4J< per cent. 
Treasury Notes, due 1927 100,000.00 577,151.06 



BONDS AND MORTGAGES 

On 90-92 Avenue B, New York, at 6 per cent., due 1924 47,500.00 

On 212 Grand Street, New York, at 514 per cent., due 1927 24,000.00 

On 91 and 93 Park Row, New York, at 5% per cent., due 

1928 30,000.00 

On 136-138 Rivington Street, New York, at 6 per cent., 

due 1923 39,000.00 

On Northwest corner Second Avenue and 12th Street, 

New York, at Syi per cent, due 1927 80,000.00 

On 163-173 Sterling Place, Brooklyn, at 5K per cent., 

due 1926 30,000.00 

On 745 East Sixth Street, New York, at 6 per cent., due 

1926 36,600.00 

On 1-5 West 47th Street, New York at 4K per cent., 

due 1924 220,000.00 

On 47 West 47th Street, New York, at 6 per cent., due 1924 57,600.00 

Carried forward 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 461 

Brought forward $577,151.06 

On 30 West 48th Street, New York, at 5 per cent., Open 

Mortgage $ 30,000.00 

On 534-550 West 58th Street, New York, at 6 per cent- 
due 1924 87,500.00 

On 106th Street corner West End Avenue, New York, at 

6 per cent., due 1924 105,000.00 

On 508-510 West 180th Street, New York, at 5K per cent., 

due 1924 38,000.00 825,200.00 

Cash 4,954.99 

1,407,306.05 
Less deposit with the United States Trust Co 7,306.05 



$1,400,000.00 



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497 




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498 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 






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w u .y 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 
PERMANENT FUNDS 



499 



ESTABLISHED BY GIFT FOR THE PURCHASE OF LAND AND EQUIPMENT AND 
ERECTION OF BUILDINGS 



Adams (Edward D.), Deutsches Haus 

Additions to the Medical School 

Alumni Fund for the General Purposes of the 
University 

Alumni Memorial Hall, University Hall En- 
largement 

Anonymous, toward erection of Philosophy 
Building 

Anonymous, for Hamilton Statue 

Anonymous, for Trophy Room Equipment. . . . 

Association of the Alumni of Columbia College, 
Hamilton Statue 

Avery (Samuel P.), Avery Architectural Library 
Building 

Babcock and Wilcox, Steam Boilers for Power 
House 

Baker (George F.), Baker Field 

Clark (Edward Severin), Fountain of Pan 

Class of 1874, Marble Columns in Library 

Class of 1880, Hamilton Hall, Gates 

Class of 1881, Flagstaff 

Class of 1881, Gemot in Hamilton Hall 

Class of 1882, 120th Street Gates 

Class of 1883, Torcheres, St. Paul's Chapel 

Class of 1883, Mines, Torcheres for School of 
Mines Building 

Class of 1883, Mines, Setting of Bust of Pro- 
fessor Egleston 

Class of 1884, Arts, Marble Clock, Hamilton 
Hall 

Class of 1884, Mines, Grading South Field 

Class of 1885, Stained Glass Windows 

Class of 1885, Sun Dial 

Class of 1886, Granite Exedra 

Class of 1888, Gates 

Class of 1889, Mines "The Hammerman" 

Class of 1890, Arts and Mines, Pylons 

Class of 1891, Gates 

Class of 1891, Stained Glass Windows 

Class of 1893, Chapel Bell 

Class of 1897, Arts and Mines, Boathouse 

Class of 1899, Grading South Field 

Class of 1906, Class of 1906 Clock 

Class of 1909, College, Class Shield in Hamilton 
Hall 

Columbia University Athletic Association, 
Poughkeepsie Boathouse 



At June 30, Additions At June 30, 
1922 1922-1923 1923 



$ 30,000.00 
117,842.07 



100,756.41 

350,000.00 

1,000.00 

980.00 

10,000.00 

339,250.00 

3,250.00 
610,804.90 
12,013.50 
1,678.00 
2,020.00 
4,600.00 
1,000.00 
1,500.00 
5,280.00 

1,000.00 



1,913.90 
5,000.00 



8,598.72 



5,120.84 
7,201.24 
5,000.00 
1,159.64 

20.00 



Carried forward 31,825,843.44 564,577.01 11,890,420.45 



$5,221.75 
Decrease 



1,000.00 
10,000.00 
5,000.00 
2,000.00 
5,000.00 



15,000.00 
1,000.00 



$30,000.00 
117,842.07 

198,464.22 

100,756.41 

350,000.00 

1,000.00 

980.00 

10,000.00 

339,250.00 

3,250.00 
605,583.15 
12,013.50 
1,678.00 
2,020.00 
4,600.00 
1,000.00 
1,500.00 
5,280.00 

1,000.00 

390.00 

1,913.90 
5,000.00 
1,000.00 

10,000.00 
5,000.00 
2,000.00 
5,000.00 
8,598.72 

15,000.00 
1,000.04 
5,120.80 
8,000.04 
5,000.00 
1,159.60 

20.00 

30,000.00 



500 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 





At June 30, 
1922 


Additions 
1922-1923 


At June 30, 
1923 


Brought forward 


$1,825,843.44 

331,150.00 
71,551.05 

53,000.00 
1,400.00 

18,465.53 

350,000.00 
164,950.82 
75.00 
420,000.00 
49,805.32 
330,894.03 

350,000.00 
507,059.16 


$64,577.01 


$1,890,420.45 
$331,150.00 


Contributions to Buildings, Medical School .... 




71,551.05 


Contributions to Medical School, Removal and 




53,000.00 






1,400.00 


Crocker Research Laboratory, X-ray Equip- 




18,465.53 


Dodge (Marcellus Hartley) and Mrs. Helen 




350,000.00 


Dodge (William E.), Earl Hall 




164,950.82 






75.00 






420,000.00 


Faculty House (F. Augustus Schermerhorn) . . . 


219,146.35 


268.951.67 
330,894.03 


Furnald (Estate of Francis P. Furnald and Mrs. 
S. Ella Furnald), Furnald Hall 




350,000.00 






507,059.16 




1,180,000.00 
25,000.00 


1,180,000.00 






25,000.00 




414,206.65 


414,206.65 




600.00 
33,300.00 




600.00 


Hepburn (A. Barton), Maison Francaise 




33,300.00 


250.00 


250.00 


Kent Hall 

Anonymous $100,000.00 

Charles Bathgate Beck 385,672.57 

Francis Lynde Stetson 10,000.00 


495,672.57 

450.00 

250,000.00 

3,500.00 

1,100,639.32 

1,124.00 
14,912.80 


495,672.57 
450.00 










250,000.00 






3,500.00 






1,100,639.32 


Livingston (Edward de Peyster), Memorial 




1,124.00 






14,912.80 


Members of Department of Philosophy, Auto- 


100.00 


100.00 




9,600.00 
19,972.70 

1,035.00 


9,600.00 






19,972.70 


Morgan (William Fellowes), Illuminating Uni- 




1,035.00 




2,000.00 


2,000.00 




1,000.00 

2,830.00 

14,410.17 

250,000.00 

2,846.62 

27,000.00 

458,133.18 

297.89 

33,500.00 


1 .000.00 






2,830.00 






14,410.17 






250,000.00 






2,846.62 






27,000.00 






458,133.18 


School of Business Building Construction Fund 


81,794.15 


82,092.04 
33,500.00 








Carried forward 


$7,609,225.25 


$1,572,867.51 


$9,182,092.76 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 



501 



Brought forward 

School of Dentistry Equipment 

School of Journalism Building (Pulitzer) 

Sloan Torcheres, Library Building 

Sloane (Mr. and Mrs. William D.). Additions 

and Alterations toSloane Hospital for Women 

South Court Fountain 

South Field Fund 

South Field Grading, Anonymous 

Stabler (Edward L.) 

Stephens (Mrs. W. B. and daughter), Dufourcq 

collection of mineral specimens 

Van Amringe Memorial 

Vanderbilt Gift, Vanderbilt Clinic 

Villard (Henry) Legacy 



At June 30, 
1922 



,609,225.25 
5,584.92 

563,501.21 
6,000.00 

399,263.14 

4,932.88 

54,707.00 

1,500.00 

1,200.00 

300.00 

20,238.34 

350,000.00 

50,000.00 



$9,066,452.74 



Additions 
1922-1923 



$1,572,867.51 



$1,572,867.51 



At June 30, 
1923 



$9,182,092.76 

5,584.92 

563,501.21 

6,000.00 

399,263.14 

4,932.88 

54,707.00 

1,500.00 

1,200.00 

300.00 

20,238.34 

350,000.00 

50,000.00 



$10,639,320.25 



502 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

GIFTS AND BEQUESTS RECEIVED DURING 1922-1923 

PERMANENT FUNDS 

Alumni Fund Committee: 

For the Stadium $ 75.00 

From Mrs. Benjamin B. Lawrence for Barnard 

and Lawrence Memorial Windows 20,000.00 20,075.00 



Carnegie Corporation of New York for the New Medical 

School 8,333.34 

Harkness (Edward S.) for the New Medical School Site 1,180,000.00 

Members of the Department of Philosophy for Autobiography 

of John Stuart Mill (Butler Library) 100.00 

Rockefeller Foundation for the New Medical School 8,333.33 

Student Body through the Student Board and Spectator for 

the Stadium 1,646.63 $1,218,488.30 

PRINCIPAL OF SPECIAL ENDOWMENTS: 

Alumni Fund Committee for the Permanent Alumni Fund. . $ 10,000.00 
Anonymous for the Slavonic Fund of Columbia University. . 3.00 

Class of '95 College & Science for the Columbia University 

Permanent Alumni Fund 4,854.11 

Curtis (Carlton C.) for the Curtis (Carlton C.) Fund $,500.00 

Executors of the Estate of Victor Baier for the Baier (Victor) 

Fund 19,950.67 

Executors of the Estate of H. W. Carpentier for the Car- 

pentier (H. W.) Fund 1,623.05 

Executors of the Estate of Joseph R. DeLamar for the 

DeLamar (Joseph R.) Fund 325,000.00 

Executors of the Estate of Amos F. Eno for the Eno (Amos 

F.) Fund 5,817,575.00 

Executors of the Estate of Dr. John Frank for the Frank (Dr. 

John) Fund , 2,389.85 

Executors of the Estate of Henry Philip Goldschmidt for the 

Goldschmidt (Henry Philip) Fund 5,000.00 

Executors of the Estate of Ellen C. Harris for the Harris 

(Ellen C.) Fund 515,166.58 

Executors of the Estate of A. Barton Hepburn for the Hep- 
burn (A. Barton) Professorship Fund 75,000.00 

Executors of the Estate of Jonas M. Libbey for the Libbey 

(Jonas M.) Fund 29,497.75 

Executors of the Estate of Cora M. Perkins for the Castner 

(Hamilton Young) Fund 231,524.06 

Executors of the Estate of Hugo Reisinger for the Art Pro- 
fessorship Fund 502.63 

Executors of the Estate of Hugo Reisinger for the Reisinger 

(Hugo) Fund 25.13 

Executors of the Estate of Catherine A. Ross for the Ross 

(Catherine A.) Fund 21,565.36 

Executors of the Estate of Mary E. Saunders for the Saunders 

(Mary E.) Fund 12,000.00 

Executors of the Estate of Robert B. Van Cortlandt for the 

Van Cortlandt (Robert B.) Fund 169,844.98 

Harkness (Edward S.) for the Harkness (Edward S.) Fund. . 1,002,384.75 



Carried forward $1,218,488.30 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 503 

Brought forward $1,218,488.30 

Harkness (Mrs. Stephen V.) for the Harkness (Mrs. Stephen 

V.) Fund $1,300,000.00 

Wheeler (H. A.) for the Wheeler (H. A.) Scholarship Fund. . 6,000.00 9,553,406.92 



DESIGNATED GIFTS: 

(a) For the General Purposes of the University: 

Alumni Fund Committee for the general support of the 

Medical School 833.50 

Alumni Fund Committee for the current expenses of the 

University 10,000.00 

Executors of the Estate of A. Barton Hepburn for the 

general purposes of the University 150,000.00 



160,833.50 



(b) For Special Purposes: 

Adams (Edward D.) for the French Summer School Fund 

Alumni Association of the School of Architecture for the 

purchase of books for the Ware Memorial Library 

Alumni Fund Committee: 

For Columbia College Dean's Fund for Needy 

Students $9.00 

For Columbia College Scholarship Aid 2.00 

For the School of Mines, Engineering and 

Chemistry 105.00 

For the School of Architecture 4.50 

For the Law School 318.00 

For the Law Library 2 .00 

For the Columbia Law Review 55.00 

For the General Support of the Columbia Uni- 
versity Athletic Association 10.00 

For the Columbia University Athletic Asso- 
ciation for Tennis 5.00 

For Classical Languages, Columbia Univer- 
sity 4.50 

For Physics Research 10.00 

From the Classof 1917 for the Fund for Needy 

Students 100.00 

From a Member of the Class of 1903 for deco- 
rating and improving the Social Room of 

Hartley Hall 5,500.00 

From Mr. and Mrs. Archibald Douglas for 
furnishings and fittings of the Manor House 

at Baker Field 1,000.00 

For the purchase of Law Books 100.00 

For the Renovation of '82 Memorial Windows 65.00 

For the Library 5.00 

For the Support of the School of Architecture 15.00 
For the Joan of Arc Library Fund 20.00 

Anonymous for the French Summer School Fund 

Anonymous for Law School Scholarship 

Anonymous for Class of 1917 Student Aid Fund 

Anonymous for furnishings for the Butler Library of 
Philosophy 

Carried forward 



100.00 



500.00 
200.00 
100.00 

348.16 



$10,932,728.72 



504 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Brought forward . > $10,932,728.72 

Anonymous for the Law School 300.00 

Anonymous for the Hartley Scholarship 28.75 

Baylies (Mrs. Edmund) for the French Summer School 

Fund 100.00 

Baylies (Walter) for the French Summer School Fund. . 2,000.00 

Bedford (A. C.) for the French Summer School Fund. . . 500.00 

Bliss (Mrs. Robert Woods) for the French Summer 

School Fund 1,000.00 

Blumenthal (George) for the French Summer School 

Fund 100.00 

Borden's Condensed Milk Co. for Research in Food 

Chemistry and Nutrition 15,000.00 

Bush (Wendell T.) for furnishings for Earl Hall 82.25 

Bush (Wendell T.) for salaries in the Department of 

Philosophy 500.00 

Calvocoressi (L. J.) for Greek Prize 50.00 

Chaloner (John Armstrong) for the Chanler Historical 

Prize 600.00 

Chamberlain (Joseph P.) for the Legislative Drafting 

Research Fund 7,600.00 

Claflin (Avery) for the French Summer School Fund .... 150.00 

Cochrane (Alexander Smith) for publication of the Indo- 

Iranian Series edited by Professor Jackson 1,000.00 

Committee on Dispensary Development for Improving 

the Service in the Out-Patient Department of 

Bellevue Hospital 900.00 

Commonwealth Fund for carrying on investigations in 

the disease of Rickets in the Department of Pathol- 
ogy 7,600.00 

Cook (Alfred A.) for the French Summer School Fund . . 100.00 

Coudert (Frederic R.) for Mediaeval Philosophy Salaries 250.00 

Crane (Clinton A.) for special salaries in the Department 

of Diseases of Children 900.00 

Czecho-Slovak Legation for support of courses given in 

the Department of Slavonic Languages 500.00 

Davison (F. Trabue) for binding, preservation and com- 
pletion of the Kent Collection ... . 2,173.95 

Dunn (Gano) for the Dunn (Gano) Scholarship 350.00 

East River Homes for tuberculosis work in the Vander- 

bilt Clinic 20,870.24 

Fish (Stuyvesant) for Greek Prize 100.00 

General Bakelite Company for the General Bakelite 

Company Research Fellowship for 1923-1924 1,000.00 

Gilbert (Cass) for the French Summer School Fund .... 50.00 

Grace (Joseph P.) for Mediaeval Philosophy Salaries. . 250.00 

Graduate Class in English (Shakespeare) for the Upkeep 

of the Dramatic Museum 84.00 

Griscom (Acton) for the purchase of books for the Library 73.02 

Gunari (A. P.) for Greek Prize 50.00 

Guthrie (William D.) for the French Summer School 

Fund 100.00 

Hartley (The) Corporation for salaries in the Department 

of Psychiatry 2,400.00 

Hartley (The) Corporation for the Marcellus Hartley 

Research Laboratory 2,000.00 



Carried forward $10,932,728.71 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 505 

Brought forward $10,932,728.72 

Hastings (Thomas) for the French Summer School Fund 20.00 

Hess (Sara Straus) for the French Summer School Fund 100.00 

Howland (Charles P.) for Travelling Scholarships in 

Political Science 800.00 

Howland (Charles P.) for the French Summer School 

Fund 500.00 

Howland (Miss Frances) for the French Summer School 

Fund 200.00 

Jackson (A. V. Williams) for Indo-Iranian Languages 

salaries 500.00 

James (Mrs. Walter B.) for the purchase of illustrative 
apparatus for use in lecture rooms and laboratories 
of the University 1,000.00 

Kahn (Otto H.) for the French Summer School Fund. . 200.00 

Kane (Mrs. John Innes) for the religious work of the 

University 500.00 

Lamont (Thomas W.) for the French Summer School 

Fund 500.00 

Legation of Poland for lectures in Polish History and 

Literature 1,200.00 

Loeb (James) for the Loeb Library Fund 175.00 

Low (William G.) for the purchase of books on Inter- 
national and Maritime Law 250.00 

Mackay (Clarence H.) for Surgical Research 6,000.00 

Mackay (Clarence H.) for Mediaeval Philosophy Salaries 250.00 

Mathews (Professor Brander) for the Dramatic Museum 77.23 

Members of the Class of 1898 for bronze die for the 

Van Am Prize Medal and for Medal 6,500.00 

Metz (Herman A.) for support of research on vitamines 3,000.00 

Miller (Spencer) for the Mutual Welfare League Scholar- 
ship 100.00 

Montgomery (Professor Robert H.) for the purchase of 

books for the School of Business Library 1,000.00 

Murray (George Wellwood) for the Law School 5,000.00 

Mutual Welfare League for the Mutual Welfare League 

Scholarship 214.62 

Myers (Wayne V.) for the Student Loan Fund 30.00 

McClymonds (Mrs. Annie M.) for the Louis K. McCly- 

monds Scholarship 1,300.00 

Nomico (O. G.) for the Greek Prize 50.00 

Price (Walter B.) for Mediaeval Philosophy Salaries. . 250.00 

Sackett (Henry W.) for Scholarships in Journalism .... 500.00 

Stanoyevich (Dr. M. S.) for equipment for the Depart- 
ment of Slavonic Languages 50.00 

Schiff (Mortimer L.) for the French Summer School Fund 500.00 

Smith (Mrs. Sehna G.) and Sencenbaugh (Mrs. Stella 

Smith) for the Edna L. Smith Fellowship 5,000.00 

Snowden (H. Fahnestock) for the French Summer 

School Fund 50.00 

Students of the Summer Session of 1922 for Fund for 
Entertainment for the Students of the Summer 
Session 1,500.00 

Troy (Richard H.) for the benefit of the Law School 2.00 

Carried forward I10.932.T21.71 



506 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

Brought forward $10,932,728.72 

University Press Book Store for Contemporary Civil- 
ization 93.59 

Wawapex Society for the John D. Jones Scholarship 200.00 

Wise (Dr. Stephen S.) and others for the salary of the 

Gustav Gotthiel Lecturer 300.00 115,455.81 

$11,048,184.53 



Frederick A. Goetze 

New York, June 30, 1923 Treasurer 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

OF 

BARNARD COLLEGE 
1922-1923 



BARNARD COLLEGE 



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BARNARD COLLEGE 

PRINCIPAL OF SPECIAL FUNDS JUNE 30, I923 

A. For General Endowment 

ANDERSON (MRS. ELIZABETH MILBANK) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. E. M. Anderson. Established 1922 . . . $40,000. 00 

BURGESS (ANNIE P.) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. Established 1913 . . 60,098.33 

CARPENTER (HENRIETTA) FUND: 

Gift of General H. W. Carpentier, in memory of his mother toward the 
Endowment Fund of Barnard College. The income of the fund is to 
be used for the payment of three annuities. Established 1898, 1900, 
1911, 1913, 1914, and 1915 452,607.06 

CARPENTIER (H. W.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of General H. W. Carpentier. Established 1919 1,292,145.79 

CHOATE (MRS. JOSEPH H.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Joseph H. Choate for endowment. Established 1918 . . 35,000.00 

FISKE FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, in memory of Mr. Josiah 
M. Fiske. The income of the fund to be applied to the running 
expenses of the College 5,188.08 

FISKE HALL FUND: 

Legacy from the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, the income of which 
is to be applied to the care, maintenance, and improvement of Fiske 
Hall. Established 1910 181,047.46 

GEER FUND: 

A memorial to Helen Hartley Jenkins Geer made by the Class of 1915. 

Established 1920 5,000.00 

GENERAL ENDOWMENT FUND 420,741-41 

GIBBES FUND: 

a. Legacy of the late Emily O. Gibbes. The income of the fund is to be 

used for the general needs of the College. Established 1908 .... 
6. Legacy of the late Emily O. Gibbes. The income of the fund is paid 

for life to Edwina M. Post. Established 1908 346,958.45 

HARRIMAN FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. E. H. Harriman to establish a fund, the income therefrom 
to be used for physical education and development, or to meet the 
deficit in running expenses. Established 1914 98,878.50 

HERRMAN FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Esther Herrman. The income of the fund is to be 

applied to the general needs of the College 4,841.29 

KENNEDY (JOHN STEWART) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of the late John Stewart Kennedy. Established 

1910 49,918.90 



512 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

MUNN (ANNE ELDER) MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. I. Sheldon Tilney in memory of her mother. The income 

is to be used at the discretion of the Trustees. Established 1018 . . 7.280.40 

ROCKEFELLER (JOHN D.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Gift of Mr. John D. Rockefeller toward the permanent endowment of 

Barnard College. Established 1901 344,678.11 

SAGE FUND: 

Legacy from the Estate of Margaret Olivia Sage. Established ioao 439,045.44 

SANDERS (ELEANOR BUTLER) FOUNDERSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of the late Mrs. Henry M. Sanders. The income 
of the fund is used for the current needs of the College. Established 
1908 5.000.00 

SMITH (ANNA E.) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Anna E. Smith. Established 1916 10,048.00 

STRAIGHT FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Willard Straight. Established 1920 20,000.00 

TILLOTSON (EMMA A.) ENDOWMENT FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Emma A. Tillotson. Established 1910 . . . 5,000.00 

WOERISHOFFER FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Charles Woerishoffer for endowment. Established 1913. 

1917 10,000.00 

13. 733.477. aa 

B. For Designated Purposes 

ALDRICH (MARY GERTRUDE EDSON) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. James Herman Aldrich. Established 1916 1,004.10 

ALUMNAE SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Classof 1913 the income of which is to be used for scholarships. 

Established 1923 605.00 

BARNARD (ANNA E.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Emily H. Bourne in honor of the late Mrs. John G. Bar- 
nard, for a scholarship to be awarded annually at the discretion of the 
founder in conference with the representatives of the College. Estab- 
lished 1899 3.07i.Ta 

BARNARD SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumnae of the Barnard School for girl3. Established 1916 • 4.019.30 

BOGERT (ANNA SHIPPEN YOUNG) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. The annual Income 
is to defray the tuition and expenses of a worthy pupil who is unable 
to pay her own expenses. Established 1913 4.739-6 

BOGERT (CHARLES E.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Annie P. Burgess. The annual income is to 
defray the tuition and expenses of a worthy pupil who is unable to 
pay her own expenses. Established 1913 a. 999-25 

BREARLEY SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of pupils of the Brearley School for a scholarship to be awarded 

annually to a student who deserves assistance. Established 1899 . 3,000.00 



BARNARD COLLEGE 513 

BRENNER (MARTHA ORNSTEIN) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift in memory of Martha Ornstein Brenner, Class of 1 899, by her friends. 

Established 1915 4,000.00 

BROOKS (ARTHUR) MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Miss Olivia E. Phelps Stokes as a memorial of the late Reverend 
Arthur Brooks, D.D., Rector of the Church of the Incarnation, 
and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College during 
the first six years of the existence of the College. The income of 
the fund is to aid needy and deserving students of the College. 
Established 1897 5,976.35 

CARPENTIER SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of General H. W. Carpentier for scholarships. 

Established 1919 200,000.00 

CHISHOLM (ELIZA TAYLOR) MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 
Gift of the Alumna Association of Miss Chisholm's School for a scholar- 
ship, to be awarded annually by the Committee on Scholarships 
of the Faculty to a student in need of assistance, said Alumnae 
Association reserving the privilege of precedence for such candi- 
dates as they may recommend. Established 1901 1,556.75 

CLARKSON (JENNIE B.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. W. R. Clarkson for a scholarship to be awarded 

annually to a student who deserves assistance. Established 1898 . . 3,969.33 

COE (MRS. HENRY CLARKE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND. 

Gift of the National Society of New England Women for a scholarship 
to be awarded on the nomination of the Chairman for the Scholar- 
ship Committee of the above society, to a student from New England 
or of New England parentage. Established 1904 3,600.00 

ENGLISH SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

An anonymous gift. Established 1920 5,000.00 

FISKE SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, the income of which is to 
be placed at the disposal of the Dean of Barnard College. Established 
1895 5,698.32 

FISKE (MARTHA T.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Anna E. Smith for a non-resident scholarship in memory 

of Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord. Established 191 1 2,895.00 

GALWAYFUND: 

Gift of an anonymous donor for a scholarship. Established 1912 . . . . 2,555.33 

GOLD FRANK (IRMA ALEXANDER) FUND: 

Gift of friends of Mrs Irma Alexander Goldfrank, the income of which 
is to help deserving students in time of special need. Established 
1919 2,105.55 

GRAHAM SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumnae Association of the Graham School. The income of the 

fund is to be applied to the tuition of a student. Established 1907 . . 3,000.00 

HEALTH FUND: 

Gift from an anonymous donor to promote the physical health of the 

students and officers of the College. Established 1917 5,000.00 



514 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

HERRMAN BOTANICAL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Esther Herrman, for a prize to be awarded annually 

to the most proficient student in Botany 1,000.00 

HERTZOG (EMMA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift to establish a scholarship in memory of Miss Emma Hertzog, who 
for a long period of years was prominently identified with the intel- 
lectual life of Yonkers. The income is awarded annually to a grad- 
uate of the Yonkers High School. Established 1904 3,000.00 

KAUFMANN (JESSIE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Mr. Julius Kaufmann to establish a scholarship in memory of his 
daughter, Jessie Kaufmann. The annual income of the fund is 
awarded on the merits of the entrance examinations to a student 
who, after careful investigation, is found to have no relative able 
to assist her financially. Established 1902 4,000.00 

KINNICUTT (ELENORA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of friends of the late Mrs. Francis P. Kinnicutt, a trustee of the Col- 
lege, to establish a scholarship. The income is awarded to a student 
who needs assistance. Established 191 1 5, 000. 00 

KOHN MATHEMATICAL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. S. H. Kohn for a prize to be awarded annually to a senior for 

excellence in Mathematics 1,062.08 

McLEAN (MRS. DONALD) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the New York Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution. The income of the fund is awarded in conference with a 
representative of the Chapter to a deserving student who agrees to 
pursue the study of history (chiefly that of the United States) con- 
tinuously throughout her college course. Established 1906 2,739.23 

MOIR (WILLIAM) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Mrs. Emily H. Moir in memory of her husband. 

Established 1912 10,000.00 

MURRAY (CAROLINE CHURCH) FUND: 

Gift of Mr. George Welwood Murray in memory of his wife, Caroline 
Church Murray. The income of this fund is to be used in aid of needy 
and deserving students. Established 1918 5,000.00 

OGILVIE (CLINTON) MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. Clinton Ogilvie. The income of this fund is to be applied 
to the salaries of assistants in the Department of Geology. Estab- 
lished 1914 10,000.00 

POPE (MARY BARSTOW) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift in memory of Miss Mary Barstow Pope, sometime teacher in Miss 
Chapin's School, by her friends, her fellow teachers, and her pupils. 
Established 1913 4,318.15 

PRINCE (HELEN) MEMORIAL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mr. Julius Prince, in memory of his daughter Helen C. Prince, 
Class of 1922, to establish a prize to be awarded each year to the 
undergraduate student who submits the best piece of creative Eng- 
lish composition. Established 1922 1,200.0° 

PULITZER (LUCILE) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mr. Joseph Pulitzer in memory of his daughter, Lucille 
Pulitzer. The income of the fund is to be used for scholarships. 
Established 1899 and 1903. 1915 and 1916 172,085.59 



BARNARD COLLEGE 515 

REED (CAROLINE GALLUP) PRIZE FUND: 

Gift of Mrs. William Barclay Parsons. Established 1916 1,004.80 

SANDERS (HENRY M.) FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Rev. Henry M. Sanders to establish a scholar- 
ship to be known as and called the Eleanor Butler Sanders Scholar- 
ship. Established 1922 10,000.00 

SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of friends of Barnard College. The income of the fund is applied 

toward helping deserving students through college. Established 1901 9,698.75 

SHAW FUND: 

A memorial gift to Anna Howard Shaw. Established 1920 6,204.30 

SMITH (EMILY JAMES) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of Miss Emily H. Bourne in honor of Miss Smith, Dean of Barnard 
College. The income of the fund is awarded in conference with the 
founder. Established 1899 3,029.43 

SMITH (GEORGE W.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the late Mrs. Martha T. Fiske-Collord, in memory of Mr. George 
W. Smith, a Trustee of Barnard College. The income of the fund is 
placed at the disposal of the Dean of Barnard College. Established 
1906 5,435-19 

SPERANZA (CARLO L.) PRIZE FUND: 

Gift from an anonymous donor for the founding of a prize in memory 
of Professor Carlo Leonardo Speranza, to be awarded annually to a 
student in Barnard College for excellence in Italian. Estab- 
lished 1911 1,000.00 

TALCOTT (JAMES) FUND: 

Gift of Mr. James Talcott, to found a professorship for Religious instruc- 
tion. Established 1915 100,000.00 

TATLOCK PRIZE FUND: 

Gifts in memory of Jean Willard Tatlock, Class of 1895, by her friends to 
found a prize to be awarded annually to the undergraduate student 
most proficient in Latin. Established 1917 1,250.00 

TILLOTSON (EMMA A.) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Legacy from the estate of Emma A. Tillotson. Established 1910 . . . 4,242.54 

VELTIN SCHOOL SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the Alumna of Mile. Veltin's School. Established 1905 .... 2,739.23 

VON WAHL PRIZE FUND: 

Gift from the friends of Constance Von Wahl, 1912, to found a prize to 
be awarded annually to a senior who has rendered the highest type 
of service to the College. Established 191 5 1,300.00 

WEED (ELLA) SCHOLARSHIP FUND: 

Gift of the pupils of Miss Anne Browne's School, in memory of Miss 
Ella Weed, who was Chairman of the Academic Committee of the 
Board of Trustees of Barnard College during the first five years of its 
existence. Established 1897 3,392.51 

WHITMAN MEMORIAL FUND: 

Gift of Mr. Malcolm Whitman, in memory of his wife, Janet McCook 
Whitman, a former student and graduate of Barnard College. The 
income of the fund is to be used towards the support of a chair of 
Philosophy. Established 1920 5,000.00 



FINANCIAL REPORT 

OF 

TEACHERS COLLEGE 

1922-1923 



TEACHERS COLLEGE 



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TEACHERS COLLEGE 

FUNDS AND INVESTMENTS 

AS PER STATEMENT OF FUNDS AT JUNE 30, 1 923 



521 





At 
June 30, 1922 


Additions 
During Year 


At 
June 30, 1923 


GENERAL FUND 

FUNDS RESTRICTED TO SPECIAL PURPOSES: 
Anderson (General Robert) Scholarship Fund 


$1,845,700.51 

l5.ooo.oo 
3.159.56 

83,985,97 
2,104.02 
5,036.54 
5,627.86 

60,474.18 

150,270.23 

1,230.00 

3,005.57 

5,014.72 

34.447.26 

50,040.05 

197,909.45 

5,015.22 

3,840.56 

11,811.40 

1,130.92 

10,029.36 

100.72 

2,518.97 


$1,987,948.35 

*$6.07 

*3.83 

*ioi.97 

*2.56 

*6.I2 

325.05 

*S3-42 

182,44 

71.16 

*3-6 5 

*6.09 

*4l.82 

*6o.75 
* 24C.28 

*6.09 
221.64 
*i4-34 

*r.36 

*I2.l8 
*.I2 

*3.o6 


$2,933,648.86 
$4,993-93 




83,884.00 


Bryson Library Fund — Avery Collection 


2,101.46 
5.030.42 


















Hoe (Margaret) Memorial Scholarship Fund 


5,008.63 


Kingsland (Mary J.) Bequest (for Macy Building Mainte- 


49,979.30 
197,669.17 


Morrey (Henry Doherty) Scholarship Fund 

Norsworthy (Naomi) Memorial Fund 

The Isabel Hampton Robb Fellowship Fund 


5,009.13 

4,062,20 

11,797.06 

1,129.56 




10,017.18 




100.60 


Tileston Scholarship Fund 


2,515.91 




$641,752.56 


*$I28.30 


$641,624.26 


FUND FOR ADMINISTRATION AND LIBRARY 
BUILDING 


$968,805.82 


**$I26,9I4.78 


$841,891.04 






FUND FOR MORTGAGE RESERVE 


$402,568.71 


***$i89,i34-9i 


$2i3,433.8o 


TEACHERS RETIREMENT FUND 


$64,832.41 


$3,237-54 


$68,069.95 


TOTAL 


$3,923,660.01 


$775,007.90 


$4,698,667.91 




INVESTMENT OF ABOVE FUNDS 




$2,450,576.17 
1,411,873.32 








3,862,449.49 








UNINVESTED FUNDS AT JUNE 30, 1923 






$836,218.42 











* Decrease 
** Less $718,368.44 expended in 1922-1923. Total expended to date amounts to $771,348.31 
*** Less $305,000.00 applied in part liquidation of mortgages 



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